Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) - PowerPoint

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					      Integrated Marketing
     Communications (IMC)

• Varying terminology: New advertising, one-to-one
marketing, integrated marketing, etc..
• It has emerged naturally mainly due to changes in three
main areas:
                   - The market place
                   - Media and Communications
                   - Consumers
• Primarily driven by advances in information technology
• Has lead to more customer-centered, database-driven,
interactive and mesurable approaches.
              Five definitions to IMC
1. Definition by The American Ass. Of Advertising Agencies (1989)

• The most widely used and the most cited of the five
• Its states:
”A concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes the
added value of a comprehensive plan that evaluates the strategic roles of
a variety of communication disciplines – generel advertising, direct
responce, sales promotion, public relations – and combines these
disciplines to provide clarity, consistency, and maximum communication
Includes: the need for a marketing communications plan that unifies the
various tools used to provide a synergy that would otherwise be lost.
One spirit, one voice, one look
All dicisplines should work together to become more eficient, but without losing
their individual identity.
Sees IMC as a concept and not a process.
                 1. Definition of IMC

• It however lacked things like measurability and quantification
  analysis, drive for result, consumer orientation, aspects of creativity,
  cost-efectiveness, cost-efficiency, and interactivity (Kitchen and
  Schultz, 1999).
• There is an exclusion of consumers and no guidelines to how
  effectiveness might be achieved. (Duncan and Gaywood, 1996)
• Is IMC only about the use of multiple communication disciplines?
• Lack of references on consumers, prospects, etc..
• It is problematic that the definition does not include measurement
               2. Definition of IMC
              2. Definition by Don Schultz, Northwestern University( 1991)

•   ”IMC is the process of managing all sources of information about a
    product/service to which a customer or prospect is exposed which
    behaviorally moves the consumer towards a sale and maintains
    customer loyalty”.
•   This definition focuses on the consumer or prospect as well as the
    relationship between the brand and the customer.
•   Includes all contact points between the two.


•   Sees IMC as just process and not as a concept
                3. Definition of IMC
                 3. Definition by Tom Duncan (1992 and 1994)

•   Definition of 1992: ”The strategic coordination of all mesages and
    media used by an organization to collectively influence its percieved
    brand value.”

•   The revised definition of 1994: ”IMC is the process of strategically
    controlling or influencing all messagess and encouraging purposeful
    dialogue to create and nourish profitable relationships with customers
    and other stakeholders.”
•   This last definition by Duncan and Gaywood revised so that it would also
•   All employees, regulators and parties that come in contact with the
•   More emphasis on creating long-term effects by looking out for the
    relationship with those involved with the company.
                  3. Definition of IMC

•   Does not take the outside-in perspective into account. – messages can be
    both controlled and uncontrolled.
•    -The term control used might suggest a one-way viewpoint.
•   It does not mention any means of channels or communication you might
    use to obtain ”Encouraging purposefull dialogue”.
•   The aspects of measurability and evaluation of IMC programmes are not
    explicitly mentioned.
                4. ”Definition” of IMC
                      4. Definition by Nowak and Phelps (1994)

•   Not a straightforward definition. dwell on the basic notions of the concept
    and fail to transcend deeper.
•   They found three conceptualisations:

     – One-voice marketing communications
     – Consists in providing a consistent image, position, message and/or theme across
       all comunication disciplines.

     – Integrated marketing communications (advertisements)
     – Includes both a brand image and a behavioral response

     – Coordinated marketing communication
     – Strives to achieve synergy through the coordination of all marketing activities that
       both develops awareness and build brand image as well as evokes a behavioral
                 5. Definition of IMC
             5. Definition by Don Schultz and Heidi Schultz (1998)

•   Based on past studies and as well as experiences from different
    Organisations that have embraced the IMC approach: ”IMC is a strategic
    business process used to plan, develop, execute, and evaluate
    coordinated, measurable, persuasive brand communication programs
    over time with consumers, customers, prospects, and other targeted,
    relevant external and internal audiences.”
•   According to the creaters it focuses more on the business process.
•   Includes all of the concepts we have touched upon so far.
•   Also includes concepts like business process, evaluation, and
•   If you are still awake, you will find it to be too long and all- embracing which
    is problematic.
New definition