• Varying terminology: New advertising, one-to-one
marketing, integrated marketing, etc..
• It has emerged naturally mainly due to changes in three
- The market place
- Media and Communications
• Primarily driven by advances in information technology
• Has lead to more customer-centered, database-driven,
interactive and mesurable approaches.
Five definitions to IMC
1. Definition by The American Ass. Of Advertising Agencies (1989)
• The most widely used and the most cited of the five
• Its states:
”A concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes the
added value of a comprehensive plan that evaluates the strategic roles of
a variety of communication disciplines – generel advertising, direct
responce, sales promotion, public relations – and combines these
disciplines to provide clarity, consistency, and maximum communication
Includes: the need for a marketing communications plan that unifies the
various tools used to provide a synergy that would otherwise be lost.
One spirit, one voice, one look
All dicisplines should work together to become more eficient, but without losing
their individual identity.
Sees IMC as a concept and not a process.
1. Definition of IMC
• It however lacked things like measurability and quantification
analysis, drive for result, consumer orientation, aspects of creativity,
cost-efectiveness, cost-efficiency, and interactivity (Kitchen and
• There is an exclusion of consumers and no guidelines to how
effectiveness might be achieved. (Duncan and Gaywood, 1996)
• Is IMC only about the use of multiple communication disciplines?
• Lack of references on consumers, prospects, etc..
• It is problematic that the definition does not include measurement
2. Definition of IMC
2. Definition by Don Schultz, Northwestern University( 1991)
• ”IMC is the process of managing all sources of information about a
product/service to which a customer or prospect is exposed which
behaviorally moves the consumer towards a sale and maintains
• This definition focuses on the consumer or prospect as well as the
relationship between the brand and the customer.
• Includes all contact points between the two.
• Sees IMC as just process and not as a concept
3. Definition of IMC
3. Definition by Tom Duncan (1992 and 1994)
• Definition of 1992: ”The strategic coordination of all mesages and
media used by an organization to collectively influence its percieved
• The revised definition of 1994: ”IMC is the process of strategically
controlling or influencing all messagess and encouraging purposeful
dialogue to create and nourish profitable relationships with customers
and other stakeholders.”
• This last definition by Duncan and Gaywood revised so that it would also
• All employees, regulators and parties that come in contact with the
• More emphasis on creating long-term effects by looking out for the
relationship with those involved with the company.
3. Definition of IMC
• Does not take the outside-in perspective into account. – messages can be
both controlled and uncontrolled.
• -The term control used might suggest a one-way viewpoint.
• It does not mention any means of channels or communication you might
use to obtain ”Encouraging purposefull dialogue”.
• The aspects of measurability and evaluation of IMC programmes are not
4. ”Definition” of IMC
4. Definition by Nowak and Phelps (1994)
• Not a straightforward definition. dwell on the basic notions of the concept
and fail to transcend deeper.
• They found three conceptualisations:
– One-voice marketing communications
– Consists in providing a consistent image, position, message and/or theme across
all comunication disciplines.
– Integrated marketing communications (advertisements)
– Includes both a brand image and a behavioral response
– Coordinated marketing communication
– Strives to achieve synergy through the coordination of all marketing activities that
both develops awareness and build brand image as well as evokes a behavioral
5. Definition of IMC
5. Definition by Don Schultz and Heidi Schultz (1998)
• Based on past studies and as well as experiences from different
Organisations that have embraced the IMC approach: ”IMC is a strategic
business process used to plan, develop, execute, and evaluate
coordinated, measurable, persuasive brand communication programs
over time with consumers, customers, prospects, and other targeted,
relevant external and internal audiences.”
• According to the creaters it focuses more on the business process.
• Includes all of the concepts we have touched upon so far.
• Also includes concepts like business process, evaluation, and
• If you are still awake, you will find it to be too long and all- embracing which