Document Sample
• political communication is as old as
  political activity.
• with democratization & the increased
  access to information, the voter became
  an active citizen
• Communication between the various
  groups became competitive, where each
  group would compete for space in the
  media and the attention of the people
    But, for what for is the political
• At a simplistic view, it is claimed to be all about
  winning over others and it is concerned with the
  acquisition of power: Candidates to win votes,
  dictators to win love, activists to win attention
• A tool for propaganda to gain governmental
  power or power over the media?
• In a democracy, political communication is seen
  as crucial for the building of a society where the
  state and its people feel they are connected.
• Pol. communication can perform the role of an
  activator allowing feedback from society and
  encourage participation
• the rise of more efficient & demanding
  means of communication and the decline
  of the partisanship, led to a “consumeristic
  Americanized professionalization” of the
  political communication.
• At the heart of the “Americanized
  prefessionalization” of the political
  communication is the political marketing.

• Marketing is not about what we want to sell. Is about what people
    want to buy.
• „Business World‟ Marketing Mix
•    Product
•    Place
•    Price
•    Promotion-----------------------------→ Communications Mix :
•    People                                  Advertising, direct marketing
•    Physical Evidence                       public relations, packaging
•    Process                                 corporate identity-branding
                                             word of mouth, e-marketing
                                             sponsorship, exhibitions
                                             selling, sales promotion
                                             point-of-sale, merchandising
(in Smith p.8)

          Integrated Marketing
         Communications Theory
• Definition: IMC is a concept of marketing
  communications planning that recognizes the added
  value of a comprehensive plan that evaluates the
  strategic role of a number of communication disciplines
  (e.g. direct marketing, advertising, Public Relations) and
  combines these disciplines to provide clarity, consistency
  and maximum impact.
• The benefits of the IMC are the consistency in the
  message delivery, the creation of corporate cohesion on
  identity and communications, the creation of interactive
  channels of communication with the customers through
  customizing individual needs and the efficiency through
  reduction of duplication of effort.
             Political Marketing Mix
•   The literature on political marketing does not separate its analysis based on
    different elements of the commercial marketing mix: (product, place, price,
    people, physical evidence and process). Because of the nature of politics,
    the literature takes a holistic approach and examines all these elements
    conjunctionally as one under the „political product‟.
•   Political Marketing Mix
       -Product (including party behaviour,
        public image, people, etc)

      -Promotion------------------------------→ Communications Mix :
                                                  Advertising, direct marketing
                                                  public relations, packaging
                                                  brand identity-branding
                                                  word of mouth, e-marketing
                                                  sponsorship, events, lobbying,
                                                  campaigning, media/news
                                                  management, spin, propaganda,


• Partisanship in ideologies declines
• The majority of the public in the western
  democracies will not simply vote for the party
  that their parents supported as they used to
• political parties do not try anymore to pursue
  grand ideologies
• Parties today increasingly follow the people
• Voters become critical on parties and voters
  expect parties to deliver what they want
  (Rational Models on Party Behaviour).

• Parties in order to survive in this new kind of
  electoral market, where voters act like
  consumers, act like businesses.
• So, parties are forced to use modern technology
  and marketing techniques to understand what
  voters really want.
• Specifically, parties seem to adopt a market
  oriented concept: they focus on satisfying voters‟
• Party‟s behavior has moved away from a social
  class- party model (Mass Party Model) and
  party‟s behaviour becomes more operational-
• This movement is due to the fact that various
  political changes (due to economic-social
  changes) have taken place in the last decades.
         So, how parties compete to win elections?
               They ‘market’ their ‘product’ !
             The political Product
• the product is the party‟s behaviour.
• this behaviour is continual (not only at election time)
• and exists at all levels of the party and includes
  leadership, MPs, membership, staff, symbols,
  constitution, activities and policies.
• The goal is to win long-term electoral success. The
  market is the electorate (but within the party members
  and the general population as it influences both).
• Parties use political marketing in order to increase their
  chances of success and by doing this they -consciously
  or not- change aspects of their behaviour.

A conceptual framework for analysis used by political
                 organization is:

A. 1) define the organization 2) define the
   market 3) define the product.
B. Analyze how the organization goes
   through marketing process: 1) market
   intelligence 2) product design 3) convey
   product 4) market receives product 5)
   product delivery 6) solicit feedback.
(in Lees 2001:25)
   3 types of parties based on their marketing
               process (Lees:28):

• The Product-Oriented Party (old parties)
• The Sales-Oriented Party (transition)
• The Market-Oriented Party (new parties)

 Stages of Marketing Process for a
      Market-Oriented Party.
• 1-Market Intelligence: the party uses market
  intelligence in order to find the needs, wants, behaviour
  and demands of the voters whose support it would like to
• 2- Product design: The party will design the product
  due to the results of the market intelligence in order to
  match the electorate desires. The party creates a model
  product. This translates as potential changes on policy,
  leadership, behaviour, MPs, organizational structures,
  etc when it is necessary.
• 3-Product adjustment: The product design then needs
  to be adjusted according to: Achievability of promises,
  Internal reaction, Competition, Existing or needed

• The party should find the opposition‟s
  weaknesses and highlight its own
  strengths. The party may also need to
  differentiate its product from its
  competitors. A SWOT analysis can be
  used for this:

SWOT ANALYSIS: factors to consider for the party and
  its opposition
• Strengths: Financial resources (membership, donations,
  state funding).
• Market analysis (support that the party that already has
  and support that it needs to win, taking into account
  electoral laws and geography)
• Weakness: the same as strengths
• Opportunities: Voters‟ opinions
               Support from & for other competing parties
               Socio-economic and demographic changes
               (Pest Analysis)
               Events that change public opinion and
• Threats: as opportunities.
Example of the SWOT analysis of the Conservative Party following the
    1997 election ( as found in Lansley 1997 in Lees 2001:36)

• Conservative party seen as party of government
• Tradition of policy success
• 200 strong constituencies
• Conservative voters may have left the party but can
  come back
• Conservative Thatcher‟s children- still materialistic and
  goal-oriented, have only lapsed, there are lots of lapsed
  Conservatives in the electorate.
• Age, gender and ethnicity lacking in profile
• Sleaze
• Divisions/ factionalism
• Party perceived as out of touch
• The co-operation between Labour and Liberal Democrats reduces
   the importance and support of the latter.
• The Conservatives performance in local government could improve
   and increase membership incentives.
• There are some big hitters in the party, even if they are not all
   currently in parliament.
• Opportunity for policy innovation while out of office.
• Liberal Democrats increase in strength.
• Factionalism within the party since 1992. If this continues in
   opposition, could lead to realignments.
• How to sustain party organization in really low Conservative-
   supporting areas.
• Devolution (especially in Scotland).
• Europe (not quite as big an issue; policy should be equivocal as
   public is like that; transaction with the public.
• Generally, not radicalism for sake of being radical; follow what public
   want; do not be extreme.
• Build policy on understanding public opinion.
• Possible loss of business support, with the Labour Party in favour
(cont) Stages for political marketing
    for a market-oriented party
• Stage 4-Implementation: For marketing to be effective, the findings
  from stages 1 and 3 must be implemented.
• Stage 5-Communication: The party should convey its new product
  design to the electorate using the most appropriate and effective
  communication techniques.
  The communication occurs continuously and not just in a campaign.
  It includes activities as press releases or advertising but also work
  done by activists within the party membership. The party should also
  try to influence others in the communication process, such as media
  and opposition parties.
• Stage 6-Campaign: The election campaign is the final chance of a
  party to convey its behaviour.
• Stage 7- General Election: Fingers crossed and Pray!!!
• Stage 8- Delivery: The market-oriented party should focus on the
  need to deliver in order to achieve voter satisfaction. Important also
  is not only to deliver but also to communicate this delivery.
  The Labour party frequently discusses its record on delivery since
  getting into government. This party issues an annual report on its
  delivery of its promise.
  MIX (Part of the Marketing Mix)
-Definition: direct marketing is the distribution of information,products or
    services through any advertising medium that invites the individual to
    respond directly to the advertiser.
-Direct marketing has become an integral part of modern political electoral
-Today more commercial marketing means of communication are embraced by
    politicians. A candidate‟s message often is communicated through direct
    mail campaigns, infomercials, videos, telephone, cable television, email
    campaigning and the Internet.
-Given the more informed and diverse electorate, modern pollsters constantly
    are modeling databases, tracking the perceptions and gauging the
    influences of the message.
-Direct Marketing also useful to build databases of donors.
-Advertising as well other elements of the communication mix frequently are
    planned in such way in order to collaborate and to strength the efficiency of
    the communication of the messages.

        Needs of Future Political Direct Marketing
                     (in Newman)
•   More emphasis on building relationships with voters through personalized
    and interactive communications. The new electronic means can play an
    important role in this.
•   More sophisticated web sites and specialized kiosks that will be updated
    constantly with information and they will hold interactive dialogues with
•   Messages should be sent through a variety of targeted media including
    direct mail and newsletters that can personalize messages to supporter
•   Innovative polling, with on-line polls can be another dimension for profiling
    potential supporters.
•   New technologies could be used more frequently to expand the overall size
    of the voting population whose members are exposed to political marketing
    messages which are targeted to them.
•   blog marketing and email campaigns can add to effectiveness of the
    communication of our message as well as to the mobilization of our

• Dedinition: the any paid form of non-personal presentation and
  promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor.
• According to Kotler advertising can be classified by its purpose:
  -Informative Advertising-used to inform consumers about a new
  product or feature and to build primary demand
  -Persuasive Advertising- used to build selective demand for a brand
  by persuading consumers that it offers the best quality for their
  -Comparison Advertising- is this that compares one brand directly to
  one or more other brands.
  -Reminding Advertising- used to keep consumers thinking about a

           Political Advertising
• Pol. advertising is a paid type of unidirectional political
• Until the Second World War this form of unilateral
  communication was usually designed as propaganda
• As with all advertising, the political advertising uses a
  range of media, designed to garner positive feeling
  towards the sponsor.
• According to McNair the advertising power is exercised
  on two levels:
  1) The pol. advertisement disseminates information
  about the candidate or party to a degree of detail which
  TV journalists can rarely match.
  2) Pol. advertisements are also designed to persuade.
  Also for this kind of advertisement there are clear
  advantages for the politician. By this, the editorial control
  resides with the politician and not with the media.
  Politicians free to say whatever they want and to set their
  own agenda. Not following this of the media.
• “The political actor controls the encoding of the
  advertisement but not its decoding” (McNair
  -The advertisement is the only mass media form
  over the construction of which, the politician has
  complete control. However the viewer is aware
  of this and may reject the message.
  -Political advertising is everywhere and the
  amounts of money spent on this are staggering.
  The public deplores the extravagant expense
  and mistrust the accuracy of the claims of all
        Phases of a typical US political advertising
                   (McNair 1995:109)

1-the basic identity of the candidate must be established as
   a foundation on which to build subsequent information.
   In this phase, positive biographical details are
2-the candidate‟s policies are established in broad terms
   with the minimum of extraneous details and with
   emotional charge.
3-the opponent should be attacked, using negatives
4-the candidate must be endowed with positive meaning in
   the context of the identified values and aspirations of the
   electorate. In this phase the campaign will seek to
   synthesize and integrate the candidate‟s positive
   features, allowing him to acquire resonance in the voters‟
      Political Public Relations
• Public Relations practice is the discipline that
  looks after reputation with the aim of earning
  understanding and supporting and influencing
  opinion and behaviour. It is the planned and
  sustained effort to establish and maintain
  goodwill and understanding between an
  organization and its publics.
• Modern public relations do not operate in
  isolation. Integration of all the modern
  communication methods is the key.
• Since the effectiveness of the pol. advertising
  would be always limited, the public relations
  started to seem more effective.
• Core aim of political public relations: to present
  an individual or organization in a positive light, to
  enhance the public‟s perception of that individual
  or organization and perhaps to get the public to
  do something for that individual or organization
• Lilleker states that public relations are about
  image creation and branding, campaigning and
  news management

• Politicians running for an office, increasingly use
  professional public relations expertise for the areas of:
  + Media Management
       -News Managemet & Spin, Publicity,
         Media Evaluation
  + Reputation Management
  + „Brand Marketing‟
  + Issue/Risk/Crisis Management
  + Campaigning & Permanent Campaigning
  + Lobbying
  + Internal Relations & Change Management
  + Image making & management

         Media Management
• „Politics is a mediated experience‟ (Edelman).
• Political attitudes and actions result from the
  interpretation of new information through the
  lenses of previously held assumptions and
• Media management demands from politicians to
  give to the media what it wants in terms of news
  while he exerts some influence over how this is
  mediated and presented.
• Messages communicated through the „free
  media‟ usually are thought by the public to carry
  more legitimacy and credibility.
   The role of the public relations department on
 media management (otherwise the press officer)
• To initiate media coverage.
• To supply information on demand by the media.
• To achieve these, a two-way relationship has to be
  created so the press officer is welcomed, accepted,
  respected, helpful, sympathetic and efficient.
• Media Management is not only finding interest angles for
  a story, or sending press releases.
• The press officer should have the right established
  personal relationships in the media based on trust in
  order to achieve the so-called third-party endorsements.
• Moreover the press officer should have to establish a
  reputation of reliability and to ensure the provision to the
  journalists with access to material.

  Advices from the corporate world, on initiating
   media coverage for political organizations

• Have a newsworthy story. Read about the news
• Know where and when it is likely to be
• Familiarity with the editorial requirements is
• To have a newsworthy story someone needs
  good lines of internal communication.
• Do not forget the freelance journalists.
• Paid advertising can also „motivate‟ editors for
  better coverage.

       Key functions of Media Management

•   Control of information.
•   Understanding the audience.
•   Internal and external education.
•   Protection of the organization‟s or the candidate‟s reputation.
•   Studying the geographical dimensions of the media that might interests him
    (both actual and in terms of communities of interest).
•   Mapping the opportunities that could be presented within particular media.
•   Identification of these media actors those who someone will have to deal
•    Expertise to understand media‟s agenda.
•   Identification of the key opinion formers.
•   Understanding of the opposition‟s positions.
•   Using the media as an ally
•   Educating your politicians by giving them media training.
•   Control the media‟s agenda.
•   Media evaluation (especially in Campaigns).

                News Management
• Key feature of the news management is to
  control the media news agenda in order to
  influence the public opinion
• In relation with this, journalists argue that they
  act as the gatekeepers in a pluralist society.
• On the other hand politicians often argue that
  without these gatekeepers, agenda-setters and
  the media biases, they would not be able to
  present their case to the public in the way that
  the public would want.