Docstoc

Biofuels Alternative Energy Supply

Document Sample
Biofuels Alternative Energy Supply Powered By Docstoc
					                         Biofuels
                Alternative Energy Supply
                                                   2006
                                                22 minutes


Program Synopsis
This program looks at global energy resources, starting by outlining the heavy use of traditional fossil fuels such as
coal and oil. It explores the problems that confront the world’s population and environment associated with the
continued reliance on traditional fuels, and why they cannot be regarded as a long term solution for our energy
needs – due to their finite supplies, pollutive properties and contribution to climate change.
Biofuels are defined and examined as part of a potential solution for future energy requirements – including
ethanol, biogas, butanol, vegetable oils and biodiesel. The program looks at their chemistry and methods of
production, as well as how they are used now, and could be used into the future.


Related Programs
• Petroleum and Oil Refining
• The Australian Farm Environment
• Renewable Energy - The Search for Endless Energy
                      Biofuels: Alternative Energy Supply



         VEA Inc.
     10 Mitchell Place
         Suite 103
  White Plains, NY 10601
   Phone: 866 727 0840
    Fax: 866 727 0839

Website: www.veavideo.com




           -2-
                                                                         Biofuels: Alternative Energy Supply




                                                                                                  Teacher Notes:
                                                                                                  Peter Gribben,
                                                                       B.Ed, B.Sc Hon, Post Graduate of Education

Introduction
This program is aimed at Years 11 and 12 Chemistry students; some sections may be relevant to more able Year
10 students.
The program deals with an introduction on “traditional” fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, petrol and coal). It describes
how they are used and the problems associated with their use. The major focus is on biofuels, what they are, how
they are made and used and their advantages and disadvantages. Possible future developments in this field are
also examined.


Program Rationale
Fossil fuels have a big impact on our society and it is important that students understand the implications of them
being a finite resource. Students need to know what steps are being made to replace/augment these fuels –
biofuels look like playing a major part in our future energy supplies.


Background Information
Fossil fuels’ impact on global warming has placed the need for the development of alternatives to coal and oil well
and truly on the agenda for government, industry and society in general around the world. Coupled with the fact
that those two energy sources – together with nuclear energy – are finite sources, investment, research and
development of biofuels are all only likely to increase as the 21st century proceeds.


Program Timeline
00:00:00    Introduction
00:01:04    Chapter 1 – Traditional Fuels
00:05:14    Chapter 2 – Bio-fuels
00:10:43    Chapter 3 – Butanol, vegetable oil and bio-diesel
00:13:42    Chapter 4 – Specific uses of bio-fuel
00:17:23    Chapter 5 – Advantages & disadvantages of bio-fuels
00:21:44    Credits
00:22:27    End program


Useful Resources
Books and Other Print Resources
Most Year 11/12 Chemistry text books have a good outline of fossil fuels and the more recent ones deal with
biofuels, albeit at a restricted level.


Internet Resources:

                                                        -3-
                                                                      Biofuels: Alternative Energy Supply



Many major fuel companies (e.g. Shell, Caltex and BP) maintain websites dealing with their involvement in
biofuels. Because it is a rapidly developing area, it is suggested that students and teachers perform an internet
search for up to date information.




                                                      -4-
                                                                     Biofuels: Alternative Energy Supply




                                          Program Worksheet
                                               Before the Program

Spend a few moments thinking about your knowledge of fuels. Then answer the following questions:

1   What is meant by a “fuel”?



2   Name three fossil fuels.




3   Fossil fuels are “finite”. What does this mean?



4   Name three alternatives to fossil fuels.




5   Suggest at least one environmental concern about using fossil fuels.




                                                      -5-
                                                                       Biofuels: Alternative Energy Supply




                                            During the Program

Have a pen/pencil and paper ready. Consider the following terms.

biofuels, fossil fuels, greenhouse gas, pollutants, acid rain, environmental damage, biomass, photosynthesis,
ethanol, biodegradable, anaerobic, flammable, methane, sewage, carbohydrate, hydrolysis, fermented, distilled,
dehydrated, beverage, butanol, feedstock, fatty esters, biodiesel, viscosity, manure, E10, blended, recycling, food
crop, self sufficient

As the program plays, as these terms occur, jot down a quick thought about them.

1.   biofuels



2.   fossil fuels



3.   greenhouse gas



4.   pollutants



5.   acid rain



6.   environmental damage



7.   biomass



8.   photosynthesis



9.   ethanol



10. biodegradable



11. anaerobic

                                                       -6-
                      Biofuels: Alternative Energy Supply




12. flammable




                -7-
                         Biofuels: Alternative Energy Supply




13. methane



14. sewage



15. carbohydrate



16. hydrolysis



17. fermented



18. distilled



19. dehydrated



20. beverage



21. butanol



22. feedstock



23. fatty esters



24. biodiesel



25. viscosity



26. manure

                   -8-
      Biofuels: Alternative Energy Supply




-9-
                               Biofuels: Alternative Energy Supply




27. E10



28. blended



29. recycling



30. food crop



31. self-sufficient




                      - 10 -
                                                                       Biofuels: Alternative Energy Supply




                                             After the Program

1.   After the program has been viewed, answer these questions:

     a)   Give a definition for “biofuel”



     b)   Fossil fuels are made up of which group of compounds?



     c)   Name a greenhouse gas produced when hydrocarbon fuels burn.



     d)   Name a gas (other than carbon dioxide) that is produced as a pollutant when fossil fuels burn.



     e)   What is the pH of acid rain?



     f)   Name one type of environmental damage caused by transport of fossil fuels.



     g)   Plant matter absorbs sunlight and transform it in to chemical energy via the which process?



     h)   Suggest a word that means “can be broken down by the action of organisms.”



     i)   What is the major component of biogas?



     j)   Name two crops that area major source of carbohydrates.



     k)   When carbohydrates are                                   an alcohol and carbon dioxide can be formed.

     l)   Suggest a word that means “water has been removed.”



     m) Which alcohol has the formula C4H9OH?


                                                      - 11 -
                                                         Biofuels: Alternative Energy Supply




n)   Which biofuel can be used in diesel engines?




                                                - 12 -
                                                                          Biofuels: Alternative Energy Supply




     o)   Manure has long been used to generate which gas?



     p)   Which biofuel can be blended with petrol?



     q)   Biofuels are alternatives to what?



     r)   Raising plants for biofuels may reduce land available for what?




2.   True false response worksheet (circle correct answer)

     a)   Biomass is derived from materials than have been living.

          True        or        False

     b)   Ethanol contains three carbon atoms.

          True        or        False

     c)   “Anaerobic” means “in the presence of oxygen.”

          True        or        False

     d)   Carbon dioxide is flammable.

          True        or        False

     e)   Sewage can be used to generate biogas.

          True        or        False

     f)   Hydrolysis involves breaking down compounds.

          True        or        False

     g)   Ethanol can be distilled from a mixture of ethanol and water.

          True        or        False

     h)   Methane is used to put the “fizz” into some beverages.

          True        or        False

     i)   In a chemical process, “feedstock” is another name for “reactants”.

          True        or        False
                                                       - 13 -
                                                Biofuels: Alternative Energy Supply




j)   Fatty esters make up biodiesel.

     True        or        False




                                       - 14 -
                                                                 Biofuels: Alternative Energy Supply




k)   Viscosity refers to how easily a substance will burn.

     True        or         False

l)   E10 is a blend containing 10% ethanol and 90% petrol.

     True        or         False

m) Making biofuels is a type of recycling.

     True        or         False

n)   Biofuels can be used in any engine without the engine being modified.

     True        or         False

o)   Biofuels could help some communities become self-sufficient in energy production.

     True        or         False




                                                   - 15 -
                                                                      Biofuels: Alternative Energy Supply




                                   Suggested Student Responses
                                                Before the Program

1.   What is meant by a “fuel”?
     Something that burns to give heat and light.

2.   Name three fossil fuels.
     Coal, oil and natural gas (methane).

3.   Fossil fuels are “finite”. What does this mean?
     Will eventually run out.

4.   Name three alternatives to fossil fuels.
     E.g. Nuclear, wind, wave, biofuels.

5.   Give an environmental concern about using fossil fuels.
     E.g. pollution, carbon dioxide contributing to global warming.




                                                       - 16 -
                                                                       Biofuels: Alternative Energy Supply




                                             After the Program
1.   After the program has been viewed, answer these questions:

     a)   Give a definition for “biofuel”.
          Fuel made from organic matter

     b)   Fossil fuels are made up of which group of compounds?
          Hydrocarbons

     c)   Name a greenhouse gas produced when hydrocarbon fuels burn.
          Carbon dioxide

     d)   Name a gas (other than carbon dioxide) that is produced as a pollutant when fossil fuels burn.
          Oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide

     e)   What is the pH of acid rain?
          Less than 5.5

     f)   Name one type of environmental damage caused by transport of fossil fuels.
          Oil spills, poisoned waterways

     g)   Plant matter absorbs sunlight and transform it in to chemical energy via the which process?
          Photosynthesis

     h)   Can be broken down by the action of organisms.
          Biodegradable

     i)   The major component of biogas.
          Methane

     j)   Name two crops that area major source of carbohydrates.
          E.g. sugarcane, corn, wheat, barley and sorghum

     k)   When carbohydrates are fermented an alcohol and carbon dioxide can be formed.

     l)   Means “water has been removed”
          Dehydrated

     m) Which alcohol has the formula C4H9OH?
        Butanol

     n)   Which biofuel can be used in diesel engines?
          Biodiesel

     o)   Manure has long been used to generate which gas?
          Biomass

     p)   Which biofuel can be blended with petrol?
          Ethanol

     q)   Biofuels are alternatives to
          Fossil Fuels

                                                      - 17 -
                                                           Biofuels: Alternative Energy Supply



r)   Raising plants for biofuels may reduce land for
     Food crops




                                                  - 18 -

				
DOCUMENT INFO