3 Are Micro-Algae a Future Biofuel

Document Sample
3 Are Micro-Algae a Future Biofuel Powered By Docstoc
					APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP




         Are micro-algae a future
                 Biofuel?

       APEC Biodiesel Standards Workshop


                   14-15 July, 2008

               Taipei, Chinese Taipei



                                           RDL
RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP

Imagine if we could

     • Grow a fuel without using land,

     • Grow a fuel without polluting the atmosphere,

     • Grow a fuel without creating greenhouse gases,

     • Harvest a crop every day instead of yearly,

     • Generate up to 300 times more biomass per acre,

     • Grow crops in both fresh and sea water.


            Well we can! Micro-algae will do these things




                                                            RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP

Coverage
           What are Micro-algae?


             How are they Grown?


               How are they Harvested?


                  Micro-algae to Biofuel,


                    Current status,


                       Future potential,


                          Key Points.
                                            RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP

What are micro algae?

        • Micro algae are 1 to 5 microns in size,

        • Wild algae and diatoms include thousands of species,

        • Populations vary with climate and temp

        • All contain lipid oils and have been studied as a source
           of biodiesel for at least 20 years,

        • Algae were the source of our oil and gas,

        • Algae are the source of the planet’s oxygen,

        • Algae absorb most of the planet’s CO2



                          A pretty good CV!

                                                           RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP

Other algae species


     • Macro-algae are much more familiar and have been
            cultivated and studied for many years,

     • They are much easier to catch & harvest,

     • Species such as spirulina are well known,

     • Decades of identification work exists

     • Marine macro-algae are also under study,




            Macro-algae are much better known than Micros


                                                          RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP

Micro-algae research
     • Most work has concentrated on monocultures and
            maximizing lipid oil content,

     • Micro-algae are usually grown in a contained
            environment,

     • Harvesting methods have been in contained systems
            with centrifugal water removal

     • Lipid Oil extraction has involved:

            • pressing,

            • Super-critical fluid extraction,

            • Pyrolysis.

     Quite equipment intensive and subject to contamination

                                                         RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP

The Aquaflow approach


     Don’t try to modify nature.

        • Use natural wild micro-algae,

        • Harness solar energy, chlorophyll, photosynthesis
            and free nutrients,

        • Micro-algae complete their life cycle in Effluent
            Management System (EMS) ponds and absorb the
            nutrients in the effluent,

        • Most of the nitrogen and phosphorus is absorbed and
            reduced to acceptable levels


                           A low cost solution
                                                              RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP

EMS ponds, Marlborough, New Zealand




                                      RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP

Dispatch to the sea




                          RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP

The fuel source reveals itself




                                 RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP

Micro-algae harvesting unit – the fish trap




                                              RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP

The micro-algae harvest – the trapped fish!




                                              RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP

The Bio-remediation process


     • Start with heavily polluted waste water,

     • Scavenge it using micro algae and solar energy,

     • Transform EMS waste to lipid oils,

     • Now the water is clean again and reusable for:

        •   Irrigation,
        •   Stock water,
        •   Industrial washing and processing,
        •   Even Potable water in an emergency.




     An efficient and cost effective water treatment system


                                                          RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP
The Bio-remediation process




                              RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP

Other Applications

      Applicable to wastes from agriculture, transport, dairy and
       meat processing, paper mills etc, that have heavily
       polluted waste water,

      For example:

         • 1 cattle beast produces 10 times the waste of 1 human,

         • New Zealand has 5 million cattle = 50 million human
            equivalents,

         • Significant potential for agricultural effluents as nutrients,

         • And what about cattle feed lots in the US mid-west?




      All we need is a nice rich effluent to grow micro-algae



                                                                     RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP

Conversion to Biofuel
  As with harvesting we have a graveyard of conversion
    technologies that did not work.

  Now we have developed a quiver of technologies which do
    work.

  Economics and energy balance are crucial for commercial
    scale up in a non subsidised economy.

     • Separate C5-C18 as fuel fraction,

     • No trans-esterification,

     • Proteins and cellulose as biocrude,

     • Fuel meets New Zealand biodiesel specifications.


                   Plus other valuable products!

                                                            RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP

Other valuable products
  The so-called by-products are likely to be of greater value
    than the biofuel! These include:

         • Water purification,

         • By-products with a range of different markets:

            •   Natural products,
            •   Pigments,
            •   Fibres,
            •   Enzymes,
            •   Sugars,
            •   Fats,
            •   Amino acids,
            •   Vitamins.




                             An exploded Pharmacy!

                                                                RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP

Engine compatibility



     • Meets New Zealand Biodiesel specifications,

     • Trials with B 100 and blends,

     • Engine tests still in progress but no issues to date,

     • Still some certification work to do,

     • Trialed and accepted as a commercial aviation fuel in New
             Zealand



                   The prognoses are very good


                                                               RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP


Engine compatability




                          RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP


    The ‘trip’ that is decades away




                                      RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP

Where are we now?

     • Actually producing at the rate of 1 million liters/year of
       micro-algae biodiesel from one EDS pond and processing
       unit today!

     • Very close to commercial production status,

     • All production is being purchased for testing and analysis,

     • Primary value is in water purification and high value
       chemical products,

     • The pundits say micro-algae biodiesel is “decades away”.

     • Aquaflow suggests 3-5 years!



            The future may be closer than we think!

                                                               RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP

Outlook for the future

     • Potential for 100% diesel substitution in New Zealand and
            many other APEC economies,

     • Unlike other biofuel options micro-algae have potential to
            make a major contribution to middle distillate demand,

     • An important contribution to aviation fuel requirements:

        • Air New Zealand 400 million litres/year,
        • USAF 300 billion litres/year

     • Approximately 90% reduction in vehicle GHG emissions
           based on “whole of life” carbon footprints,



                   The outlook is very encouraging


                                                           RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP

Why all this effort?


     • Algae are predicted to be up to 300 times more productive
       per acre than land crops,

     • Oil yields of 40%-50% are being achieved,

     • No productive ‘food’ land is used,

     • If we are to feed 10 billion Earthlings - Where?

     • If we are to fuel 1.5 billion cars - How?

     • If we are to reverse global warming - When?


            Micro-algae offer an exciting opportunity


                                                          RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP

 Key Points

     • An Entrepreneurial Initiative – no Government assistance,

     • New approach to harnessing, harvesting and processing
           micro-algae,

     • Maximises the use of natural resources and existing
           infrastructure,

     • Minimises capital requirements,

     • Considerable associated value from multiple by-products
           and waste water purification,

     • Potential for a major contribution to middle distillate
           demand in all APEC economies and worldwide.



                                                             RDL
APEC BIODIESEL WORKSHOP




              Thank You!




                           RDL

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:72
posted:6/10/2010
language:English
pages:26