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					                                                                                         SPICe
                                 BIOFUELS                                                briefing
                                   ALASDAIR REID
                                                                                         14 December 2006

This briefing provides an introduction to biofuels and their European, UK                06/108
and Scottish policy framework. It also considers some of the complex
and diverse arguments surrounding their use and the development of a
global market.




   Scottish Parliament Information Centre (SPICe) Briefings are compiled for the
   benefit of the Members of the Parliament and their personal staff. Authors are
   available to discuss the contents of these papers with MSPs and their staff who
   should     contact    Alasdair    Reid   on     extension     85375    or   email
   alasdair.reid@scottish.parliament.uk. Members of the public or external
   organisations may comment on this briefing by emailing us at
   spice@scottish.parliament.uk. However, researchers are unable to enter into
   personal discussion in relation to SPICe Briefing Papers. If you have any general
   questions about the work of the Parliament you can email the Parliament’s Public
   Information Service at spinfo@scottish.parliament.uk.

   Every effort is made to ensure that the information contained in SPICe briefings is
   correct at the time of publication. Readers should be aware however that briefings
   are not necessarily updated or otherwise amended to reflect subsequent
   changes.
   .
                           www.scottish.parliament.uk


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CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ..........................................................................................................................................................3
    BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................................................................3
BIOFUELS POLICY .....................................................................................................................................................5
    EUROPEAN POLICY .....................................................................................................................................................5
      Forthcoming EU action.........................................................................................................................................5
    UK POLICY .................................................................................................................................................................5
    SCOTTISH EXECUTIVE SUPPORT FOR BIOFUELS ............................................................................................................7
      Growing the crops ................................................................................................................................................8
      Biofuel processing................................................................................................................................................8
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS ........................................................................................................................................9

ARE BIOFUELS SUSTAINABLE? ............................................................................................................................10
    LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................................................10
    LAND USE AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT....................................................................................................................10
    ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL ASSURANCE .................................................................................................................11
SOURCES ..................................................................................................................................................................13




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INTRODUCTION
       The use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today. But such oils
       may become, in the course of time, as important as the petroleum products of the
       present time. (Diesel 1912)

Motorised transport has not always been powered by fossil fuels. Rudolph Diesel ran his first
engines on peanut oil, and Henry Ford ran his on maize ethanol. As it became cheaper to
extract fossil fuels from the earth, the use of vegetable oils as transport fuel stopped (Yokayo
Biofuels 2006). Now more commonly known as biofuels, their use is increasing due to high
fossil fuel prices, security of supply, regulations which aim to cut rising levels of greenhouse
gases in the atmosphere, and EU – US concern at the political ramifications of relying on Middle
Eastern oil exporting countries (WWF 2006).

Biofuels are derived from biomass composed of recently living organisms or their by-products.
The two main types are biodiesel and bioethanol.

Biodiesel can be used in place of diesel and is made from oily crops like oil seed rape (OSR),
palm, or soya and used cooking oil or tallow. Scotland has some of the highest OSR yields in
Europe, averaging 3.31 tonnes per hectare in 2004 (National Farmers Union Scotland 2006).

Bioethanol is used in a way similar to petrol in vehicles and is made from the fermentation of
starch sources such as cereals, sugar beet or potatoes. It can also be made from wood fibre
sources such as forestry waste or willow, more commonly known as second generation biofuels;
however this is not yet a financially or technologically viable process (McDermott, Will & Emery
2006).

Biodiesel and bioethanol can be used either as a blend with, or direct substitute for, diesel or
petrol. However, in general car manufacturers will currently not honour UK warranties if blends
containing greater than 5% biofuel are used. Higher-percentage petrol-ethanol blends can be
used, as they are in Brazil and Sweden, but these require engine modification and new fuel
infrastructure (Scottish Parliament Environment and Rural Development Committee 2006). A
petrol called E85 (85% ethanol/15% petrol) has recently become available in a small number of
English petrol stations, however it requires specially modified cars, currently being
manufactured in small numbers by Saab and Ford (BBC News 2006a).

BACKGROUND
       “It is now generally accepted by science and supported by the European Union (EU) that
       in order to avoid dangerous climate change, global warming should stay below a 2°
       Celsius increase compared to pre-industrial temperatures. To attain this objective
       greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally need to be cut by at least 50 per cent in the
       coming decades.” (WWF 2006)

To achieve this, a number of ambitious measures and policies are required across the globe,
including (WWF 2006):

   •   significant improvements in energy efficiency and reduced energy consumption in all
       sectors
   •   growth in the production of renewable energies
   •   reduced deforestation and carbon rich soil degradation
   •   drastic reduction in the use of fossil fuels
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Scotland currently has 2,341,000 registered vehicles (Department for Transport 2005a), with the
transport sector accounting for 17% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the second largest
contributing sector after energy supply (Scottish Executive 2006a). Transport emissions
increased from 2.8 MtC (million tonnes of carbon) in 1990 to 3.0MtC in 2003, an increase of 6%
(Scottish Executive 2006a). Future projections indicate that road transport will rise by 27% by
2021, potentially leading to greater dependency on non-renewable sources and energy imports
and making further contributions to greenhouse gas emissions. Road transport is also the main
reason for local air quality problems in urban areas (BBC News 2006b).

Biofuels are therefore considered by many as a way of reducing GHG emissions without having
to reduce transport use (New Scientist 2006). One of the key arguments in this area is whether
policy makers should be aiming to alter the source of transport fuel or to reduce overall demand
(Monbiot 2005). There is conflicting evidence (Booth et al. 2005, New Scientist 2006, and
Climate Ark 2006) as to whether the increasing use of biofuels will actually reduce the net
amount of carbon produced i.e. whilst a vehicle burning an alternative fuel (to hydrocarbon
based petrol or diesel) may not emit as much CO2, NOx or SOx at the tailpipe, its life cycle,
including fertiliser, production and transportation, may require a considerable amount of energy,
which renders the overall carbon footprint of the process negative, or neutral. This is dependent
on a number of factors in the growth and supply chain, which consists of many different stages,
depending on what type of fuel is made.

As yet there is little manufacture of biodiesel in the UK. 50,000 tonnes a year is produced at the
Argent Energy plant at Motherwell. This is currently restricted to recycled cooking oil and tallow,
although the plant is also able to use other vegetable oils including rape oil. There have also
been a number of recent announcements relating to new plants in Scotland. Further information
on these is available under recent developments.

This briefing provides an introduction to biofuels and their European, UK and Scottish policy
framework. It also considers some of the complex and diverse arguments surrounding their use
and the development of a global market.




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BIOFUELS POLICY

EUROPEAN POLICY
EU Directive 2003/30/EC on the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for
transport requires Member States to set indicative (non-mandatory) targets for the use of
biofuels in road transport for 2005 and 2010. The Directive includes 'reference values' of 2%
biofuel sales (as a proportion of all road fuel sales) for 2005, and 5.75% for 2010. A draft EU
Transport Biofuels Strategy was adopted in February 2006 (European Commission 2006a).
This sets out three main aims:

   •   to promote biofuels in both the EU and developing countries
   •   to prepare for large-scale use of biofuels by improving their cost-competitiveness and
       increasing research into ‘second generation’ fuels
   •   to support developing countries where biofuel production could stimulate sustainable
       economic growth

The European Commission (2006a) states that:

       Increased use of biofuels will bring numerous benefits, by reducing Europe’s dependence
       on fossil fuel imports, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, providing new outlets for
       farmers and opening up new economic possibilities in several developing countries.

Forthcoming EU action
The Biofuels Directive asks the Commission to make a progress report before the end of 2006,
and is likely to be used as a basis for a proposal to amend the directive. This has been
informed by a recent public consultation, which revealed a generally positive attitude towards
the objectives of the directive (particularly amongst governments and industrial stakeholders)
but also a strong scepticism towards achievement of the 2010 target of 5.75% market share
(European Commission 2006b). There was an overwhelming response in favour of amending
the Directive to some degree. Most respondents were also in favour of a system of certification
of standards being introduced, although the suggested extent and nature of such a system
varied.

There is unlikely to be any change in the trade regime for biofuels since senior EU energy
officials have recently identified non-EU biofuel suppliers as significant to the EU’s biofuel
strategy, with 50% per cent of biofuel supply likely to come from outside the EU (McDermott,
Will & Emery 2006).

UK POLICY
The Biofuels Directive requires member states to report annually to the European Commission
on the effectiveness of their support for biofuels. In the UK Report to the European Commission
on Biofuels 2006 the Department for Transport (2006) states that a Renewable Transport Fuel
Obligation (RTFO) will be the UK's primary mechanism to deliver the objectives of the Biofuels
Directive. Furthermore:

       It will give the Government a powerful tool to ensure that policy targets can be met.
       Without an obligation of this kind, it appears very unlikely that the UK could achieve
       anything like the reference values set out in the Directive. This is because the level of
       duty differential in the UK and the length of certainty the mechanism offers has proved
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       insufficient to stimulate the level of investment in production capacity and infrastructure
       required to meet the Directive's objectives, whilst the Commission has indicated that
       higher levels of fiscal incentives could give rise to overcompensation. Higher levels of
       duty incentives would also be very expensive, potentially placing unsustainable
       pressures on public finances. In contrast the RTFO will provide a long term stable
       mechanism to ensure that higher levels of support will be provided when industry needs
       it, without breaching EU State Aid rules which preclude overcompensation.

The levels of obligation set out in the RTFO are as follows (Department for Transport 2006):

                                  Financial Year Level of Obligation
                                  2008/09                            2.5%
                                  2009/10                           3.75%
                                  2010/11                              5%

These levels of obligation refer to the required volume of biofuel in the fuel blend. The UK
Government recognises that the level of obligation for 2010 falls below the 'reference value' set
out in the Directive by 0.75%. However, a number of objective factors were taken into account,
including:

   •   EU fuel quality standards
   •   sustainability risks
   •   time required to develop production capacity and supply infrastructure

It is estimated that the net global reduction in carbon dioxide emissions from this will be around
1MtC, equivalent to taking one million cars off the road, without stopping people from travelling
(Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs 2006). Furthermore (HM Treasury 2006):

       RTFO levels beyond 2010-11 will be set in due course, but the Government intends that
       in principle the target should rise beyond 5% after 2010-11, so long as infrastructural
       requirements and fuel and vehicle standards will allow, and subject to the costs being
       acceptable to the consumer.

The 2006 Budget (HM Treasury 2006) also sets out a fiscal regime under RTFO which aims to
provide the biofuel industry with further certainty. This includes extending to 2008/09 a 20p per
litre fuel duty differential, originally introduced in 2002. It is intended that this “increased level of
support will provide a kick start to the RTFO mechanism in the early years of the obligation and
should ensure that biofuels will be delivered to the UK market from day one.”

At a recent conference on renewable energy and rural land use Dr Elaine Booth of the Scottish
Agricultural College noted that the RTFO “provides a major key to stimulating the market for
liquid biofuels; if a significant proportion of the RTFO requirement for biodiesel in the diesel
market was fulfilled solely by home grown oilseed rape, the area of the crop would have to
increase markedly.” (2006)

The RTFO also forms part of the Department for Transport’s Powering Future Vehicles Strategy
(Department for Transport 2002), which promotes new vehicle technologies and fuels by aiming
that:



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   •   by 2012, 10% of all new car sales will be cars emitting 100 g/km CO2 or less at the
       tailpipe
   •   by 2012, 600 or more buses coming into operation each year will be low carbon, defined
       as 30% below current average carbon emissions

The Refuelling & recharging infrastructure programme is run by the Energy Saving Trust (EST)
(2006) and provides grants to increase the infrastructure of alternative refuelling stations for
road vehicles, including bioethanol (but not biodiesel). The EST states:

       By encouraging the increased use of clean, alternatively fuelled vehicles, the programme
       is intended to improve the environment by reducing emissions of air pollutants and
       greenhouse gases from road transport, and will support the other low carbon and air
       quality programmes expected to be managed by the Energy Saving Trust…the lack of
       refuelling station networks for clean alternatively fuelled road transport vehicles is a
       significant market barrier to uptake of these vehicles in the UK.

Grants are funded by the Department for Transport, with support from the Scottish Executive,
with a grant budget of £690,000 for 2005/2006.

SCOTTISH EXECUTIVE SUPPORT FOR BIOFUELS
Essentially, Scotland supports a UK wide programme in developing clean fuels. There are no
Scottish specific grant schemes or programmes, although there are examples of developments
and demonstration projects. Changing Our Ways: Scotland's Climate Change Programme
(Scottish Executive 2006a) states:

   •   we will continue to support UK development work on the implementation of a Renewable
       Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) to ensure that 5% of all UK fuel sold on UK forecourts
       are biofuels by 2010
   •   we will continue to support developments at UK and international level to promote new
       and cleaner vehicle technologies and fuels

The following question asked in the Scottish Parliament is relevant:

       S2W-14559 - Mr Andrew Arbuckle (Mid Scotland and Fife) (LD) (Date Lodged 18
       February 2005): To ask the Scottish Executive how it intends to achieve the EU 2%
       target of energy creation from biofuel by 2010.
       Answered by Nicol Stephen (29 March 2005): This issue is devolved to the Scottish
       Executive. However, given the single UK fuel market in which we operate, we have
       agreed to a UK-wide target for the uptake of biofuels. …
       The Scottish Executive is involved, through my membership of the Ministerial Low
       Carbon Group (MLCG), in work at a UK level looking into ways to promote the
       development, introduction and take-up of low carbon vehicles and fuels. The MLCG
       published its second annual report in October 2004 and a copy is available from the
       Scottish Parliament Information Centre (Bib number 35679).
       The Department for Transport has recently commissioned a feasibility study on the
       possible introduction of a Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) for biofuels and
       other renewable transport fuels, and is currently consulting with stakeholders at UK level.
       The Scottish Executive is closely following this work and considering its implications for
       Scotland.
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       In Scotland, the Executive has supported Scotland’s first large-scale biodiesel plant by
       the Argent Group. Biofuel sales in Scotland are likely to increase, partly as a result of
       new developments.

Growing the crops
The main Scottish energy crop is oil seed rape. The growth of this crop can be supported either
under the Single Farm Payment Scheme (SFPS) or under the Aid for Energy Crops Scheme.
These are both administered by the Executive. Energy crops may be grown on set aside land,
under the SFPS, however not under the ECS. In June 2006, the Executive announced an
initiative whereby oil seed rape is grown in East Lothian, fertilised by sewage sludge, and then
transported by ship to Spain for processing. The following Scottish Parliamentary question is
relevant:

       S2O-9723 - Mr Andrew Arbuckle (Mid Scotland and Fife) (LD): To ask the Scottish
       Executive what economic initiatives it will implement to help the biofuel industry, with
       particular reference to crop production.

       Answered by Tavish Scott (4 May 2006): We are considering the most appropriate
       support mechanisms for the whole biomass sector, including the biofuel industry, as part
       of the development of a Scottish Biomass Action Plan, which we are committed to
       developing by the end of 2006, as set out in our recently published Climate Change
       Programme, Changing Our Ways.

Biofuel processing
There is no specific support available for processing energy crops into biofuels. However, the
Executive announced during 2004 that Argent Energy would build a biofuel processing plant
near Motherwell, which received £1.2m of Regional Selective Assistance (RSA). It has also
recently been announced that Ineos Enterprises intend to construct Europe’s largest biodiesel
production plant at Grangemouth to provide fuel for the growing European market (Ineos
Enterprises 2006 and Scottish Executive 2006b). This has received £9m of RSA from the
Executive.

RSA aims to encourage investment and job creation in areas designated by the European
Community. The Department for Transport (2006) states:

       …regional selective assistance grants are one of the few methods of direct support for
       industry allowable under the EU's single market rules. Options for use of this assistance
       are limited in the UK, because qualifying regions do not necessarily match up with the
       most suitable areas for production facilities.

       Nonetheless, an RSA helped establish the UK's first major biofuel plant in Scotland, and
       other Regional Development Agencies have received applications. This includes an
       application currently before the Scottish Executive seeking Regional grant assistance for
       establishing a new production facility in Rosyth, Fife

CASE STUDY: Biofuels in Brazil
Brazil has the most advanced biofuel economy in the world. It has been mass producing biofuels, in the
form of alcohol from sugar-cane since the mid 1980s. In 2005 it produced nearly 50% of the world’s
bioethanol. There is a legal requirement for 20% of fuel at the pumps to be blended with bioethanol, and
over 15% of all cars run on pure bioethanol. Due to a climate which allows production of high yielding
sugar cane, and relatively limited use of motorised transport, only 3% of agricultural land is needed to
produce 10% of Brazil’s entire fuel consumption.
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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
As previously noted, Ineos Enterprises intends to construct Europe’s largest biodiesel
production plant at Grangemouth to provide at least 500,000 tonnes a year for the growing
European market (Ineos Enterprises 2006 and Scottish Executive 2006b). This is expected to
be operational by 2008, and supply approximately 35% of the UK’s biodiesel demand
(first4farming 2006).

Also, in October 2006 DMF Biodiesel received planning permission for a plant on the former
Royal Navy dockyard at Rosyth. This is expected to crush up to 250,000 tonnes of rapeseed a
year. The National Farmers Union Scotland is currently involved in discussions with DMF
Biodiesel and the Scottish Agricultural Organisation Society to explore whether a farmers
consortium could not only supply, but have an equity stake in, the new plant (First4farming
2006).

Current domestic production of oil seed rape is 130,000 tonnes a year, however the plants at
Grangemouth and Rosyth will require significantly more vegetable oil than current Scottish
domestic production can supply, suggesting that considerable amounts of rapeseed will have to
be imported (First4farming 2006).

A 250-000 tonne per year biodiesel plant is due to open on Teeside in September 2005. It will
initially use imported vegetable oil but the plan is to add an oilseed crushing plant when
sufficient finance has been secured (first4farming 2006). Two bioethanol plants, to utilise wheat
and sugar beet feedstocks are in the planning stage in SW England and Norfolk respectively.

Biodiesel is currently available from 23 filling stations in Scotland (Energy Saving Trust 2006).




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ARE BIOFUELS SUSTAINABLE?
As previously noted, there is conflicting evidence (Booth et al 2005, New Scientist 2006 and
Climate Ark 2006) as to whether increasing the use of biofuels will actually reduce the net
amount of carbon produced, due to a number of different factors in the life cycle of the fuel.
There are also concerns (Monbiot 2004 and 2005 and WWF 2006) that creating a global market
in biofuels will cause tropical deforestation, loss of biodiversity, water and food shortages.

WWF 2006, in their Position on Biofuels in the EU, states that “biofuels are not automatically
environmentally sustainable, just because they are a renewable resource”, and New Scientist
(2006) states that “we cannot grow our way out of the twin crises of climate change and energy
security”.

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS
       It takes a lot of energy both to grow corn and to convert it to ethanol, and cultivating a
       crop demands large quantities of fertiliser and pesticides, which themselves have
       environmental and energy costs. So is it actually worth it? (New Scientist 2006)

WWF (2006) note that use of energy and GHG intensive fertiliser increases nitrous oxide
emissions, and intensive cropping may contribute to the release of soil bound CO2, and that
future investments and research should be oriented towards ligno-cellulosic crops, or other
crops that offer better options to reduce CO2 emissions as well as a reduced impact on the
environment.

Larson (2006) also draws some broad conclusions. Firstly, that grain based biofuels offer less
GHG mitigation than second generation lignocellulosic-based fuels due primarily to lower
effective yields, and that in the longer term land use efficiency for GHG mitigation is likely to be
the highest for lignocellulosic plantation biomass. Also, that among the commercial biofuels
currently available, sugarcane ethanol gives highest land use efficiency for GHG mitigation.

In October 2005 the Scottish Agricultural College published an Economic Evaluation of
Biodiesel Production from Oilseed Rape grown in North and East Scotland (Booth et al 2005). It
states that the:

       Use of energy balance techniques assesses the amount of energy used in production of
       a biofuel compared to the amount of energy produced. Energy balance of biodiesel from
       rapeseed is positive and varies according to the range of by-products included in the
       energy output and the production system used. For typical situations the energy balance
       is in the region of 2 – 4 units of energy gained for each unit of input.

LAND USE AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Professor Sir Peter Crane, former Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew has argued
(Climate Ark 2006) that “the world should wake up to the dangers of the mass production of
biofuels, which are increasingly seen as a major solution to global warming”. He makes a case
for only growing biofuels on land that is already degraded, and not valuable for other purposes
such as conservation or agriculture.

Similarly, WWF (2006) argues that permanent grasslands, natural forests, natural floodplains,
wet and peat lands, important habitats for threatened species and other high conservation value

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areas must not be converted into intensive forest or farmland, even if to produce a potential
environmental good, such as a biofuel crop.

Monbiot (2005) has highlighted a significant recent growth in biodiesel plants in south-east Asia,
funded by European and American consortia, all making biodiesel from the oil of palm trees, the
cheapest source of suitable oil. Palm oil may not be suitable for the European market (Booth et
al 2005) due to its high freezing point which could lead to difficulties in cold climates.
Nevertheless Monbiot (2005) states:

       Oil palm can produce four times as much biodiesel per hectare as rape, and it is grown in
       places where labour is cheap. Those who worry about the scale and intensity of today’s
       agriculture should consider what farming will look like when it is run by the oil industry.
       Moreover, if we try to develop a market for rapeseed biodiesel in Europe it will
       immediately develop into a market for palm oil and soya oil.

Associated with this, oil palm plantations have been responsible for an estimated 87% of
deforestation in Malaysia, and nearly 30 million hectares in Sumatra, Borneo and Indonesia.
Tropical trees and the moisture/peat rich soil in which they grow contain a far greater store of
carbon than palm trees. This therefore leads to more CO2 being released than saved. Even if
palm oil plantations avoid deforesting areas of tropical hardwood, they are likely to be grown on
arable land that would otherwise have been used to grow food (Monbiot 2005).

It has also been reported (New Scientist 2006) that the primary reason for a sharp decline in
world grain stocks and an associated rise in grain prices in the first 6 months of 2006 is due to
the conversion of corn to ethanol. In a similar vein, world sugar prices have doubled since
2005.

At a European level, the Worldwatch Institute (New Scientist 2006) has calculated that 72% of
agricultural land in the EU-15 would be needed to replace 10% of transport fuel with biofuel. In
the UK, it would require 25.9m hectares, 4.5 times the UK’s arable area (Monbiot 2005).
Interpreted differently, the amount of corn required is such that the grain required to fill the tank
of a Sports Utility Vehicle once with bioethanol could feed one person for a year (New Scientist
2006).

In Scotland, the development of the Argent Energy biodiesel plant at Motherwell has highlighted
the potential for recycled cooking oil and tallow. However, Monbiot (2005) notes that “recycled
cooking oils could supply only 100,000 tonnes of diesel a year in this country, equivalent to one
380th of our road transport fuel”. Ineos, developers of the forthcoming plant at Grangemouth is
currently in discussions with UK crushing plants to secure supplies of vegetable oil. However,
given a global market in feedstock it is not possible to guarantee where the raw material will
come from.

ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL ASSURANCE
WWF (2006) states that:

       From an environmental perspective, there can be no justification for biofuels that do not
       provide positive gains in GHG and carbon life-cycle emissions over conventional fuels
       AND that are not produced sustainably. WWF promotes the adoption of a mandatory
       GHG certification scheme for all biofuels, whether produced in the EU or imported.

The third aim of the draft EU Transport Biofuels strategy is “to support developing countries
where biofuel production could stimulate sustainable economic growth”, and in October 2006
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the European Parliament's Committee on Industry, Research and Energy called for an EU-wide
ban on the use of biofuels derived from palm oil, and a mandatory and comprehensive
certification scheme to ensure sustainable production of biofuels (Ends Europe Daily 2006).
However, it is unclear whether a ban would infringe world trade rules (Monbiot 2005 and
Department for Transport 2005b).

The forthcoming European Commission progress report (expected December 2006) is likely to
propose an amendment to the Biofuels Directive to include a system of standards and
certification applied to biofuel production. However, this is more likely to be designed to ensure
that the cultivation of raw materials for biofuel production meets minimum standards, rather than
be extended to other areas such as certification of greenhouse gas emissions (McDermott, Will
& Emery 2006).




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SOURCES
BBC News. (2006a) UK's First Bioethanol                             Pump     Opens.          Available   at:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/4808244.stm

BBC      News.     (2006b)      Traffic  Target           'Likely     to     Fail'.          Available   at:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/5387112.stm

Booth, E. et al. (2005) Economic Evaluation of Biodiesel Production from Oilseed Rape Grown
in North and East Scotland.        Scottish Agricultural College: Aberdeen.     Available at:
http://www.sac.ac.uk/mainrep/pdfs/biodieselreport.pdf

Booth, E. (2006) Biofuels for Transport. Presentation to rural land use and renewable energy
conference, 3 October 2006.

Climate Ark. (2006) Kew boss: 'World Must Wake up to the Dangers of Biofuels’. Available at:
http://www.climateark.org/shared/reader/welcome.aspx?linkid=60393

Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs. (2006) Action in the UK – the UK Climate
Change                  Programme.                               Available               at:
http://www.defra.gov.uk/ENVIRONMENT/climatechange/uk/ukccp/index.htm

Department for Transport. (2002) Powering Future Vehicles.                    Available                  at:
http://www.dft.gov.uk/stellent/groups/dft_roads/documents/divisionhomepage/032482.hcsp

Department for Transport. (2005a)           Vehicle Licensing Statistics 2005.    Available at:
http://www.dft.gov.uk/stellent/groups/dft_transstats/documents/page/dft_transstats_611684.hcs
p

Department for Transport. (2005b) Feasibility study on Certification for a Renewable Transport
Fuel                  Obligation.                                  Available               at:
http://www.dft.gov.uk/stellent/groups/dft_roads/documents/page/dft_roads_610366.pdf

Department for Transport. (2006) Promotion and Use of Biofuels in the United Kingdom: UK
Report to European Commission under Article 4 of the Biofuels Directive (2003/30/EC).
Available at:
http://www.dft.gov.uk/stellent/groups/dft_roads/documents/page/dft_roads_611908-
01.hcsp#P24_765

Diesel,     R.      (1912)      What        is         Biodiesel ?         [Online].        Available    at:
http://www.cyberlipid.org/glycer/biodiesel.htm

Energy Saving Trust. (2006a) Refuelling & recharging infrastructure programme. Available at:
http://www.est.org.uk/fleet/funding/infrastructurep/

Energy Saving Trust. (2006b) Refuelling Your Cleaner Vehicle.                 Available at:
http://www.est.org.uk/fleet/refuellingmap/index.cfm?mode=results&Start=1&ty=1&region=SCOT
LAND&fuel_type=4&county=&mapsearch=1&postc=&cty=

Ends Europe Daily. (2006) MEPs Demand EU Ban on Palm Oil Biofuels. Available at:
http://www.endseuropedaily.com/articles/index.cfm?action=article&ref=21774

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European Commission. (2003) COM 2003/30/EC: Directive on the promotion of the use of
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