Gasification of Solid Waste Is this the recipe for by ths54408

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									Gasification of Solid Waste:
Is this the recipe for trash to
           treasure?
         Northwest CERT
       Darren D. Schmidt, P.E.
            April 27, 2006
           Waste to Energy (WTE) –
                Technologies
  Incineration          Gasification                  Pyrolysis




                                                     Less proven than
Proven, viable option   Not proven in US
                                                     gasification
Permitting challenges   High cost
                                                     Potential to produce
Cost challanges         Waste typically segregated
                                                     liquids, fuels
                        Not incineration
                                                     Scale up issues

Plasma Conversion       Anaerobic Digestion          Thermal Depolymerization




Proven, in Japan                                       Turkey offal plant – Con
Westinghouse plasma     Relatively inexpensive         Agra Foods
corporation             Typical for processing         Carthage, Missouri
Higher cost than WTE,   sewage/manure                  Produce fuels / fertilizer
incineration            Landfill gas applications
Good environmental      Relatively proven
performance
                Incineration
•   150 WTE plants 1970 – 1990
•   $10 - $40 million
•   No new plants since 1993, decline to 98
•   8 suppliers
•   13% of all MSW in US incinerated
           Plasma Conversion
• Hitachi Metals Ltd.
• Pilot to full scale
  development
• Yoshii, Japan

•   Commissioned 1999
•   Pilot 24 tons/day
•   Full scale 2002
•   170 tpd MSW & ASR
•   1.8 MW / 8 MW
           What is Gasification?
Air, Heat, Steam, Oxygen


               Thermal            Gas                   Product
 Fuel          Conversion         Conditioning          Gas


                                         Utilization
           Residues                      Boiler/Heat/
           Charcoal                      Engine/
           Condensate                    Generator

Typical Product Gas: CO & H2 – (15% - 30%) each
Combustibles                CH4 – (2% - 10%)
Diluents                    CO2 & N2 – (over 50%)
Contaminants                Particulate, Organics
     Biomass Gasification History
                  Early History
1788 - Robert Gardner obtained the first patent with
   regard to gasification
1840 - First commercially used gasifier was built in
   France.
1878 - Gasifiers were successfully used with engines
   for power generation
1900 - First 600 hp gasifier was exhibited in Paris
1930 - Nazi Germany accelerated effort to convert
   existing vehicles to producer gas drive as part of
   plan for national security and and independence
   from imported oil.
1939 - About 250,000 vehicles were registered in the
   Sweden. Out of them, 90 % were converted to
   producer gas drive. Almost all of the 20,000
   tractors were operated on producer gas. 40 % of
   the fuel used was wood and remainder charcoal
1945 After end of second world war, with plentiful
   gasoline and diesel available at cheap cost,
   gasification technology lost glory and importance
Coal Gasification
       • Large scale, high volume
         production of products and
         power.
       • Relatively mature commercial
         technology.
       • Capital intensive, steam, &
         oxygen inputs.
       • Potential future of coal fired
         power development due to low
         emissions and potential CO2
         recovery.
Coal Gasification Developments
                    (from National Energy Technology Laboratory, C. Taylor)


•   1842 Baltimore Electric Town Gas
•   1887 Lurgi Gasification Patent
•   1910 Coal Gasification Common in U.S. / Europe for Town Gas
•   1940 Gasification of Nature Gas for Hydrogen in the Chemical Industry
•   (Ammonia)
•   1950 Gasification of Coal for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Liquids (Sasol-Sasolburg)
•   1960 Coal Tested as Fuel for Gas Turbines (Direct Firing)
•   1970’s IGCC Studies by U.S. DOE
•   1970 Gasification of Oil for Hydrogen in the Refining Industry
•   1983 Gasification of Coal to Chemicals Plant (Eastman Chemical)
•   1984 First Coal IGCC Demonstration (Coolwater Plant)
•   1990’s First Non-Recourse Project Financed Oil IGCC Projects (Italy)
•   1993 First Natural Gas Gasification F-T Project (Shell Bintulu)
•   1994 NUON/Demkolec’s 253 MWe Buggenum Plant Begins Operation
•   1995 PSI Wabash, Indiana Coal IGCC Begins Operation (DOE CCT IV)
•   1996 Tampa Electric Polk Coal IGCC Begins Operation (DOE CCT III)
•   1997 First Oil Hydrogen/IGCC Plant Begin Operations (Shell Pernis)
•   1998 ELCOGAS 298 MWe Puertollano Plant
•   2003 WMPI IGCC “Polygeneration” Projected Selected (CCPI I)
Cumulative Worldwide Gasification
     Capacity and Growth
 Recent U.S. Biomass Gasification
              Work
• DOE related projects 1990 – 2000, tended to
  focus on large scale processes; Vermont,
  Hawaii, Minnesota IGCC
• Shift to small modular program
• Shift to Biorefinery
• Many related projects 1970 - 1990, but few
  commercial successes.
• Primary success for thermal applications.
EERC’s Approach for Power
       Generation
            Keys to Success
Economic Objectives
• Low Capital
• Simplified Operation
• Automation
• Robustness
• Market Driven
Downdraft Gasification
      Fuel
      Feed

                 Drying
                 Zone
                Pyrolysis   Air Inlet
                Zone
  Combustion
  Zone                         Product
                               Gas
   Reduction
   Zone


               Char -Ash
Other Types of Gasification




Up draft   Cross draft   Down draft
                                                                                                                                           Process
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PF-10 Platform Feeder
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       FE    PT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     AI         TT                                                                                          C-20 Conveyor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       71    71                          AI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                71                                                                                          G-30 Gasifier
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            VS-35 Venturi Scrubber
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            CF-40 Coarse Filter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            FFA-50 Fine Filter Active
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            FFP-60 Fine Filter Passive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            B-70 Blower
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            FL-80 Flare
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            SF-90 Safety Filter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            CT-100 Cooling Tower
                                                                                                                                                        GV-31                                                                                           PT                                                                                  FT 110, 120, 130 Flex-Microturbines

                       Fuel Feed
                                                       PF-10                                                            DI
                                                                                                                                   LT
                                                                                                                                   31                            M-31
                                                                                                                                                                           DO
                                                                                                                                                                                                   HV-40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                AI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A-140 Auger
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A-150 Auger
                                                                                          DO                                                            GV-32
                                                                                                                                                                           DO                                                                                                                                                               T-160 Holding Tank
                                                                                  M-11                                                                                                                                                                                      AI                                                              T-165 Holding Tank
                                                                                                                                                                 M-32
                                                       DO
                                                                                                                  AI
                                                                                                                             TT
                                                                                                                                                                LT                       AI
                                                                                                                                                                                                            HV-60                 FFP-60                                                                                                    P-170 Gasifier Pump
                                                                                                                             30
                                   BX
                                   80
                                          M-10
                                                                       DO                                                                G-30                   30
                                                                                                                                                                           DI                          AI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           PT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            P-180 Scrubber Pump
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            F-190 Filter Coarse
                                    II
                                             DI                                     C-20                                                      AI   PT                 PT        AI
                                                                                                                                                                                         TT
                                                                                                                                                                                                   PT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           70                                   CT-100                      F-200 Filter Fine
                                   80                                                                                                              30                 31                 35                                                                                                                                                 HX-210 Air Fin Heat Exchanger
                                                                   M-20                                                M-33                                                                        40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         HV-51
                               F-80                                                           Air Inlet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                M-70
                                                                                                                                         TT
                                                                                                                                         31
                                                                                                                                                   AI            TT                             CF-40                  HV-50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 TE         TK
                                                                                                     AI
                                                                                                                 PT
                                                                                                                 32
                                                                                                                        FE
                                                                                                                        32
                                                                                                                                                                 32                                                               FFA-50                                                                         100       100
                                                                                                                                                                 AI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          HV-70
                                  HV-80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        B-70                      AI

                                          SF-90        PT
                                                                                                                                                                           VS-35                                                                                                                                                         M-100
                                                                  AI                                                                                                                                                              M-50
                                                       90                                                                                                                                                                                  KC                                                              M-101
                                                                                                                                        M-30                                                                                               50
                                                                                                                                                   KC
                                                                                                                                                   30
                               HV-90
                                                                                     HX-210                                                                                                                                                              PT
                                                                                                                                                                                                 T-165                                                   50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     AI

   AI


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                HV-195
   JT
  130                                                                                             M-140                                                                                                        M-150
                                                                                      II                                                                                                                                     II                                           Overflow / Sewer
  JR                                                                                                                                                    HV-140                  HV-150
                                                                                     140                                                                                                                                    150
  130
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       HV-190      HV-191
  JQ
  130                                                                                    DI                                                                                                                                 DI                                                   Vent
                     FT-110, 120, 130                       AI                                                                    Screen                                                      Screen                                                                                     FV-160
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Make up
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Water                     F-190
                                                            PT                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         HV-200
                                                            110
                                                                                                                        A-140
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         FI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        170
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             T-160                         FI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          180
                                                                                                                                                                                              A-150                                       TT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        HV-160                                     HV-201
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          160
Exhaust

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          AI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      HV-171                                             HV-181                  F-200
                                                            TT                                                                                                                                                                                                        M-170                   M-180
                                                            110


   Check Valve                                              AI
                                                                            FE                            Instrument Letter       Code
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     HV-170
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               P-170                          P-180       HV-180

                                                                            120                           First Letter             Second Letter
   Gate Valve                  Turbine Air                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        II     II
                                                                            PT                            B - Burner               C - Control
                                                  XV-130                                                                                                                                                                                                                         170    180
                                                                            120                           F - Flow                 E - Element
   Float Valve                                                                                            H - Hand                 I - Indicator
                                                                            AI
                                                                                                          I - Current              K - Control Station                                                                                                                            DI     DI
                         Signal to Computer
                                                                                                           J - Power               Q - Totalizer
   Butterfly Valve
                          AI     Analog Input     DI    Discrete Input                                    K - Time                 R - Recorder
                                                                                                          L - Level                T - Transmitter
   Ball Valve             AO     Analog Output    DO    Discrete Output                                   P - Pressure             X - Igniter
                                                                                                           T - Temperature
Experience
                            Benefits
• Waste Utilization
• Operational Savings
    - Electricity & Heat
    - Residue handling/disposal
• Lower Emissions
• No Boiler License Requirement
• Renewable Energy
    - Grants
    - RECs
    - Public Relations
• Typical 2 – 8 year payback

								
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