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									      Differentiated Instruction

For Reading Instruction
   Part One:

Vocabulary Instruction that Makes a Difference!
Of Limited Value…
 Lists alone
 Context alone
 Definitions alone
 Dictionaries and Glossaries alone
 Teacher-selected words alone
            Of Durable Value…
 Words in clusters
 Multiple exposures in various contexts
 Chances to speak, hear, write the words
 Manipulation of forms of words
 Classify and categorize word lists
 Word games
 Student-selected words (differentiation)
        Multiple Exposures
• Connections to other subjects
• Morphology chart: How does the word
  morph into other forms?
• Cumulative use

Use both verbal and non-verbal modes

Make connections to related words
     Selecting a Target Word
• Will be frequently used
• Links to known words
• Can be key to multiple related words
             Concept First
Describe the meaning of the wordconcept)
 to allow students to connect new
 knowledge (the word) to existing
 knowledge (the concept)

“Did you ever…?”
“Well, there’s a name for that. It’s called…”
   Find the word that means…
Middle of page 14: Find the word that means
   “mocking, in a cruel way”
Bottom of page 16: Find the word that
 means “violation of a rule”
Top of page 17: Find the phrase that means
 “became prepared to face hardship”
   Why have students select their own
     words to learn from the text?

                            ironic                          audible

palpable                             weary                 jeering
                      flailing               The Student                   sinuous



 Different levels of familiarity with
                                             Never heard of it,
                                             but I’m interested in it.
Never heard of
it; not                Might know what it means
likely to use it       never used it
if I knew it
                                                  Heard of it;
                                                  don’t know what it means,
                                The Student
                                                  not interested
                       Have used it,
     Never heard of    but not in this
     it, but           context         Heard of it,
     it will be soon                   don’t know what it means,
     be used a lot                      but am interested
     around me
 Tier I Words:                Tier II Words               Tier III Words

                             Language of academics,       Domain-specific
Basic conversational
                              business, government         terminology;
                             “Vocab List” words           “Glossary” words

Ask                                                       Photosynthesis
Dead                                                      Cytoplasm
Name                                                      Metamorphosis
                             Designate; designation;
Find out; figure out                                      Asymmetrical
                              identify, identification
Answer                                                    Bathysphere
                             Ascertain; determine
Rain                                                      Rhetoric
                             Precipitate, precipitation
Use                                                       Deoxyribonucleic acid
                             Utilize; employ
Sharp                                                     Artifact
Get                                                       Habeas corpus
Take apart and put                                        Diaspora
                             Analyze; synthesize
 together                                                 Polysyndeton
balance                                                   Adjective

       Science English                             Everyday English:
1. Which feature best distinguishes one   1. How can we tell the difference between
form of electromagnetic energy from       one form of electromagnetic energy from
another?                                  another?
1. Color                                  1. color
2. Wavelength                             2. wavelength
3. Surface temperature                    3. Temperature at the surface
4. Distance traveled                      4. How far it has traveled

 1. What do all four animals have in       1. How are all four animals the same?
                                           2. Young frogs do not look like adult
                                           Frogs. What name do we give to this
                                           Kind of change?
    Three-Step Demystification
1. Reword the questions into Tier I to understand
the meaning.

2. Go back to the original language (Tier II)
now that you understand it.
Answer the questions.

3. Create your own questions, using Tier II and III.
   Semantic Maps and Charts
Visual representations that create
  associations, deepen, and extend
  word understandings
                                                   Target Word: A word to be used as
                              The Fishing Model
                                                     bait for other words

                                                                    Synonym Set
Notional Set:
                                                  Grammatical Set: The way in
                                                               Antonym Set
(The Neighboorhood)                               which this word is used in a
Other words that go                               sentence; the words that may
with this topic                                   surround it:

   Morphological Set: The other forms
     that this word can take by using suffixes
     and prefixes

    Connotative Set
    Positive, Negative, or Neutral
    Technical/Scholarly or
    Conversational/Informal                                     Etymological Set: Root;
    Metaphorical or Literal                                      combining forms
                The Quadrant Model

                          Complete sentence of at least 12 words:
                          Use an action verb
Breakdown:                Include a visual

 (or combining form)

 Root:                                        Target Word:                   Synonym:___________

 Suffix:                          My guess:        Dictionary                Antonym:___________
                                                   or glossary definition:
Noun form:

Verb form:

Adjective/Adverb form:
   very________            Visual:

     The Tree Model

                                   Geographical Features


  Navigable               Unnavigable               Arable          Not Arable

 Rivers                   Lakes

Creeks      Streams
         Tributaries   Estuaries
            Frayer Model
word or phrase:    definition:

Examples:         Non-Examples
          The Multiple Meaning Model

                 Meaning (for this class)


                 conversational meaning:

Visual:      Sentence   (for this class)

             conversational sentence:
                                               Examples: function,
          The Multiple Meaning Model           property, reaction, origin,
                                               tangent, variable,
                                               solve, mean, graphic,
                                               base, extreme, factor,
                                               fact, imaginary, rational,
                                               Irrational, determine
                       math/science meaning    power, prime, product,
                                               multiple, operation,
   word                                        radical, remainder,
                                               range, regular, proof,
                       conversational meaning: difference, cell, value,
                                               area, cube, root, plot,
                                               complementary, common,
                  math/science sentence:       depression, digit, operation,
                                               frequency,graph, median,
                                               mode, equation, equal,
                                               similar, balance

                   conversational sentence:
The Spider Model

   Target Word
        Morphology Chart
Noun:   Verb:          Adjective     Adverb
The…    He… or They…   Which one?    Where? When?
        or Must… or    What kind?    Why? To what
        To…            How many?     extent? In what
                       The___truck   manner?
              Morphology Kit
Noun-Making     Verb-Making   Adjective-making
Suffixes        Suffixes      suffixes

-ment           -ate          -acious,icious
-ness           -ify          -y
-ation, sion    -ize          -ous, ious
-ity                          -ant
-ism                          -able, ible
-itude                        Adverb-making suffix:
-ence                         -ly
Word Components: Level 1 (usually known in elementary grades)


Word Components: Level 2 (usually known in intermediate grades)


 co-; con-; com-          cent-; milli-; mega-
 syn-; sym-               poly-; multi-
 in-; en- (into)
 sub-; sup-               semi-
 e-                       bio-; geo-; eco-
 a-; ab-
 bi-; tri-; quad-, etc.
  Word Components: Level 3 (usually known in high school)


demi-           nom-
endo-; ecto-    ig-
pro-            muni-
per-            contra-
                            Common Word Roots for Academic Subjects:

                                    Often combine with:
-ject (to throw)
-port (to carry)                    sub-      re-       pro-
-scrip, scribe (to write)           ex-       ob-       per-
-vert, vers (to turn)               de-       a-; ab-   co-
-pos, pon (to place)                con-      e-
-tract (to draw)                    trans-    ex-
-pel, pul (to drive)
-struct (to build)
-grad, gress (to step)
-plic, plex (to fold)
-flic, flex (to bend)               Often end with:
-fic, fac (to make)                 -ive
-miss, mit (to send)                -ation; sion
-sid, sed (to sit)                  -ate
-spec (to see)                      -able; ible
-voc (to call)                      -or
-dict (to say)
-rupt (to break)
                           Common Word Roots for Academic Subjects:

                                   Often combine with:
-cad, -cas,-cid (to fall)
-dyna (force; power)               sub-      re-       pro-
-magn (great; large)               ex-       ob-       per-
-quir, -quis (to seek)             de-       a-; ab-   ne-
-gen (race, kind origin)           con-      e-
-cham, -cam (vault)                trans-    ex-
-cen (to judge)
-doc, -dox (to think)              Often end with:
-greg (to flock)                   -ive
-cau (to burn)                     -ation; sion
-ess, -sent (to exist)             -ate
-close, -clud, -clus (to close)    -able; ible
-mand, -mend (to order)            -or
-junct (to join)                   -ize
-jur, -jus (to swear)              -ence, ance
-lith (stone)                      -ary
    Academic “Flash Phrases”
Phrases that should become immediately
recognizable and meaningful in the subject
area context
                                     I love

                                  Paris in the

                               the springtime

The brain operates for economy of effort (filling in gaps, making assumptions)
    Flash phrases for social studies:
ex post facto     system of         bill of attainder   consent of the
law               checks and                            Congress

respective        reconsideration   Senate and      reprieves and
states                              House of        pardons

judicial power    office of         executive power senators and
                  president                         representatives

raising revenue   regulation of     appropriations      receipts and
                  commerce                              expenditures
   Flash phrases for life science
infrastructure   natural           environmental        extgernal
                 resources         impact study         conditions

ecosystem        fuel-efficient    carbon footprint     biodiversity

homeostatis      ecological        point of stability   components of
                 succession                             the biosphere

carrying capacity photosynthetic   biotic vs. abiotic aquatic
                  organisms                           crustaceans
             Flash phrases for math
least common    multiple          difference of two commutative
multiple        representations   perfect squares property

greatest        logical argument axis of          distributive
common factor                    symmetry         property

common          coherent whole    exponential     acute angle
denominator                       growth

difference      standard          inverse property complement of
between         notation                           a subset
 Generic Academic Flash Phrases:
   Concept: Causes and Effects
stem from     be due to       result from       grow out of

generate      yield           be responsible    provoke

create        favor           promote           generate

derive from   be blamed for   take credit for   lead to
Differentiation for the flash phrases
Create and play word games to reinforce the
 visual cues (www.quia.com;
Create flash cards
Create classroom visuals: mobiles, book
  covers, folders, etc.
     Part Two: Elements of DI
What are some of the key structures of DI?

What do I already do and use?
What we already do:
Content…. Process….. Product
What does DI look like?

   “Content” differentiation
What does DI look like?
What does DI look like?

          “Product” or
       Differentiating Content
Begin with concepts and competencies
  (understandings and abilities)

Decide on acceptable evidence of learning

Decide on specific content
Why Differentiate Content?
        Differentiating Process
Begin with concepts and

Decide on acceptable evidence of

Offer different but appropriate
  modes of learning
Ways to Differentiate Process
Learning Style Choices: Visual, Auditory,
Kinesthetic, Social

Left Brain/ Right Brain preferences

Choices based on temperament:
 Work alone, work in a group, work
holistically, work step-by-step, etc.
   DI for Assessment: Showing
Begin with concepts and

Decide on content

Decide on acceptable
different ways of evidencing
              Depth and Complexity
 Degrees of detail

  Numbers of variables, aspects, factors

  Amount of steps in a procedure

Summarize a story                        Evaluate a story.
                       Analyze a story
               Depth and Complexity
   Degree of abstraction

   Amount of prior knowledge and prior skill required

   Amount of independence expected

Give several examples of        Explain why there is a fire motif
two visual motifs in a film      in R & J
Romeo and Juliet (1996)
Ideas for Differentiating Process &
For visual learners:
                     Create and find drawings

                        Create/Complete graphic organizers

                              Go on field trips

                        Create visuals for the classroom

                          Use technology

                           Create or view cartoons, read graphic novels

         Integrate words with images
  Ideas for Differenting Process &
For auditory learners:               Brainstorm
                                     Discuss, debate
                                     Play or hear music;
                                     Create rhythm,
                                     rhyme, rap

                         Create or hear mnemonic devices
  Ideas for Differenting Process &
For tactile-kinesthetic learners:

                        Role play, do creative dramatics


                        Use manipulatives

                         Associate physical gesture with ideas &
  Ideas for Differenting Process &
For social learners:

                           Use cooperative learning

                           Make presentations to others

                          Create practice tests for peers

                          Tell stories

                       Create and play educational games
  Ideas for Differenting Process &
For technology-oriented learners:
                                    Web Quests, hotlists,

                                    On-line communication

                               Power Point presentations
                              Planning for Differentiation

Concepts &                             Content           Process, Product
 This is the enduring           What students will be     One or more ways for students of
 understanding and/or           reading, seeing, or       varying abilities and interests to
 academic skill that you        doing to learn new        access knowledge or skill and to
 want all students to have.     Information or skills
                                                          demonstrate knowledge or skill

is not differentiated            may be differentiated            may be differentiated
What is appropriate content?                       Gr. 8
What is acceptable evidence of learning?
How can/ why should I create a tri-leveled task?                 I.
EU: Some information is indirectly communicated.

Content: Any story
Work with a partner:
Level 1: Draw a cartoon representing a conversation in the story.
Use thought bubbles to express what the characters are thinking but
 not saying out loud.

Level 2: Identify a conversation in the story in which information
is indirectly communicated and explain why this information is not
directly communicated.

Level 3: Act out a conversation which could happen at any point in the
story in which information is indirectly stated.
What is appropriate content?
What is acceptable evidence of learning?
How can/ why should I create a tri-leveled task?       II.
                EU: Summary: beg, mid, end expressed concisely


Level 1: Identify characters/ setting; Write one sent that is derived from each
of the 3 parts

Level 2: Select any character. Explain how this character changes from the beg,
           to the mid, to the end. (three well-developed sentences)

Level 3:
  Example : Favorite Subject Groups
Concepts &           Acceptable Evidence           Content
Competencies              of Learning
                                                 The Odyssey
Great literature      Students form groups
can be connected      based on their favorite
to other fields of    subjects in school.
learning.                                        The Odyssey
                      Groups discuss how
                      The Odyssey relates
                       their favorite subject.

                      Present to class.
           Differentiating Writing Tasks:

              Less complexity                           More complexity

List                                                                  Evaluate
Define                                                                Compare & Contrast
Describe                                                              Recommend
Identify                                                              Persuade
Put in order                                                          Draw conclusions
                                Apply                                 Make generalizations
Create categories
                                Give examples of
                                Summarize, paraphrase, restate
                                Analyze (take apart + put together)
       An Online Resource
www.filimentality.com: repository for
 Webquests and hotlists (free of charge)
www.quia.com: collection of, and means to
 create, word games (subscription charge)
www.puzzlemaker.com: means to create
 word games and word puzzles (free of
            Fishbowl Story Talk
To discover
universal themes in
books of choice

To converse about literature

To listen attentively to peers
      What Students Do Now:

• Read on their own
• Complete a generic
  study guide
• Take a generic
  reading-check test
     Story-Talks: Inner Circle/
       Outer Circle Set-Up
• Arrange desks in a
  circle or U
• Set up an island for
  the inner circle
• Each student has tent
  card with name of
  story he/she read and
   a visual
      How the Fishbowl Works
• Students take turns
  going into the inner
• Inner circle should be
  a mixed group,
  representing various
• Outer circle also
              Fishbowl Topics
• Setting: Where did the story take
  place? Help us see it.

• Narration: Who is telling us the
  story? Help us know this person.

• Plot: What is the story about?

• Language: What were the most
  important words in the story? What
  new words did you learn?
  The Fishbowl Book Talk Looks Like
              Roll of                             Tom’s        Number
                      The Pearl The Giver
              Thunder                             Cabin        the Stars

Charlotte’s                                                                Charlotte’s
  Web                                                                        Web

                                        Warrior                            The Wind in
                                                                           the Willows
                                                    Tom Sawyer
   Holes                   The Wizard
                             Of Oz
                                                  The Hobbit

                                 The Wind in                                    Roll of
                                 the Willows                                   Thunder
The Giver
     Literature Circles Look Like This:
                   Illustrator                           Illustrator     Symbolism

   Note-                                            Vocabulary
   taker               Vocabulary                   Expert                   Note-
                       Expert                                                taker

                                      Illustrator Vocabulary     Explainer

                                    Explainer      Symbolism

Same book, different roles                 Note-
      Tic-Tac-Toe (aka Choice Boards) ELA
Choose 2 characters from        Write or tell a different      Draw 3 comic strip frames
 your book. With a                 ending to your story.          that illustrate a key
    partner, script a scene                                       moment in your book.
    from a key moment in
    the story.
(Kinesthetic, social, verbal-   (verbal-linguistic)            (verbal-linguistic, spatial,
    linguistic)                                                    visual)

Draw a cover for the book       Make a chart of                Turn a significant event of
   that would attract              significant                    the book into a poem
   people to read it.            amounts and                      or song.
                                   measurements in the
                                   story and explain how
                                   each of these fits into
                                   the meaning of the          (musical-rhythmic,
(spatial, visual)                  story.                      verbal-linguistic)
                                (mathematical, verbal-
Make a timeline that            Make a list of hand-held       Retell part of the book in
    sequences 10                    items in the story and        the form of a rebus
    important events in             explain how each was
    the story.                      used and by whom.
(spatial-mathematical,          (tactile, verbal-linguistic,   (verbal-linguistic, visual)
visual, verbal-linguistic)          visual)
 Tic-Tac-Toe (aka Choice Boards) Social Studies
Choose 2 key people who         Make a flow chart that           Draw 3 comic strip frames
shaped this event. With a          illustrates the                  that illustrate a key
    partner, script a scene        conditions that led to           moment in this event..
    from a key moment in           this event. Explain the
    the event.                     significance of each
(Kinesthetic, social, verbal-      condition.                    (verbal-linguistic, spatial,
    linguistic)                                                      visual)

Draw a cover for the book       Make a chart of                  Express the event in the
   that would attract              significant statistics in        form of a poem or
   people to read about            the event and explain            song.
   this event.                     how each of these fits
                                   into the conditions
                                   and meaning of the
                                   event..                       (musical-rhythmic,
                                (mathematical, verbal            verbal-linguistic)
(spatial, visual)                  linguistic)
Make a timeline that            Make a list of hand-held             Retell the in the form of a
    places this event it its         items that were                     rebus.
    historical context (5            significant in the event
    before; 5 after)                 and explain how each
(spatial-mathematical,               was used and by                 (verbal-linguistic, visual)
visual, verbal-linguistic)           whom.
                                (tactile, verbal-linguistic, visual)
          Tic-Tac-Toe (aka Choice Boards)
(Kinesthetic, social,
verbal-linguistic)                                          (verbal-linguistic, spatial,
                             (verbal-linguistic)            visual)

                             (mathematical, verbal-
(spatial, visual)                                           (musical-rhythmic,

(spatial-mathematical,       (tactile, verbal-linguistic,
visual, verbal-linguistic)   visual)                        (verbal-linguistic, visual)
Choice Board
                    Where do I need help?
Understanding the parts   Organizing           Writing the Introduction
of the question

Writing the Conclusion    Vocabulary           Development

Time Management           Spelling, Grammar,   Other
(meeting deadlines)       Capitalization
Provide graphic organizers
Provide list of suggested words/phrases      Assessment Implications:
Provide key sentences and structures
Provide an outline or partial outline        Students give up a certain
                                             number of points in exchange
Extended time                                for support ?
Work with a partner
Use of notebook                              Students allowed decreasing
Use textbook or other resources              levels of support as the year
Student-created study cards                  progresses ?

                       Scaffolding: Providing necessary support
  Informational text              Literary Text

Language: Technical terms          Poetic language
                                   Reader expected to infer
 Organization:                     indirect meanings
    Sequential                   Narrative mixed with description
    Logical ordering             “Anything can happen”
    Cause and effect
 Facts, processes, procedures,   Story of human experience;
 rules, theorems                 plot, theme, description
Textual Features (appearance)
                                 Few pictures, chapter headings
 Diagrams, tables, charts,
 visual cues to main ideas
                              Cornell Notes (aka: 3 column notes)
Learn to create meaning from text:

 Formulate a question      Write phrases that                      Formulate sentences that
 that you think the text   help to answer the                      answer the question.
 answers:                  question.

                                                Let time elapse.
            Reading Material
Least Effective:           Most Effective:
• Texts with controlled    • Authentic texts
vocabulary                 • Classroom libraries
• Worksheets with          • Suggestions for
“recall level” questions     extended reading
• Abridgements             • School-to-home
                           • Audiotapes
    Scope of Reading Material
Least Effective:         Most Effective:
• Bland                  • Multicultural
• Inauthentic (watered     perspectives
  down; reworded;        • Quality non-fiction as
  expurgated)             well as fiction
                         • Wide range of genres
                         • Likely to engage and
                          interest students
        Groupings of Students
Least Effective:         Most Effective:
• Fixed ability groups   • Whole class
• Pull out instruction   • Changeable groups
                         • Independent,
                         • Groups by interest
                           and choice
      Instructional Approaches
Least Effective:         Most Effective:
• Scripted               • Student-generated
• Strategies and skill     topics and questions
 lessons that connect    • Free choice reading
 to inauthentic text     • Scaffolding toward
   (“exercises”)           independence
                         • Strategies and skill
                           lessons connected to
                           immediate need
     Comprehension Builders
Least Effective:       Most Effective:
• Responses to         • Student-generated
  external questions     questions
• Recall questions     • Thematic questions
                       • Approach to reading
                         as process (before,
                         during, after)
                       • Development of
    Vocabulary Development
Least Effective:       Most Effective:
• Lists of unrelated   • Clusters
  words                • Spelling as a window
• Lack of                to word connections
  connectedness from   • Meaningful use;
  subject to subject     varied contexts
• Fill-in-the-blanks   • Domain-specific and
                         vernacular meanings
              Student Role
Least Effective:         Most Effective:
• Do assigned reading,   • Choice of reading
  answer shallow           selections
  questions              • Choice of assessment
                         • Constructed response
                         • Social interaction
                           around literacy
                         • Risk-taking
 SSR (Sustained Silent Reading)
20 minute sessions
Twice- three times weekly
More than one year
Student choice
No formal accountability
Wide choice of reading materials
               Spelling Board
Rules and Regs Rhythm & Reps Air-Writing

                   Patterns &    X-word puzzles;
Color-coding      Partnerships   Word finds;
                 Exaggerated     Working with a
Mnemonics        pronunciation   spelling partner
                             APPLIES RESEARCH ON

USES MOTIVATIONAL                                      USES RESEARCH-
                         TEACHER BEHAVIORS
STRATEGIES                                             BASED STRATEGIES

                               THE STRATEGIC
                                                             Includes small group

 PRE-                        Explicit Instruction
 POST-                   :
 STRATEGIES                              Scaffolding;          Models literacy
              Time for        Think-
                                         Gradual release       strategies
              practice        alouds
                                         of responsibility
Intermediate and Secondary
      School Reading
 How reading expectations change
        after fourth grade
              The Read-O-Meter
                        Pre 20C Text
                        Technical Language
                        Polysyllabic words
                        Long sentences
                        Small print
                        Unfamiliar subject
                        Abstract ideas
                        No, few, or complex
                        graphics         Apply Reading

                                        Adjust pace
                                        Adjust environment

Slightly Demanding                Highly Demanding
     Readability Assessment
• Read one page of textbook, timing
  yourself (reading slowly)
• Compose 5 basic comprehension
 Readability of Your Major Text
1. Have students read the page, timing
  themselves carefully.

2. Students answer the 5 questions.

3. Following the timed reading and the 5
  questions, students write words from the
  text that they didn’t understand.
        Assessing Readability

                      Read at your pace, or
                      slightly slower

                      One or two comprehension

                      Fewer than five unknown
                       words                  Read at your pace
Read significantly                             or faster
 slower than you do
                                              No comprehension \
More than two comprehension                    errors
                                              One or two unknown
Five or more unknown words                     words
Reading Supports/Enrichments

  Support           Enrichment
  Needed            recommended
• Provide more visuals

• Provide pre-reading
• Provide guiding
• Establish a purpose
  for reading
• Pronounce unfamiliar
Online Reading Lab


  Another Online Reading Lab


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