Proposal of LAKE SHASTA CAVERNS
Potential National Natural Landmark
An example of
SOUTHERN CASCADE Region
Matthew W. Doyle
Lake Shasta Caverns
John L. Winther
Lake Shasta Caverns
20359 Shasta Caverns Road
Lakehead, CA 96051
Potential NNL Site Proposal
(Provide a site identify the physiographic region and category of natural, refer to site proposal guidelines which provide a
description and map of physiographic regions, and classification schemes for geologic and(or) ecologic features.)
1. Site Name: LAKE SHASTA CAVERNS
2. State: CALIFORNIA
3. County: SHASTA
4. Physiographic Region: SOUTHERN CASCADE REGION
5. Category of Feature: GEOLOGICAL
1. Name: MATTHEW W. DOYLE / JOHN L. WINTHER
2. Title: GENERAL MANAGER / OWNER
3. Organization: LAKE SHASTA CAVERNS
4. Street Address 1 20359 SHASTA CAVERNS ROAD
5. Street Address: 2
6. City: LAKEHEAD
7. State: CALIFORNIA
8. tel: 530-238-2341
9. fax: 530-238-2386
10. email: ShastaCav@aol.com
Submitter’s experience with proposed site / knowledge relating to the particular features at
(Note the experience and qualifications of the person(s) submitting the site proposal – degrees, docent experience, natural resource
management, industry experience, and teaching – as applicable. Submitters should describe specific experience with the site – field
classes, field trips associated with professional meetings, resource management, docent work, owner-manager, etc.)
John L. Winther
President and owner of the company, has been involved in the overall operations of the company
since before it was opened to the public in 1964. Recognizing that he owns a national treasure,
John wants to make sure that Lake Shasta Caverns is perpetually protected and believes that the
NNL program will assist in this pursuit. He has a B. S. in civil engineering (1961) and an MBA
(1963). He was involved in the development of our Underground Classroom program, and has
been involved in our effort to provide a nature oriented approach to our guests overall experience
at Lake Shasta Caverns. He is also the President and owner of Delta Wetlands, a California
Corporation involved in the development of over 9000 acres of wetland dependant wildlife
species habitat in the Delta area of California.
Matthew W. Doyle
He has been an employee of Lake Shasta Caverns since January 2001. After being promoted to
General Manager in 2003, he has continued the process of caring for the cave. Obtaining
intimate knowledge of the cave from tremendous amounts of time spent in it, Matthew has
realized the importance of this particular underground resource. His management of the
proposed site includes, but is not limited to, Natural Resource Management, Logistical
Operations, day-to-day operations and promoting the significance of Lake Shasta Caverns to its
patrons, both foreign and local. He also oversees the Underground Classroom, a project started
by the company in 2001. Over 11,000 students have attended since its inception and
encompasses a large number of schools located in Northern California.
(Create a map showing the location of the proposed NNL in relation to highways, roads, cities, towns, prominent peaks, drainages,
etc., as appropriate, and below provide a narrative description of the site location based on this map. All locations mentioned in
this description should be identified on the location map.)
Lake Shasta Caverns is located on the east side of the McCloud arm of Shasta Lake
approximately 2 miles north of the McCloud and Pitt arm confluence. The natural entrance of
the caverns is located approximately 1950 feet above sea level (or 800 feet above full crest of
Shasta Lake) on the southwestern side of North Gray Rocks.
Parcel description: Southwest Quarter of the Southwest Quarter of Section 13, Township 34
North, Range 4 West.
Cave man made entrance GPS coordinates: North 40° 47.840, West 122° 16.669; Elevation
Cave man made exit GPS coordinates: North 40° 47.827, West 122° 16.607; Elevation 1905
Map and Photo References:
• Figure 1
• Figure 2
• Figure 3
• Figure 4
• Figure 5
• Map 1
• Map 2
• Map 3
USGS Quadrangles (list the names of maps that include the proposed area):
• 1:24,000: O’BRIEN, 665-4
• 1:100,000: REDDING
• 1:250,000: REDDING
(Describe the main vehicle routes to the area, note the locations of trailheads. Note any areas having restricted access or locked
gates, and contact information for making arrangements to visit the property.)
Lake Shasta Caverns is located approximately 17 miles north of Redding, California via
Interstate 5. From exit 695/Shasta Caverns Road, there is a county maintained road leading to
the Lake Shasta Caverns’ ticket counter and ferry landing. Upon purchase of a ticket visitors are
taken across the lake, by boat, to the east side of the McCloud arm of Shasta Lake. Once Patrons
have reached the east side of the McCloud arm, they are taken up a 2 mile road to the entrance of
the caverns for completion of the tour.
A smaller ticket booth and gift store is located on the eastern side of the arm. This allows the
purchase of tickets by those who arrive by their own watercraft.
Guided tours are given of the cave through out the year. When the cave is not being toured both
the entrance and exit are secured with locking steel doors deter vandalism and undesired air
circulation. The only key holder is Lake Shasta Properties, Inc. D.b.a. Lake Shasta Caverns.
Lake Shasta Caverns’ brochure gives further insight to ticket purchase locations. (See Figure 2)
(If known, describe the ownership pattern of the proposed area in relation to the extent of the significant natural feature(s). If
available, list contact information for owners and land managers. A map showing parcels and suggested perimeter of the area may
be attached but is not required.)
The original recorded ownership of the area in which Lake Shasta Caverns is located was by the
Central Pacific Railroad. This was deeded to the railroad by the United States Government.
W.C. Bruson, an agent for the Central Pacific Railroad, had sold this land to Cora L. Moxley in
1905. Upon Cora Moxley’s death in 1935, a portion of the estate was sold to a Mr. Wood and a
Mr. Gerard. Lake Shasta Caverns, known as the Baird Caves at this time, was carved out of the
estate and sold to Grace M. Tucker in 1944. In 1960 Mrs. Tucker interested Roy, Glenn, and
Edward Thompson in the development of the cave system as a show cave. Lake Shasta
Properties, Inc. was the corporation formed by the alliance. The Thompson brothers bought and
obtained full rights from Grace Tucker in 1960. Presently John L. Winther and wife Patricia
Winther are the sole owners.
(Briefly describe the overall setting of the area in terms of the geography, geology, ecology and climate, or other physical
environmental factors relating to the natural feature. For example, the setting of coastal sites might include discussion of ocean
currents; some landforms may reflect climatic influences as well as regional tectonics; inland wetlands situated along fault zones
should discuss geologic structure and hydrology, etc. In essence, summarize the context for the occurrence of significant natural
The Klamath Mountain Belt is estimated to be around 250 million years old. The primary
mineral located within the proposal site is Limestone; a sedimentary deposit. Volcanic activity is
noticeable in the area with Mt. Shasta to the north and Mt. Lassen to the southeast. Topsoil in
the area is rust colored due to large amounts of iron oxide within the soil.
As Pangaea (the super continent during the Permian period) started to separate during the late
Jurassic period the subduction of the tectonic plates started to ripple much of the western coast of
North America, forming many of the mountain ranges we see in California. Build of sediment
was also taking place at this time due to this mountain belt being submerged under a Jurassic
Pacific Ocean. As millions of years passed soil eroded, sea level dropped and smaller faults
formed, allowing ideal conditions for development of these caverns within North Gray Rocks.
An aerial view of North Gray rocks can be seen in Figure 4.
Extent of Significant Natural Feature(s) and Suggested Perimeter
(Using a USGS topographic map as a base map, delineate the extent of the key natural feature(s) and a suggested perimeter of the
area proposed as a potential NN. Below, explain how this perimeter is defined. Explain any differences between suggested
perimeter and extent of the key natural feature.)
Due to the nature of caves being subterranean, it is suggested that the property parcel in which
the cave is located to be the proposal site. Unfortunately there have been no actual property line
surveys completed as a result of the extreme topography. On the enclosed maps the property
lines have been transposed onto the USGS topographic maps. Also the approximate property
lines have been delineated in one of the included aerial photographs. As for the cave itself a
Brunton and Tape survey is provided for clarification of subterranean content.
• Map 1
• Map 2
• Map 3
• Figure 3
• Figure 4
• Figure 5
• Figure 6
Characterization of the Natural Feature and Its Regional Context
(Define the type of natural feature represented at the site, applying the classification systems for geologic and ecologic processes
and features used by the NNL Program. Briefly characterize the natural feature, in general, as it occurs throughout the
physiographic region, noting the various components that typically are represented with the particular feature. Note regional
distribution or other occurrences, if known. Regional characterization and distribution should be in the context of physiographic
regions applied by the NNL Program.)
Lake Shasta Caverns is a superior example of a karst terrain landform, which is still active and
growing. Initial formation started with the upheaval of the mountain in which it is located.
Natural faulting allowed for fissures to form, in various sizes, within the limestone rock.
Portions of this faulting are evident in several rooms of this particular cave system. These
fissures allowed for the basis of the cave formation. As rain traveled through the atmosphere and
soil layer rich in decaying vegetation, it collected carbon dioxide (CO2) and formed a weak
carbonic acid (H2CO3). Calcite, the major mineral found in limestone, is soluble in weak acids.
As the carbonic acid continued through the limestone it dissolved the calcite in the limestone
creating a calcium bicarbonate solution. The erosion allowed for the enlargement of the
fissures until they become distinctive “rooms.” As time progressed the water table within the
mountain dropped and was replaced by oxygen. As the solution of entered these “rooms” it was
able to vent carbon dioxide, simply reversing the process of becoming a solution. During the
loss of carbon dioxide, calcite was released from the solution, allowing the calcite to affix itself
to rock or previous calcite deposits. As the deposits continued they started to form a speleothem.
This process remains active to this day.
To date, there have been eight rooms open for public viewing (See Figure 6: Discovery,
Thompson, Dome, Crystal [aka Lake Room], Basement, Richardson, Popcorn, and Cathedral
Rooms). Each one of these rooms offers diverse varieties of speleothem as well as an insight to
different stages of cave development.
Caves are an important component of the Southern Cascades physiographic region. Many of the
caves in the region are lava tubes associated with large lava flows. A few are large limestone
caves, and the most significant development of limestone caves is in the Lake Shasta area.
Within the Lake Shasta area there are a number of small caves and three important larger cave
systems that are geologically and hydrologically complex systems. These caves are Lake Shasta
Caverns, Potter Creek Cave, and Samwel Cave. Of the three, the largest and most complex cave
system is Lake Shasta Caverns, and for this reason it is being nominated for National
Natural Landmark Status. Additionally, new passages were discovered in Lake Shasta Caverns
during development of the cave as a show-cave, and cave formations in these areas are in nearly
The geologic complexity of the caves in the Lake Shasta region is shown by the attached
stereogram sketches of Stone Man Cave (now Lake Shasta Caverns) and Samwel Cave (Figures
24 & 25). Both were sketched in the 1950s by Arthur Lange, an early California speleologist.
The stereograms provide a vertical perspective of the cave systems. The stereogram of Lake
Shasta Caverns predates the discovery of several deeper chambers in the cave. The stereogram
of Lake Shasta Caverns is from the Ray deSaussure library archives, American Cave
Conservation Association. The stereogram of Samwel Cave was published in Treganza (1964).
Contrasts to Local Caves:
Although there are a few cave systems within the physiographic region, Lake Shasta Caverns
would be the best candidate for proposal. Lake Shasta Caverns simply represents the best choice
from a geologic and hydrologic perspective. In addition, preservation and great care has been
implemented in all aspects of the operations to preserve this unique environment.
Two of the closest caves, Potter Creek and Samwel, have been known for their paleontological
and archeological values. However many excavations through out the years have removed most,
if not all, materials. These caves have formed in the same manner as Lake Shasta Caverns, with
evident similarities such as location and vertical extent. Nevertheless these caves lack the size
and ornamentation found in Lake Shasta Caverns. Currently both of theses caves are closed to
the public, except for permission by the local Department of Forestry.
Oregon Caves would be another comparable cave. Once again both Oregon Caves and Lake
Shasta Caverns are very much the same in vertical and solution development. The largest
difference between the two caves is climate. The Oregon Caves are close in proximity of the
coast. This of course would mean higher humidity and cooler mean temperatures. Lake Shasta
Caverns is located in the foothills just north of the Sacramento Valley, resulting in drier air and
higher mean temperatures. There are also noticeable differences in latitude as well as elevation
between the two caves. Due to unavailability of precise maps at the time of this proposal, the
submitters are unsure of whether or not Oregon Caves are located in the same physiographic
Theses caves are in no doubt comparable to the proposed site. On the other hand the submitters
of this proposal feel that Lake Shasta Caverns truly is the best representative of a solutional
limestone cave in this physiographic region, warranting further study and possible acceptance as
a National Natural Landmark. This is not only for the size and ornamentation, but for its
capability of remaining a highly pristine environment, uncommon for the developed caves within
Site Description: Significant Natural Features
(Describe the significant natural features at the proposed site with particular attention to addressing NNL significance criteria:
Primary criteria of illustrative character and present condition; and Secondary criteria of diversity, rarity, and value for science and
education. Detail the various components that together contribute to the illustrative character of the natural feature. For example,
features relating to recent alpine glaciations will comprise both erosional and deposition landforms at a variety of scales, from the
outcrop to map scale. Note specific areas where features are particularly well-illustrated, such as outcrops illustrating a geologic
relationship, process, or landform. or areas where characteristic associations or transitions in biotic communities are well-
represented – preferably, present a map identifying the locations of these areas. This site description should be accompanied by
photographs, illustrations and maps that illustrate the natural features and define their location. Species lists provided for biotic
communities should be presented in an appendix.)
Lake Shasta Caverns has proven to be a superior cave system within the local terrain and
represents an ideal environment for study of karst environments due to the large diversity of
speleothem or “cave formations.” The colors of the formations contain a wide variety of colors.
This is the cause of mineral pigments and its variability in water. There is a heavy concentration
of iron oxide within the surrounding area, resulting in many of the deep browns observed within
the cave. The following speleothem are found in Lake Shasta Caverns along with its formation
mechanisms and description.
• Tubular stalactites – (Figures 7 & 8) Commonly referred to as “soda straws.” These
formations take shape as a drop of water leaves a bathtub ring as it leaves the surface that
it is suspended from. Drop by drop calcite is deposited in rings creating a hollow tub.
• Stalactites – (Figures 7, 9 & 10) As tubular stalactite progresses the tube exit will become
blocked. Looking for another path the calcite laden water will start to seep on the outside
of the formation. As the water continues to flow it deposits calcite. Eventually a
stalactite forms appearing much like an icicle.
• Deflected stalactites – (Figure 11) These stalactites are formed in the same manner
however gravity deflects the flow of water in a uniform fashion. This formation will
resemble a normal stalactite except with a noticeable lean or curvature.
• Cave Drapery – (Figures 7, 12 & 17) Commonly referred to as Cave Bacon, this feature
is formed much like a stalactite. However gravity pulls the water to one side of the
tubular stalactite. As it continues a drapery blade develops and may have numerous
folds. A range of pigmentation variations are caused by dissimilar impurities within the
solution. Due to its appearance with folds and varying shades of color it represents that of
a bacon rind, hence the name.
• Stalagmites – (Figure 9) On the receiving end of the water dispersed by stalactites, these
formations grow upwards. As water splashes on the ground calcite is deposited.
Stalagmites usually form underneath stalactites and have a splash cup located on the
topmost portion of the mound. Typically faster flowing water results in larger
stalagmites due to larger amounts of calcites not being consumed by stalactites.
• Splattermites – (Figure 13) Although an informal name for this speleothem, it is very
descriptive towards its formation. A splattermite is a peculiar form of stalagmite in
which small plates protrude from the central axis of the formation. These plates are
caused by high velocity of water colliding with the formation, creating a splash, and high
rate of calcite precipitation of the water droplets. These speleothem occur only in
sections of the cave that have high ceilings and where the water has high concentrations
of carbon dioxide.
• Column – (Figures 8 & 14) Columns are formed when stalagmites and stalactites meet,
creating a single formation. With its hourglass shape this speleothem seems to support
• Flowstone – (Figures 9, 14, 15 & 17) Flowstone is formed by a consistent flow of water
over an existing rock surface. Calcite is deposited in a fairly uniform fashion resulting in
what resembles a blanket.
• Canopy – (Figure 15) A canopy is a different form of flowstone. This feature occurs
when flowstone encounters a bedrock shelf or other cavity. As the flowstone continues
to grow over the cavity, stalactites will start to form with the absence of an attachable
surface. The ending result would be comparable to a table cloth and a table in
• Helectites – (Figures 7, 8, 9, 14 and 16) Although this formation is rare, Lake Shasta
Caverns contains numerous fields of helectites. These speleothem are created by
capillary action and hydrostatic pressure. As canals form in the rock water is pushed
through tubes. These tubes tend to grow and are noticeable by their twisted appearance.
Their crooked shapes derive from a number of factors:
o Impurities in the calcite
o Different shapes of crystal which can cause an uneven distribution
o A central capillary channel becomes blocked during a dry period. When the flow
resumes water will take the path of least resistance, sometimes creating a new
o Air current will sometimes direct the growth of helectites. Noticeable when a
field is leaning or pointing in a certain direction.
• Shelf stone – (Figure 17) Shelf stone is evidence of a pool which remained constant for a
long period of time. It is created where the water surface meets room walls and/or other
formations. When the calcite solution flows off of the wall/formation sometime it will
remain suspended on the water’s surface. As time progresses the suspended material will
mineralize and harden creating a shelf. As the water table drops the shelf remains intact.
In the Discovery room of Lake Shasta Caverns there are a number of shelfstone rings
surrounding the room, indicating different water table levels.
• Rim stone Dams - (Figure 18) In addition to shelfstone, rim stone dams also appear in the
Discovery Room. However the best examples are located in the Crystal Room. In
certain circumstances calcite can be deposited on the edges of a stream of water. This is
caused by turbulence of the solution which releases carbon dioxide, similar to that of
shaking a can of soda, and thus depositing calcite. In various cases the calcite rim will
eventually encircle the perimeter of the stream, and creating a dam.
• Cave pearls – (Figure 18 & 21) These rare pearls are formed in pools of water in which
the water is consistently refreshed. As a piece of very small rock or grit falls into this
pool of water the calcite attaches to the surface of the foreign object. As new water flows
into the pool, bringing rich calcite laden water, the particle is tumbled. This allows for
deposition of calcite to all surfaces of the material as well as keeping the material
detached from the pool floor. A finish product will look very much like that of a pearl,
spherical in shape.
• Breakdown – (Figure 19) There are two forms of breakdown represented in Lake Shasta
Caverns. The smaller version found in this cavern is known as Peanut brittle stretching
several feet. It forms as a continuation of shelfstone. When water remains pooled long
enough the entire surface of the water will become coated with calcite and continue to
grow. As the water underneath eventually percolates into the rock the layer of calcite
remains suspended. Under certain conditions the calcite will collapse under its own
weight, breaking into sheets. As a result of the high iron oxide content giving the calcite
in Lake Shasta Caverns a brownish color the breakdown material resembles peanut
brittle. On a more massive scale the Dome Room of Lake Shasta Caverns represents
another type of breakdown. In this instance one room may form on top of another room.
As in The Peanut Brittle above, the floor will eventually collapse under its own weight.
In this case the collapsed section spans about 30 feet in diameter. The date of collapse is
assumed to be thousands of years ago, measured by the amount flowstone accumulated
on the breakdown material.
• Shields – (Figure 20) formed in much the same manner as a helectite. The only variant is
that instead of forming through a capillary tube, it is formed through a hairline fracture in
the rock. As the hydrostatic pressure pushes the water out, an upward facing shield starts
to grow. Although not very large, presences of these speleothem are none the less
evident within the cave system.
• Dogtooth Spars – (Figure 20) Common among calcite formation are Dogtooth Spars. It
is simply a scalenohedron crystal formed from calcite. The dipyramid shape resembles
that of a dogtooth, thus resembling its name.
• Box work – (Figure 21) Found in small areas within the cave, this speleothem’s
construction differs slightly form other formations. The development of box work takes
place in hairline fissures and cracks within the bedrock. Usually this rock is a harder
material than limestone, typically dolomite. As the water flows through the fissures
calcite is deposited in veins. As erosion and weathering continue the bedrock is worn
away leaving the resilient calcite veins. As the veins intersect one another at various
angles they form boxes.
• Rafts – (Figure 22) Located in small pools through out the cave, these rafts are actually
suspended calcite sheets. Rafts form as calcite crystals attach themselves on top of the
water. They are supported by the surface tension of the water. If the raft continues to
grow and maintain its integrity, a shell can remain even after the supporting water no
longer remains. This shell is then has the potential for breakdown, creating Peanut
• Cave Coral – (Figure 23) This is another example one of the formations in Lake Shasta
Caverns that is formed under the water. Also known as cave popcorn, can form in one of
two ways, sub-aqueous and sub-aerial. The cave coral found in Lake Shasta Caverns was
found to be sub-aqueous due to shelf stone formations located above the coral. The
process of formation is similar to that of making rock candy. Cave coral is produced
from water super saturated with calcite. At a given temperature a solution starts to lose
its ability to maintain certain minerals in a solution. When this occurs calcite will start to
precipitate and deposit itself as a botryoidally (grape-like) shaped speleothem.
Though many of these formations will be found in many other caves it is extremely rare to find
such a variety of speleothem in one cave. Upon conversion of the cave to a commercial show
cave, great care was taken minimize human intrusion as possible. Concrete walkways and
stainless steel guard rails have been installed to clearly identify the intended path of travel, as
well as deterring unwanted exploration. Two lockable, self-closing steel doors have been
installed not only to protect from theft and vandalism, but also serve as air dams. It is clear that
Lake Shasta Properties remains intent on continued preservation of this cavern.
Continued education and awareness of caverns have also been implemented at Lake Shasta
Caverns. In 2001 Lake Shasta Caverns started the Underground Classroom. Since its inception
the caverns has had well over 11,000 students attend the class. Students have come as far as
Sacramento, San Francisco, Northern California Coast, Southern Oregon and even Japan. The
classroom consists of in class assignments which are provided by Lake Shasta Caverns. Upon
arrival students are given a unique tour of the caves. The curriculum emphasizes the formation
and preservation of caves. Also within the curriculum is an allotted amount of time in which
students participate in activities that take place inside the caverns. The activities include a fossil
dig, speleothem matching game, and a closely supervised climbing activity. The Underground
Classroom is designed for second grade to sixth grade students. The cavern also gives
educational tours for high school and college students, stressing the same information given in
the underground classroom.
Lake Shasta Caverns also provides a protective habitat for Hydromantes Shastae. The Shasta
Salamander, as it is commonly referred to, is a state listed in 1971 as a threatened species.
Fortunately there are many areas in the cave that are closed, allowing this species to thrive in
secluded areas. This plethodontid salamander becomes active during the night as well as fall,
winter and spring rainfall. Breeding takes place during the summer in limestone shelters near
mud and small pools of water. Although the diet of these salamanders have not been studied, it
is believed that they consume centipedes, spiders, termites, beetles and larval flies; all of which
are found in or near the caves themselves. To date this species is endemic to the Shasta lake
region and contain only 12 populations. However there have been sightings of the salamanders
four miles south of Lake Shasta Caverns, as well as several sightings of the salamander within
Lake Shasta Caverns by reputable employees. Other species that populate the property can be
found in the enclosed Wildlife Inventory (Attachment 1)
(Provide a list of references relating to the area. These should include articles from scientific journals, books relating to the natural
feature (particularly if a feature is cited in a book as an example). Copies of key journal articles relating to the natural feature are
welcomed; please list these under attachments. Examples of bibliographic format are provided below. )
Alvarez, W. “Classification of Solution Cleavage in Pelagic Limestone.” v. 6, p 263-266
Furlong, E.L. 1903. University of California Public Bulletin; Department of Geology.
v.4, no 8
Hajna, Nadja Zupan. 2003. “Incomplete Solution: Weather of Cave Walls and the Production,
Transportation and Deposition of Carbonate Fines”
Merriam, John Charles. 1903. University of California Public Bulletin; Department of
Archeology & Ethmol. “Recent Cave Exploration in California.” v. 2, no. 1
Miller, Loye. 1911. University of California Public Bulletin; Department of Geology. v 6, pg
Moore, George and Sullivan Nicholas. “Speleology Caves and Cave Environments.”
Powell, Richard L. 1970. A guide to the selection of limestone caverns and springs in the
United States as National Landmarks. Indiana Geological Survey contract report for the
National Park Service. 292p.
Sinclair, John. 1903. University of California Public Bulletin; Department of Geology. Vol 6.
Treganza, Aden E. 1964. An ethno-archaeological examination of Samwel Cave. Cave Studies
No. 12. 29p.
White, William B. “Geomorphology and Hydrology of Karst Terrains.”
Yevjevich, Vujca. “Karsts Water Research Needs.”
(Author unknown). 1906 American Anthropologist. v. 8, no 2 April-June
(Author unknown). 1997. California Geology Magazine
- 10 -
(Author unknown). 1941. Science Magazine. v. 94, no 2444, p. 414
California Department of Fish and Game website, “California’s Plants and Animals Accessed
Hydromantes Shastae. Shasta Salamander. 2000-2006. 1/1/2006.
A024. California Wildlife Habitat Relationship System. S. Morey. 1/3/06.
Under Earth Graphics. Virtual Cave. Dave Burnelle. 1/15/06.
(Number all photographs, illustrations, aerial photography, page-size maps, and any other graphics, sequentially as they are
referenced in the text. List these figures and provide detailed captions.)
Figure 1 - Shasta County Assessor’s Map; Book 85, Page 31
Figure 2 – Lake Shasta Cavern’s Brochure
Figure 3 – Eastern aerial Photograph
Figure 4 – Northeastern Ariel Photograph
Figure 5 – Cave Entrance and Exit Aerial Close-up
Figure 6 – Brunton and Tape Survey
Figure 7 – Tubular Stalactites, Drapery and Helectites
Figure 8 – Tubular Stalactites
Figure 9 – Various Speleothem in Discovery and Fill-in Rooms
Figure 10 – Stalactites in Thompson Room
Figure 11 – Deflected Stalactites
Figure 12 – Cave Drapery in Cathedral Room
Figure 13 - Splattermites
Figure 14 – Various Columns
Figure 15 – Flow Stone and Canopies
Figure 16 - Helectites
Figure 17 – Discovery Room Speleothem
Figure 18 – Rim Stone Dam and Pearls
Figure 19 – “Peanut Brittle” Breakdown
Figure 20 – Shield and Dog Tooth Spar
Figure 21 – Pearls and Box Work
Figure 22 - Raft
- 11 -
Figure 23 – Cave Coral or Cave “Popcorn”
Figure 24 – Stereogram of “Stone Man Cave” (Lake Shasta Caverns)
Figure 25 - Stereogram of Samwel Caverns
(List any oversize maps provided. Page-size maps should be listed under “Figures” )
Map 1 – National Geographic/USGS Map
Scale 1 : 30,750
Map 2 –Shasta-Trinity National Forests
Scale 1 : 126,720
Map 3 – Modified USGS map for use by USDA Forest Service
Scale 1 ; 24,000
(List any appendices provided.)
(List any copies of reference materials provided with the site proposal. Copies of publications describing the natural features of an
area (e.g. plant and wildlife inventories, geologic maps, articles published in scientific journals, interpretive brochures, books),
particularly those publications having limited distribution, are welcomed.)
Attachment 1 – Wildlife Inventory of Shasta-Trinity National Forest
Attachment 2 – Lake Shasta Caverns’ brochure
Attachment 3 – “Gurnee Guide to American Caves.” Pages 67, 71-72
Attachment 4 – “Gems of the Golden State.” Pages 32 – 37
Attachment 5 – “Lake Shasta Caverns.”
- 12 -
Lake Shasta Caverns Wildlife Inventory
Species located in local area:
Common Name Taxonomy Status
Bald Eagle Haliaeetus Leucocephalus (endangered)
Osprey Pandion haliaetus carolinensis
Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus (endangered)
Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos (threatened)
Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura
Red Tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis
Grey Fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus
Grey Squirrel Sciurus carolinensis
Ground Squirrel Otospermophilus beecheyi
Ring-tailed cat Bassariscus astutus
Raccoon Procyon lotor
Bobcat Lynx rufus
Mountain Lion Felis concolor
Colombian Black Tailed Mule Deer Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis
Pacific Rattlesnake Crotalus viridis oreganos
Gopher Snake Genus Pituophis
Garter Snake Genus Thamnophis
California Black Bear Ursus americanus
California King Snake Lampropeltis getulus californiae
Skunk Mephitis mephitis
River Otter Lutra canadensis
Five Lined Skink Eumeces fasciatus
Valley Quail Lophortyx californica (protected)
Wood Duck Aix sponsa
Canada Goose (honker) Branta canadensis.
American Bittern Botaurus lentiginosus
Coyote Canis latrans
Steller’s Jay Cyanocitta stelleri
Scrub Jay Aphelocoma californica
Mice Cerastium vulgatum
Rats Rattus norvegicus
Opossum Didelphis virginiana
Black Tailed Jack Rabbit Lepus californicus
Species Located in or near Lake Shasta Caverns:
Common Name Taxonomy Status
Tooth Cave Spider Neoleptoneta myopica (endangered)
Shasta Salamander Hydromantes shastae (threatened)
California Brown Bat Myotis lucifugus
Snails Cornu aspersum
Cave Crickets Ceuthophilus Rhaphidophoridae
- 13 -
ATTACHMENT 1 (continued):
Common Name Taxonomy Status
Termites Reticulitermes flavipes
Millipedes Schizophyllum sabulosum
Ground Lover Centipedes Haplophilus subterraneus
Common Shiny Woodlouse Oniscus asellus
Western Sheep Moth Hemileuca eglanterina
- 14 -