Industrialization of the United States Click the button next to the response that best answers the question. 1. After the Civil War, the adoption of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments led to greater federal supremacy over the states. the loss of equal rights to minorities. an expansion of the power of the states to tax interstate business. a narrowing of the role of the federal government. 2. The major reason the United States placed few restrictions on immigration during the 1800s was that few Europeans wanted to give up their economic security. little opposition to immigration existed. the growing economy needed a steady supply of cheap labor. most immigrants spoke English and thus needed little or no education. 3. The American Federation of Labor became the first long-lasting, successful labor union in the United States mainly because it refused to participate in strikes against employers. concentrated on organizing workers in industries in the South. formed its own political party and elected many pro-labor public officials. fought for the rights of skilled workers. 4. The corporation became a popular form of business organization during the post-Civil War period because it enabled corporate executives to supervise daily business activities more closely. made it possible for business concerns to raise more capital. appealed to farmers anxious to increase production. encouraged industrial workers to form business cooperatives. 5. Which situation brought about the rapid growth of industry between 1865 to 1900? high worker morale resulting from good wages and working conditions availability of investment capital establishment of western reservations for Native Americans decline in the number of people attending schools 6. The poll tax, the literacy test, and the actions of the Ku Klux Klan were all attempts to limit the effectiveness of the 14th and 15th amendments. the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education. civil rights legislation passed in all states after the Civil War. immigration laws such as the Gentleman's Agreement and the Chinese Exclusion Act. 7. Jacob Riis' photographs, and the settlement house movement led by Jane Addams, drew attention to the needs of the freedmen immediately after the Civil War. farmers in the 1880s and 1890s. urban poor in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Japanese and Chinese laborers in the late 1800s. 8. During the late 1800s, a major reaction to the activities of labor unions in the United States was that the press in most communities supported unions. United States Presidents opposed the use of federal troops to end strikes called by organized labor. courts frequently issued injunctions to stop strikes. most factory workers quickly joined the unions. 9. In the late 1800s, most strikes by unions were unsuccessful mainly because unions were generally considered to be unconstitutional. government usually supported business instead of workers. strikes had never been used before in labor disputes. strikers failed to use militant tactics. 10. When the Interstate Commerce Act was passed in 1887, it marked the first time that Congress officially affirmed its laissez-faire economic policy. the federal government imposed a tariff. a third political party was able to influence government policy. a federal regulatory agency was established. 11. The assassination of Abraham Lincoln affected events of the Reconstruction Period in that President Andrew Johnson was able to bring about a more lenient treatment of the Confederacy. the attempts of the Radical Republicans to control Reconstruction policy were successful. the Confederate states became eager to return to the Union. the Ku Klux Klan lost its influence over Southern state governments. 12. Poll taxes and grandfather clauses were devices used to deny African Americans the right to vote. extend suffrage to women and 18-year-old citizens. raise money for political campaigns. prevent immigrants from becoming citizens. 13. The decision of the Supreme Court in the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson case is important because it upheld the legality of sharecropping. denounced the violence of the Ku Klux Klan. approved separate but equal facilities for African Americans. declared slavery to be illegal. 14. During the period 1865–1900, government contributed to the growth of corporations mainly by giving them direct aid when they went bankrupt. allowing them to develop with few restrictions. providing low-cost housing for their workers. buying large amounts of corporate stocks. 15. A major reason why people migrated to the western part of the United States during the nineteenth century was because that part of the country provided an abundance of cheap labor. guaranteed protection from violence. protected the rights of landowners to own slaves. offered increased opportunities for social mobility. 16. In which pair of events did the first event most directly influence the second? discovery of gold in California — Louisiana Purchase building of the transcontinental railroad — disappearance of the frontier settling of the Oregon Territory — passage of the Homestead Act assimilation of Native American Indians into American Society — passage of the Dawes Act 17. Which historic period was marked by the military occupation of a portion of the United States, attempts to remove the President from office, and major constitutional revisions? Reconstruction Roaring Twenties Great Depression and New Deal Vietnam War Era 18. In the United States during the late nineteenth century, much of the prejudice expressed toward immigrants was based on the belief they would cause overcrowding in farm areas. refuse to become citizens. support the enemies of the United States in wartime. fail to assimilate into American society. 19. Which best describes the change in the economic base of the northeastern part of the United States between 1820 and 1890? Ownership of major industries was transferred from private individuals to the federal government. As agricultural productivity increased, the farmer became the leading economic figure. Economic productivity declined as major industries moved to the South and West. Large-scale manufacturing became a major economic activity. 20. A major reason the Radical Republicans opposed President Abraham Lincoln's Reconstruction plan was that his plan demanded payments from the South that would have damaged the economy. postponed the readmission of Southern States into the Union for many years. granted too many rights to formerly enslaved persons. offered amnesty to nearly all Confederates who would swear allegiance to the United States. 21. Businesses formed trusts, pools, and holding companies mainly to increase profits by eliminating competition. offer a wide range of goods and services to consumers. provide employment opportunities for minorities. protect the interests of workers. 22. From 1865 to 1900, how did the growth of industry affect American society? The United States experienced the disappearance of the traditional "family farm." Population centers shifted from the Northeast to the South. Restrictions on immigration created a more homogenous culture. The percentage of Americans living in urban areas increased. 23. Europeans that came to the United States between 1880 and 1920 have been described as new immigrants mainly because they were considered physically and mentally superior to earlier immigrants. arrived before the closing of the frontier and settled in farms in the West. came generally from different countries than most earlier immigrants. came chiefly from northern and western Europe. 24. The dispute between President Andrew Johnson and Congress during the Reconstruction Era illustrates the constitutional principle of equality of justice under the law. federalism. one man, one vote. separation of powers. 25. In their plans for Reconstruction, both President Abraham Lincoln and President Andrew Johnson sought to punish the South for starting the Civil War. force the Southern States to pay reparations to the federal government. allow the Southern States to reenter the nation as quickly as possible. establish the Republican Party as the only political party in the South. 26. One effect of monopolies on the United States economy is that they have tended to reduce business competition. keep prices low. give consumers a greater choice in goods and services. lead to a greater variety in the price for a particular product or service. 27. The Rockefeller Foundation, Carnegie Hall, and the Morgan Library Institute illustrate various ways that entrepreneurs and their descendants have suppressed the growth of labor unions. supported philanthropic activities to benefit society. applied scientific discoveries to industry. attempted to undermine the United States economic system. 28. During the period from 1880 to 1920, the majority of immigrants to the United States settled in urban areas in the North mainly because the Populist Party was successful in preventing immigrants from buying farmland. rapid industrialization created many job opportunities. labor unions gave financial help to immigrants willing to work in the factories. most immigrants lived in cities in their native countries. 29. In the late 1800s, the goal of the federal government's policy toward Native Americans was to destroy tribal bonds and thus weaken their traditional cultural values. grant them full citizenship and due process. give their tribal groups authority over their own affairs. increase the land holdings of western tribes. 30. As the United States became industrialized, an important effect of mechanization and the division of labor was that smaller industries had difficulty maintaining their competitiveness. the price of most manufactured goods increased. the demand to improve transportation systems decreased. pools and trusts became less efficient forms of business organization. 31. How were many African Americans in the South affected after Reconstruction ended in 1877? A constitutional amendment guaranteed their social advancement. The Freedman's Bureau helped them become farmowners. Jim Crow laws placed major restrictions on their rights. Southern factories offered them job training and employment opportunities. 32. Many wealthy industrialists of the late nineteenth century used the theory of Social Darwinism to support the labor union movement. justify monopolistic actions. promote legislation establishing a minimum wage. encourage charitable organizations to help the poor. 33. Which constitutional power was the main basis for congressional passage of legislation regulating business activities during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries? to provide for the common defense to regulate the currency to establish a uniform system of weights and measures to regulate commerce among the states 34. According to the theory of laissez-faire, the economy functions best when government subsidizes business so that it can compete worldwide. regulates businesses for the good of the majority. owns major industries. does not interfere with business. 35. After the Civil War, Native Americans were relocated to reservations primarily because the federal government wanted to preserve tribal cultures. the Native Americans had violated most of their treaties with the federal government. most of the tribal chiefs requested government protection from white settlers. settlers, ranchers, and prospectors wanted their tribal lands.