Investing in Native American Communities by osi33942

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									 Investing in Native
American Communities
         Alisa F. Cunningham
Institute for Higher Education Policy

Grantmakers for Education, Denver,
       February 22, 2006
    Basic Facts about American Indians
   4.1 million people, representing 1.5% of the
    total population (2.8 million were American
    Indian alone)
   Increasing faster than the total population
   About 25% reside on reservations and trust
    lands (additional 22% in designated statistical
    areas).
   On average, younger and more likely to reside in
    rural areas (but largest concentrations in NYC
    and LA)
         Basic Facts (continued)
   Increasing numbers of high school
    graduates – 31,000 by 2013-14
   West and South will graduate the majority
    of students
   A quarter of states will graduate twice as
    many American Indians in 2014 as they
    did in 2002
                         Barriers
   History of federal policy toward education
   Academic preparation and graduation rates
   Economic factors – poverty, unemployment
   Social factors – health, injuries
   Family responsibilities
   Financial barriers
Percentage of 16-24 year olds who
  are high school dropouts, 2003
25%                      24%

20%
                                                         15%
15%
                                      11%
10%
                6%
                                                4%
 5%

 0%
                             Dropout rate
      White, non-Hispanic              Hispanic
      Black, non-Hispanic              Asian/Pacific Islander
      American Indian/Alaska Native
Per capita income, 1970 to 2000
 $25,000

 $20,000

 $15,000
                                                  1970
 $10,000                                          1980
                                                  1990
  $5,000                                          2000

     $0
             American     American   Total U.S.
            Indians on     Indians
           Reservations
Participation in Higher Education
   Relatively low high school graduation rates
   Relatively low participation rates –
    although increasing steadily (especially
    women)
   Relatively low levels of educational
    attainment
      Highest level of educational
    attainment, 25 years and older
35%
              32%
                                             30%
30%
                                          28%
25%
                                                    20%
20%                           18%
                   17%
15%
          15%

10%                             10%                     10% 9%
                         8%

 5%                                                              4%

 0%
         All racial/ethnic groups            American Indians
Less than high school     High school diploma/GED   Some college
Associate's               Bachelor's                Advanced degree
         Student Characteristics
   160,000 students -- less than 1%
   Enrollment has increased over time – 54%
    between 1990 and 2001
   Majority are women (64%)
   Substantial proportion from the Southwest
         Student Characteristics
   Tend to be older, first-generation,
    financially independent, low-income, and
    have dependents
   More likely to live off campus and to enroll
    part-time and/or stop out
   More likely to enroll in 2-year institutions
    (46%)
   Distribution of American Indian
   Students by Institutional Type
50%
45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
           All racial/ethnic groups         American Indians

 Public 2-year or less      Public 4-year      Private non-profit 4-year
 Private for-profit         Other
               Tribal Colleges
   Represent 10% of all American Indian
    students
   Disproportionate number of reservation-
    based students
   Enrollment is increasing at a faster rate
   Award more than 1,500 degrees and
    certificates annually
                Financial Aid
   Almost 80% of American Indian students
    apply for aid, and 70% receive aid
   Most aid is federal aid, and in the form of
    grants
   Capacity of Pell Grants to meet financial
    need has decreased
   More than $2,000 of unmet need
           Measures of Success
   Historically, degree completion rates for
    American Indians students are low – about 44%
    compared to 51% for all students
   However, American Indians who enroll in college
    and complete a degree tend to have higher
    salaries and other benefits
   TCUs – about 60% of graduates were employed
    after graduation, and almost half pursued more
    education
     Benefits of Higher Education
   In addition to higher salaries etc., there
    are social benefits. For example:
     88%   of American Indians with BAs were in
      excellent or good health, compared to 73% of
      high school graduates


   Also, TCU benefits to local communities
             Lessons Learned
   Sample surveys (nat’l) – not enough
    students
   Census – self reporting, low sample sizes
    except in decennial collection
   TCUs versus all American Indian students
   Reservation versus non-reservation based
   Qualitative versus quantitative
     More Research/Data Needed
   Factors influencing access and persistence
    to a degree
   Impact of financial aid
   Activities of college graduates
   Benefits of higher education
     More Research/Data Needed


   American Indian men in higher education
   Policies and programs that successfully
    help students participate in higher ed
   TCUs as a model
          For Further Information
   AIHEC – http://www.aihec.org
   American Indian College Fund -
    http://www.collegefund.org/
   Institute for Higher Education Policy -
    http://www.ihep.org/
   Census Bureau -
    http://factfinder.census.gov/home/aian/index.html
   NCES report -
    http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2005
    108

								
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