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MUH 2512 _Bakan_ lectures_ Spring 07

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MUH 2512 _Bakan_ lectures_ Spring 07 Powered By Docstoc
					MUH 2051-2512 (Bakan) lectures, Summer 07

Lecture: Ch. 1

Opening discussion:

John Cage: 4’33”: Music?
Qur‟anic recitation: Music?
“Wrecking Everything” (Overkill): Music?

Five Propositions for Exploring World Music:

-Vastly different ideas about music; since no general agreement, where do we begin?

   1) Basic property of all music is sound [key term: tone (top of p. 3)—a sound whose
      principal identity is a musical identity, as defined by people (though not
      necessarily all people) who make/experience that sound]
   2) Sounds of music are organized
   3) Organized by people; thus, humanly organized sound
   4) Product of human and intention and perception (HIP approach, p. 4 near bottom)
   5) Term music inescapably tied to Western music and its assumptions [key term:
      ethnocentrism—imposing one‟s own culturally grounded perspecs, biases, and
      assumps on practices, lifeways different from one‟s own.
       Goal: find balance between emic (insider) and etic (outsider) perspectives]

Examples:

Beethoven Symphony #9 (“Ode to Joy”)—CD ex. 1-1
Japanese gagaku—CD ex. 1-2
        http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bC0YJ5M_WWE (Gagaku)
        http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-
           SKZwsAdpco&mode=related&search= (Ceremonial dance
           accompanied by gagaku orchestra)
Qur‟anic recitation—CD ex. 1-3
        http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K9OJhFjvdQw&mode=related&sear
           ch= (Reciting of the Qur’an)

Lecture: Ch. 2

      How music lives=music as a phenomenon of culture; music in relation to cultural
       context(s). Especially important in global perspective. (More on “culture”
       momentarily.)
      Ethnomusicology (interdisciplinary: musicology and anthropology plus)
      Musicultural: music as sound, music as culture: mutually reinforcing and
       essentially inseparable
      Culture (Tylor—1871): “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief,
       art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man
       [humankind] as a member of society.”
      Culture a complex and slippery, yet still useful, term in contemporary world (p.
       10)
      Music: mode of cultural production, representation that reveals much about
       workings of culture (from resilience of tradition to capacities for innovation,
       adaptation, and transformation).

Meaning in Music
   Music comes into existence at intersection of sound and culture. Meaning is the
      glue that binds them, and sounds don‟t come to be perceived as music until
      meaning is attached to them.
   Tones—two types of meaning: 1) relative to one another (“Mary”); 2) cultural
      (e.g., “Mary” as funeral lament; CD ex. #1-4 [Beijing Opera] as “beautiful”;
      Warao shaman‟s curing vs. inflicting songs)

Identity in Music
    Identity: people‟s ideas about who they are and what unites them with or
        distinguishes them from other people and entitites (individs, families,
        communities, institutions, cultures, societies, nations, supernat. powers)
    Key questions: Who am I? Who are we? Who is s/he? Who are they? [CD exs.
        #1-5 (Mongolian khomii), 1-6 (C. Javanese gamelan)—What do they “tell” us?
        CD exs. #1-7, 1-8 (“Rabbit Dance”)]
            o http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=60cZRB6V24g (Mongolian
                khoomii folkloric performance with instrumental ensemble accomp.)
            o http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tlWgDCtHpJ8 (Javnese dance
                with gamelan accompaniment)
            o http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=544xzCzj_Uk (Couples “Rabbit
                Dance” at a powwow, Fallon Rodeo Days, 1996)
            o http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3s9z3IOpH1g&mode=related&se
                arch= (Powwow competition dancing: Men’s Traditional dance)

Levels of Identity
    Society: a group of persons regarded as forming a single community (usually
       large-scale). Interest in how music functions among members of a society to
       foster (or possibly challenge) their sense of community.
            o Imagined community
            o Social institutions
            o Balinese sekehe gong (CD ex. #1-9): banjar (neighborhood organization),
               membership in sekehe, social functions, gender (traditionally male, more
               recently women as well)

      Cultures (as distinct from culture as an anthro concept, and from society):
       Defined mainly by a collective worldview shared by its members: societies rooted
       in social organization, whereas cultures rooted in ideas, beliefs, and practices that
    underscore social organization: religions, ideologies, philosophies, sciences,
    artistic creations, ritual performances. (Note term sociocultural).
        o Sekehe gong re: Balinese culture: beleganjur to ward off evil spirits and
             keep cosmos in balance—men only and an emblem of masculinity—but in
             1990s government agenda for women to play (symbol of emansipasi).
             Cultural crisis.

   Nations and nation-states
       o Distinguish
       o Nationalist music re: promotion of “national identity”—sources vary (folk,
          contemporary pop, classical forms). Nation-consolidating or building
          agenda
       o Flipside: musics of resistance, protest, subversion (Miriam Makeba in
          South Africa anti-Apartheid, James Brown in U.S. Civil Rights—“Say It
          Loud”)
               http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l8V1414aWRA (Miriam
                 Makeba—“Hapo Zamani,” anti-apartheid song, nice narration
                 by Makeba at start of clip)

   Diasporas/Transnational Communities
       o Diaspora: international network of communities linked together by
          identification with a common ancestral homeland and culture.
       o living away from “homeland,” often with no guarantee/likehlihood of
          return.
       o Jewish Diaspora (origin of term); now applied to others—African, Irish,
          South Asian, etc.
       o Brazilian samba an important genre relating to cultural developments
          emerging from African diasporic cultures.
               http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yjm3pbR39o0&mode=rela
                  ted&search= (Escola de samba [samba school], Bahia,
                  Brazil: Markatu Bahia—sambatuque)
       o Virtual communities (electronic networks, mass media/Internet, etc.)

   The Individual
       o Cultures, societies etc. frameworks of indentity re: music, but they don‟t
          make music; people do.
       o the individual as a community unto him- or herself (Tito Puente, musical
          syncretism)
       o Ethnomusicologists: increasing focus on individuals in recent decades
          (both particular musicians with whom they work and themselves in
          fieldwork [hallmark research method involving living for an extended
          period of time among people whom one studies, learning their culture
          ways (and often music) in the process].
       o Case studies of individual musicians key to our approach in this course,
          too.
Spirituality and Transcendence in Music
     Music key in cultures and societies worldwide re: worship, religious ritual,
        expression of faith.
     Transcendence: connecting to invisible worlds beyond our own, communing with
        supernatural forces (Baal Shem Tov; Santería CD ex. #3-1—orishas,
        transubstantiation; musical cycles as cosmological symbols in Hindu cultures
        (Bali, India)
     Communal solidarity: music bringing people together in unified, communal
        expression of faith (CD ex. #1-10—Fijian church hymn)

Music and Dance
   Integrally connected worldwide; dance, and music that accompanies it, lens
       through which to view social celebration, communal solidarity, physical
       expression of culture, performance of identity.
   Dance also potentially revealing, often in troubling ways, re: how people treat and
       classify each other re: issues of gender, race, and ethnicity (racist stereotyping of
       “Africans” re: images of dance [p. 21], low social status of professional female
       dancers in Middle East)

Music in Ritual
   Rituals: special events during which individuals or communities enact, through
       perf., their core beliefs, values, and ideals. (e.g., zaar, CD ex. #1-11, photo p. 22)

Music as Commodity, Patronage of Music
   Support and ownership of music influence how it lives, what it means, how it‟s
       valued: Who owns it, if anyone? Who controls its distribution
   Private ownership: CD ex. #1-12 (“Ibis”—Alan Maralung) [also discuss
       didjeridu] (p. 23)
           o http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VIpVJJlkTxU (didjeridu accomp.
               trad dancing, old footage [sound poor, but good historical footage of
               body-painted dancers, etc., and didj seen in context)
   Patronage: from royal courts to brothel owners to multinational recording
       companies, film companies, etc. How music is regarded has much to do with who
       patronizes it: the exact same music will inevitably take on different sociocultural
       meaning if it is performed in a concert hall than if it appears on a MacDonald‟s
       advertising jingle; likewise if it is endorsed by a political party during an election
       campaign vs. representing a musical artist championed for subversiveness and
       being against the establishment.
   Today, rock stars cum world music producers a major source of “world music”
       patronage and production: e.g., Sting, who had a hit, Algerian rai-influenced
       recording with Cheb Mami, “Desert Rose”:
           o http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjHkj-uSt_Y (Sting with Cheb
               Mami, “Desert Rose”—original music video)

Transmission of Music, Musical Knowledge
      Production, reception: roles (separate or not?) of “composer,” “performer,”
       “audience” (Compare a West African ceremonial performance to a Western
       concert.)
      Modes of transmission: notation or not, oral/aural tradition, use of electronic
       media, teaching/learning of vs. about music, transmission of music as “art” vs.
       “entertainment”, etc.; “live” vs. “mediated” music; range of distribution (local,
       regional, national, international)
      Here we see music transmission in action through a music lesson involving two of
       the most important and influential musicians of the 20th century, whose musical
       relationship (which we will learn more about later in the course) redefined the
       global musical soundscape on many levels: Ravi Shankar and George Harrison
       (the instrument is sitar)
           o http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=erLZ-zW9Ti4 (R. Shankar, G.
               Harrison sitar lesson from film Raga: Ravi Shankar)

Music Creation Processes
    Composition (CD exs. #1-13 shak., 1-1 Beet.), interpretation (1-1), improvisation
       (2-12 raga; 1-14 taqsim), arranging (1-15 “Grace”, 1-16 “Cucaracha”)

Music in the Process of Tradition
    Tradition: a process of creative transformation whose most remarkable feature is
        the continuity it nurtures and sustains.
    Music of tradition (can be old or new, conservative or radically experimental;
        however diverse and far-flung it appears on the surface, always something at the
        core that connects it to the tradition from which it springs.)
    Charlie Patton (CD ex. #1-17, “High Water Everywhere”), Paul Pena (CD ex.
        #1-18, “Kargyraa Moan”): Examples to illustrate blues as a music of tradition.
        (Note: discuss Tuvan khoomei)
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-LYc06l2gGo (Paul Pena with Kongar-
        ol Ondar, “Good Horses,” from the film Genghis Blues. [Note: Pena wrote
        and first recorded “Jet Airliner,” which later would become a major hit in
        Steve Miller’s cover version. Volume soft!)

MUH 2512 (Bakan) lecture notes, Chs. 3-6
Ch. 3—Rhythm

Four basic properties of tones (Table 3.1, p. 32)
    Duration (rhythm)
    Frequency (pitch)
    Amplitude (dynamics)
    Timbre (sound quality, “tone color”)

Rhythm (defined): How the silences and sounds of music are organized in time.
    Note (individual tone), rest (pause between notes)
      Exercise: clap out “Alphabet Song” (there‟s the rhythm)
      Quarter, eighth, and sixteenth notes (see Figs. 3.1, 3.2, p. 33—“Alphabet
       Song”)=notes of different duration

Elements of rhythm:
    Beat (p. 34): tap foot/clap/dance. “Alphabet Song”=steady stream of quarter notes
      (Fig. 3.3, p. 34); marked (explicit) or not (implicit)
    Subdivision (p. 34-35): more than one note per beat
          o Duple, quadruple (“Alphabet Song”, Fig. 3.4, p. 34)
          o Triple (“Row, Row, Row…”, Fig. 3.5, p. 35)
          o Blues shuffle [CD 1-19], Celtic hornpipe [CD 1-20] subdiv. (Fig. 3.6, p.
              35)
          o More complex types of subdiv.
    Meter (p. 35-39): systematic grouping of beats. Number of beats per group=meter.
      One metric unit=measure (or bar)
          o Duple, quadruple meter (“Alphabet”, Fig. 3.7, p. 36)
          o Triple meter (“Star-Spangled Banner,” Fig 3. 8, p. 36; ―Cielito Lindo‖
              [mariachi, CD 1-21 and Fig. 3.10, p. 38)
                   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OHeJCwOetkI (Mariachi
                      Gallos de Mexico)
                   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-LYc06l2gGo (Mariachi
                      Cesar Chavez performs “Cielito Lindo”)
          o Complex meters (5, 7, 11, 13, etc.), e.g., Eastern European musics [CD 1-
              22—Roma wedding song]: Is it in a meter of 3 or 7?
                   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KWvb0iwL70M (Karandila,
                      Roma [Gypsy] brass band. Short clip, but mucho funky)
          o [If time, Gurtu CD 2-15: meter of 55/16]
          o Metric cycles: 10 (India), 68 (China), 108 (Middle East), 256 (Indonesia)
          o Backbeat grooves (Atkins CD 1-19, p. 37)
    Accents and syncopation (p. 39)
          o Accent=note with extra emphasis; syncopation=accent that falls between
              main beats
          o CD 1-1 Beethoven—not syncopated
          o CD 1-23 Indian bhangra ex. Syncopated “hoi” shouts
          o CD ex. 1-41 (W. African, ―Founé‖): Highly complex in its syncopations
              (and polyrhythms). )But NOT syncopated to the performers. Discuss!—
              box, p. 39)
    Tempo (p. 39-40): rate at which the beats pass (definition) [CD 1-24 ―Zorba‖
      syrtaki]
          o very slow to very fast continuum; acceleration, deceleration; sudden or
              gradual changes
    Free rhythm (p. 40): music with no discernible beat (or meter)
          o [CD 1-25, Karnatak kriti, S. India; if time, CD 1-14 (taqsim) as well]

Ch. 4—Pitch
      Frequency=rate of vibration in a soundwave: the higher the frequency, the higher
       the pitch. (Mention determinate vs. indeterminate pitch—Fig 4.3, p. 46.)
   
Melody
    Features of a melody: range (distance, highest to lowest pitch), direction
       (ascending, descending, etc.), character (conjunct, disjunct), contour.
           o Ex. “Mary Had a Little Lamb” (first five notes)
                   Perform without the words=melody
                   Small range, descending-ascending arc (melodic direc), conjunct
                       character (stepwise), melodic direction defines contour (shape)
           o [CD 1-26 ―Eagle Dance‖ (Arapaho, Northern Plains)].
                   Larger melodic range
                   Direction: phrases descend (characteristic of style) (Fig. 4.2, p.
                       45—also see drum photo, p. 45)
                   Descending melodic contour
                   Character mainly conjunct (but with leaps from end of one phrase
                       to beginning of the next)
           o [Reminder: Warao shaman songs: melodic direction=curing (asc.) vs.
              inflicting (desc.) (p. 46)]
           o http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QO2g9tgWjbU (Hopi/Pueblo
              Eagle Dance performances [note: NOT Arapaho or other Plains
              style, but interesting nonetheless; historical footage plus Native
              American Dance Theater concert footage combined)

Names of pitches and scales in Western music:
   A B C D E F G, plus all sharps (#) and flats (b) [Fig. 4.4, p. 47] (remind:
      determinate vs. indeterminate)
   Scale: ascending and/or descending series of notes of different pitch (from which
      songs, pieces are “built”). Each “step” of the scale a scale degree.
   Chromatic scale (twelve pitches [steps] per octave [men-women sing note
      demo]) [play resolved/unresolved versions of chromatic scale, OMI 1 and OMI 2]
          o Octave ranges, inst./voice registers. Cultural conceptions of octave
              (Balinese gamelan ―stretched‖ octaves)
          o Cultural conceptions of pitch: Are‘are (p. 47) “upside down” pitch
              concept.
   Some pieces use all twelve pitches of chromatic scale, but most rely on specific 7-
      note or 5-note scales drawn from it:
          o Major scale (C-major scale—C D E F G A B [C], Fig 4.5, p. 48 “white
              key” scale). “Happy” scale. Scale basis of a song determines its key.
          o Pentatonic scale (C D E G A, or D E F# A B, or “black key” F# G# A# C#
              D#), Figs. On p. 49.
                   (Actually any five-note per octave scale is pentatonic, but in
                     Western music has a specific connotation. Balinese “pentatonic
                     scales” (p. 51): OMI 10 (5-tone slendro and 5-tone pelog)
           o Minor scales: sound “sad”; several types; key feature differentiating from
             major scale smaller interval [distance between two notes] between second
             and third scale degrees (e.g., C D Eb, not C D E) \
                 OMI #6: major, harmonic minor, melodic minor
                 OMI #7: “Mary” in major, minor keys
           o Blues scale: C Eb F F# G Bb C (combines elements of major, minor,
             pentatonic, and traditional African scales). Eb F# Bb the “blue notes” (CD
             1-19 or in-class “I Feel Good” demo)
           o Modulation: moving from one key to another (OMI #9, “Mary” C to F
             major)

Pitches and scales in non-Western musical systems
     May divide the octave into systems of pitches and scales that are entirely different
       from Western system (we‟ve already seen this in the two 5-tone scales from Bali
       in OMI 10)
     India: 22 microtones per octave; Arab music: 24 quarter tones per octave.
       OMI 11 (quarter tone scale, one octave) [If time, CD ex. 1-27, Egyptian quarter-
       tone accordion. Also ornamentation [“decoration” of main pitches; may be built
       into the system], articulation [staccato, legato, etc.]).
     Scale vs. mode (p. 52). Mode more complex and mulitidimensional: a “road
       map,” also often including extramusical features.

Chords and harmony (pp. 53-54)
    Chord [in this text]: two or more notes of different pitch sounded
      simultaneously, or conceived of harmonically [as in arpeggio or “broken chord,”
      where notes of a chord are presented in sequence rather than simultaneously—CD
      1-29 flamenco].
    Harmony [in this text]: a chord that “makes sense” within the context of its
      musical style.
    Harmonization [in this text!]: chords built from the notes of the melody itself
      (e.g., voice harmonization in CD 1-1 (Beethoven)
    Single chord-based music [CD 3-33 ―Ehad‖, 3:45-4:15] vs. music with chord
      progressions (p. 53) [CD 1-28]
    Cultural conceptions of harmony (p. 54) (CD 1-2—gagaku. Chords? CD 1-3—
      THGIRBLA.W. Harmony? By what standards?)

Ch. 5: Dynamics, timbre, and instruments

Dynamics (p. 58-59)
    amplitude (decibels) vs. relative/contextual gradations (dynamics)
    dynamic ranges (loudest to softest)
    crescendo (getting louder) vs. decrescendo (getting softer) (OMI 12, 13; Figs. on
     p. 58)
    terraced dynamics—sudden changes in dynamics create “terraces”
    [CD 1-31 ―Roza‖ as example of dynamics]
Timbre (p. 59-63)
    of instruments, voices, ensembles [steel band, CD 1-32]
    (OMI 14: sax vs. flute timbre—spectrogram, Fig. 5.3, p. 60)
    Every tone comprised of many partials. Spectrogram represents a “snapshot” of
      the relationship between the different partials of a tone: the fundamental and
      overtones (harmonics) of a tone; this relationship accounts for the tone‘s
      timbre (read p. 60 to clarify)
    Timbral variety of didjeridu (p. 60-61) (CD 1-12, 1-33), khoomii (1-5) accounted
      for by manipulation of partials. Depending what partial emphasized, percep. of
      the fundamental pitch may change too [MULTIPHONIC SINGING EXERCISE]
    Language for describing timbre a grab-bag of metaphors borrowed from other
      domains; sometimes name of instrument itself the best indicator

Instruments
     Music instrument (p. 62): any sound-generating medium used to produce tones
       in the making of music.
     Instrumentation: types of insts (potentially including voices) employed and
       number of each
     (OMI 16—various world music instruments w. distinct timbres)
     Inst. Classification: Indian and Chinese systems (3000 years old), „Are‟are system
       („au=bamboo=music instruments, but includes tape recorders, etc. as well. CD 1-
       34, ‗au music from Malaita).
     Western system; strings, winds, percussion (works pretty well for conventional
       Western instruments, but logic doesn‟t hold up for global classification)
     Hornbostel-Sachs classification system (1914)—common criterion: how sound is
       activated:
           o Chordophones: sound activated by vibration of string (chord) or strings
               over resonator; plucked, bowed, etc.* (Note piano as example.) (*For all
               classes, refer to chapter for CD exs. and know which of these belong in
               which class). [CD 1-35 koto]
                    Guitar: plucked chordophone—resonator (body), soundhole,
                       fretted neck, tuning pegs, head (see p. 65)
                    Violin: bowed chordophone—resonator, two soundholes (S- or f-
                       shaped, unfretted neck, tuning pegs, scroll (p. 66)
           o Aerophones: sound activated by passing of air through a tube or some
               other kind of resonator (note pipe organ, kazoo, bullroarer as “odd”
               examples) (CD 1-13, shakuhachi). Also didjeridu, bamboo panpipes, etc.
           o Membranophones: sound activated by vibration of a membrane (real or
               synthetic) stretched tightly across a frame resonator. [CD 1-36, taganing]
           o Idiophones: “self-sounders”; sound activated by vibration of the body of
               the instrument itself. [CD 1-37 and OMI 17—mbira]
           o fifth category, electronophones, added later (pure vs. hybrid; sound
               generators vs. sound modifiers [effects devices]; note synthesis and
               sampling) [OMI 19 and 20, p. 72 Tables] (phonograph 1877, multitrack
               recording, overdubbing)
                     digital sampling: recorded sound stored as digital data and
                      manipulated
                     digital synthesis: sounds created “from scratch,” as it were.
                      Computers, synthesizers used to generate electronic soundwave,
                      which is then processed and manipulated.
                     Effects devices (sound modification): reverberation, echo, vibrato
                      (tremolo), distortion (not to mention amplification)
                     Recording technologies themselves perhaps the most important
                      electronophones (since they capture and transmit musical sounds
                      and performances, allowing for preservation, dissemination)

Ch. 6—Texture and Form
    Texture: the kinds of relationships that emerge between the different elements
      (notes, rhythms, melodies, patterns, patterns, vocal and instrumental parts) in a
      musical work. (Analogy: elements of music in relationship like characters of a
      play in relationship) (p. 75)
    Form: the large-scale dimensions of musical organization, accounting for how
      musical works and performances achieve their coherence and stylistic identity
      through the patterns, cycles, and processes of development, repetition, variation,
      and sectional organization that shape them. (p. 75)

TEXTURE
Single-line textures (p. 76)
    Monophonic (note: any number of combo of voices/insts possible, so long as a
        single line [unison] maintained; usually implies melody but could be just
        rhythmic as well).
            o [CD 1-31 ―Roza‖, CD 1-13 shakuhachi]
    Heterophonic: variant versions of a single melodic line [CD 1-38 Sufi chant, Fig
        6.1, p. 76]

Multiple-part textures (polyphony) (p. 76-79)
    (Note: If we include discussion of drum part as well as voices and nay flute in CD
       1-38, it is polyphonic, since there are two distinct musical layers [melodic,
       rhythmic])
    Polyphony possible on multiple voices/instruments, on a single instrument (piano,
       guitar), even a single voice (khoomii CD 1-5)
    Melody plus drone texture [CD 1-15, ―Amazing Grace‖ bagpipes]
    Harmonized texture: notes of different pitches occur together to form chords, or
       “harmonies” [CD 1-10, Fijian church hymn]
           o Melody plus chordal accomp [CD 1-28—―Wave‖ bossa nova]
    Multiple-melody texture: two or more essentially separate melodic lines
       performed simultaneously
           o CD 1-39 ―Ingculaza‖ Zimbabwean world beat
           o CD 1-6 Javanese gamelan
                     http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tlWgDCtHpJ8 (Javanese
                       gamelan accompanying dancing)
            o CD 1-40 BaMbuti (Central Africa) “Elephant Hunting Song”
      Polyrhythmic texture: several distinct parts or layers, with each defined mainly by
       its distinctive rhythmic character rather than by melodies or chords.
            o (CD 1-41 ―Founé‖ W. Africa, BUT IS IT POLYRHYTHMIC? (etic vs.
                emic, p. 77 box)
      Interlocking: single melodic or rhythmic line divided among two or more
       instruments/voices
            o [CD 1-42 ―Ratita‖ Andean panpipes (Fig. 6.2, p. 78 and photo, p. 79)]
      Call-and-response (78-79): back-and-forth alternation between different
       instrument or voice parts.
            o (CD 1-43, ―Founé)

FORM
   Through-composed forms vs. forms that feature repetition, patterning, and
     sectional organization.
   Ostinato-based forms
         o Built from repetition or varied repetition of a single musical pattern or
            phrase (i.e., from an ostinato—ostinato usually smallest unit of musical
            organization from which forms are built)
         o CD 1-44 ―Xai‖ (Qwii people, Kalahari Desert, Southern Africa): note
            varied repetition. Instrument nkokwane (“musical bow”), a struck
            chordophone—two pitches, wide range of timbres.
         o Layered ostinatos: two or more ostinatos stacked one atop the other [CD
            1-45, “Oye”—sax, trombone, trumpet riffs layered (Fig. 6.3, p. 81)
   Cyclic forms
         o Repetition of cycle (cycle longer than ostinato) defines the form
         o 12-bar blues [CD 1-19] (Fig. 6.4, p. 81): 12-measure (bar) cycle
         o Balinese gong cycle form (“Jaya Semara”) (CD 1-9): 32 beats (Fig 6.5, p.
            82)
   Forms with contrasting sections (formal sections)
         o [klezmer, CD 1-46: free rhythm section, metered dance section (Fig. 6.6,
            p. 82)]
         o Verse-chorus form: CD 1-47 ―Incgculaza‖ – follow form chart on pages
            83-84.
                  Story told in the verses (text changes each verse)
                  Chorus the “catchy” part that keeps coming back, usually with
                    same words
                  Other formal sections framing, interspersed between verses and
                    choruses (introduction, improvised instrumental solo, interlude,
                    bridge, coda)

				
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