Unlocking literacy keys to success by mlw20723

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									Components of
            Unlocking literacy:
            keys to success




                                               Components
            ‘Reading to’ key

            ‘Four resources questioning’ key

            ‘Word attack’ key

            ‘Reading with’ key

            ‘Reading independently’ key

            ‘Three level questioning’ key

            ‘Writing in response’ key
        literacy




unlocking




             keys to success
                                               Unlocking literacy: keys to success         02:01



Components of Unlocking literacy: keys to success
The main focus of this program is on reading. It also aims to link reading and writing
through questioning, discussion and thinking.



1. ‘Reading to’ key
The tutor models the reading process using a variety of text types. By reading aloud, the
tutor helps the student experience a text that they would not be able to read independently.
The tutor should model skilled reading behaviour, enjoyment and interest in the text. It is
important to read texts that are beyond the student’s present reading capacity and to
involve them in the choice of text.

During this stage, the student practises constructing visual images of the text. This is vital,
because students who experience difficulties when reading are often unable to visualise as
they read. This stage also introduces the student to unfamiliar vocabulary and text types,
enabling structures and language features to be explained. Additionally, it provides an
excellent opportunity to introduce texts that can be interpreted at different levels of
meaning, thus enabling productive discussions to take place.


• Modelling the reading process

  • Before reading

    The student is tuned in to the text by the tutor. During this phase, the tutor does most
    of the talking, thinks aloud and models the processes of prediction. The predictions
    might be based on content, text type or purpose. The tutor invites the student to make
    predictions about the text.

  • During reading

    The tutor reads the text and uses a think aloud strategy to confirm, clarify or reset their
    predictions. The student is invited to do the same.

  • After reading

    The tutor summarises the text read so far. The tutor invites the student to share ideas
    and feelings and to think aloud. This encourages conversations about the text to occur.
    The discussion includes a focus on the author’s meaning, the text type, the intended
    audience, the purpose and the use of linguistic features.
                                                 Unlocking literacy: keys to success   02:02



• Major teaching intentions

The ‘Reading to’ strategy is particularly effective for:

  • demonstrating enjoyment of reading

  • demonstrating the integration of the three cueing systems

  • demonstrating fluency, phrasing and intonation

  • extending vocabulary

  • developing viewing skills

  • developing listening skills

  • developing an awareness of varying text types and purpose and the intended audience
    for a particular text

  • introducing texts of increasing complexity

  • exposing the student to language written for particular purposes

  • developing the student’s awareness of tense and why it changes

  • gaining insight into experiences the student might not have had

  • allowing the student to see a variety of reading strategies in action.
                                               Unlocking literacy: keys to success           02:03



2. ‘Four resources questioning’ key
This follows on directly from the ‘Reading to’ key. Information about the four resources model
is located in section one of the Unlocking literacy program.

The tutor asks the student about texts they have shared, using questions from the four
resources model. These are discussion starters that enable the student to engage more deeply
with the text. (See the Four resources question cards.)

It is important not to overload the student with too many questions. Fewer questions allow
deeper discussion to take place. The Unlocking literacy planning proforma enables the tutor to
track the types of questions asked. It is important to vary the questions to ensure that all of the
four resources are covered.

The Four resources questioning cards provide a range of questions to develop the student’s
literacy skills.
                                             Unlocking literacy: keys to success        02:04



3. ‘Word attack’ key
This key helps the student to read and recognise frequently used words and write them with
accuracy and speed. The student is tested on the words from the Word recognition list of
frequently used words. The tutor selects ten unknown words as focus words. If necessary, the
tutor reduces the number of words so the student experiences success.

The tutor writes each word on individual cards. The student, orally, puts each word in a
sentence to provide a context for comprehension. As the student does this, the tutor writes the
sentences on the back of word cards. The student chooses one of these sentences and writes it
in the Student work book.


• Student work book:

      practice page – left hand side

      published page – right hand side


During each writing session the student writes in pencil and the tutor writes in pen. This
enables the tutor to keep track of the student’s independent work. All working out must be
done on the practice page. Ideally the published page should be free from punctuation,
spelling and grammatical errors. Writing on the practice page and the published page might
be jointly constructed by the student and the tutor, depending on the support needed.

During each session the student reads the ten words. The tutor ticks a correct response and
places a dot if the response is incorrect. The word needs to have ten ticks in a row before a
new word can be introduced. The student has a copy of these words to take home with them
to practise. Once the word has ten ticks (only one per day), it goes into the word bank. The
Word bank proforma keeps track of all the words the student knows.

After the student has read the word, the tutor invites them to read the sentence on the back of
the card. The student only needs to recognise the word to gain a tick; they do not have to read
the whole sentence correctly. The tutor might assist the student’s reading of the sentence by
providing them with prompts.

Next play a game. The game chosen should be fun and help the student to develop their word
recognition skills. (Refer to the Game and activities in Section 5.)
                                               Unlocking literacy: keys to success             02:05



4. ‘Reading with’ key
• The process

This key is used in conjunction with a book walk (see section 3). It incorporates strategies used
in shared reading and guided reading.

  • The tutor uses the book walk to familiarise the student with a new text.

  • The tutor guides the student in reading, talking and thinking through the text.

  • Next the student reads the text. The tutor stops to discuss strategies or to determine the
    student’s level of comprehension. The student uses known strategies to engage with the
    text, while the tutor guides the learning. It is important to encourage risk taking and
    praise attempts (see the Pause, prompt, praise strategy), particularly self corrections.

  • As the student interacts with the text, the tutor asks questions that help develop
    awareness of the strategies used.

Text choice is vital during this stage. The text should provide sufficient challenge for the
student, while at the same time, developing their confidence. The coordinator regularly
consults with the tutor to discuss text choices and strategies.


• Pause, prompt and praise

The main purpose of reading is to gain meaning from the text. Effective readers expect that
what they read will make sense. They develop strategies to self-correct when meaning is lost.
The tutor helps the student use the three cueing system as one of their comprehension
strategies. (See Section 1 for further information about the three cueing system.)

A pause, prompt, praise strategy is used when the student is reading aloud. This encourages
them to monitor their comprehension and develop self-correcting strategies.


  • Pause

     When the student makes a mistake, pause and wait . . . Give them at least five seconds to
     think through the problem before expecting an answer.


  • Prompt

     Give a hint to help the student continue reading. The resource How to help students
     during reading suggests prompts to use at this time. Remember, if the word is not correct
     after two or three prompts, say, ‘The word is . . ‘


  • Praise

     Praise plays an important role in developing the student’s confidence in reading. Tutors
     should give encouraging comments to support their efforts.
                                                 Unlocking literacy: keys to success           02:06



Giving praise throughout the program encourages the student’s development in reading. It
shows them they are actively learning, reinforces the to have a go strategy, rewards their
efforts and provides additional motivation for them to succeed.

If a teacher or tutor focuses on errors, the student’s negative reactions to reading are
reinforced. Conversely, by rewarding positive reading behaviours, the student develops a
more confident, optimistic and motivated attitude towards the reading process.

There are two main types of praise:

  • descriptive praise e.g. ‘Good work, you worked out the meaning!

  • general praise e.g. ‘Good boy/girl.’

Descriptive praise is more effective because it refers to, and reinforces, specific reading behaviours.

A sensible rule of thumb is to ignore most mistakes unless they disrupt the meaning of the text.
If the mistake is significant, provide assistance. Trust your own judgement.



• The ‘Reading with’ key is particularly effective for developing:

  • enthusiasm for and interest in reading

  • confidence in reading a rich variety of increasingly challenging material

  • problem solving strategies to gain meaning from texts

  • self-correcting strategies with support from the tutor’s prompts

  • vocabulary, word knowledge and word attack skills

  • understanding of text structures and features and ways to use them effectively

  • deeper understanding of texts through questioning and discussion of ideas and concepts.



• Some typical reading strategies include:

  • using prior knowledge of the content

  • making predictions and then confirming, modifying or rejecting these using context clues

  • using illustrations, photographs, diagrams and charts to gain meaning

  • using structures such as headings, sub headings and text layout to gain meaning

  • asking questions to monitor comprehension e.g. Does it make sense? Does it look right?
    Does it sound right?

  • reading ahead and rereading

  • using skimming and scanning techniques to find and check information

  • recognising and self-correcting miscues that disrupt meaning

  • asking for help.
                                               Unlocking literacy: keys to success        02:07



5. ‘Reading independently’ key
When the student reads independently the choice of text is crucial. The student might choose
to read familiar texts, or texts that provide support to allow for easy reading.

During this key, the tutor interacts with the student, discussing their reading, offering support
and challenging the student to analyse the text.



• Reading independently encourages students to:

  • make predictions

  • enjoy reading

  • gain confidence in reading aloud and silently

  • choose reading material wisely

  • learn about the different purposes for reading

  • choose strategies that are appropriate for different text types

  • solve problems.
                                                   Unlocking literacy: keys to success   02:08



6. ‘Three level questioning’ key
During this key, the tutor and the student share the responsibility of generating and
responding to questions. This occurs directly after the ‘Reading independently’ key.

1. The tutor asks a number of questions that might include on the line, between the lines and
   beyond the lines questions.

2. Both the tutor and the student formulate questions.

3. The tutor and student take turns in responding to the chosen questions.

4. By analysing the types of questions, the student comes to new understandings about the
   power of questioning.

5. Initially, this is a tutor directed approach.

6. Over time, the student develops understanding of the varying complexity of questions, the
   demands the questions place on them, and is able to formulate appropriate questions and
   responses.
                                               Unlocking literacy: keys to success   02:09



• On the line? (known as literal or ‘right there’ questions)

This is the simplest kind of question. The reader finds the answer in the text.



The student might be asked to:

  • identify the main ideas of the paragraph or short story

  • recall simple details

  • organise the sequence in which the main events occurred.



Examples of on the line questions using Goldilocks and the Three Bears:

  • How many bears were there in the story of Goldilocks and the Three Bears?

  • Who were the characters in this story?



Examples of on the line question starters:

  • What happened…?

  • How many…?

  • How did…?

  • Who…?

  • What is…?

  • Which…?
                                              Unlocking literacy: keys to success        02:10



• Between the lines? (also known as inferential or ‘think and search’ questions)

The reader searches for clues in the text and interprets the information to find the answer.



The student might be asked to:

  • anticipate endings and consequences

  • state reasons for events

  • make generalisations.



Examples of between the line questions using Goldilocks and the Three Bears:

  • How was Goldilocks feeling when she arrived at the bears’ house?

  • Why do you think Goldilocks chose to sleep at the bears’ house rather than going home
    to her own house?



Examples of between the line question starters:

  • Why did…?

  • What was…?

  • What do you think about…?

  • Can you explain…?

  • How was this similar to…?
                                              Unlocking literacy: keys to success   02:11



• Beyond the lines? (also known as evaluative or ‘on my own’ questions)

The reader makes links between the text and their own experience and knowledge to find the
answer. The question is open-ended, promotes rich discussion and deeper understanding. The
reader needs to justify the answer.



The student might be asked to:

  • make generalisations

  • make comparisons

  • make judgements

  • make recommendations and suggestions

  • make decisions

  • create alternative endings.



Examples of beyond the line questions using Goldilocks and the Three Bears:

  • Why is it important to own up to your own actions?

  • Why is it important to respect the property or space of others?



Examples of beyond the line question starters

  • Do you think that … should have … ?

  • What else could she/you …?

  • How would you … ?

  • Do you agree … ?

  • What would have happened if … ?

  • How might … ?

  • What effect does…?

  • If you were … what would you … ?
                                                Unlocking literacy: keys to success         02:12



7. ‘Writing in response’ key
This is the final key of the Unlocking literacy program. It involves the student linking their
reading to writing.

1. Ask the student to respond to one of the questions, preferably a between the lines, or
   beyond the lines question.

2. Have the student write their response, using an appropriate writing scaffold, in their
   student work book.

3. The student might also deconstruct what was read with a focus on:

  • purpose

  • audience

  • structure

  • key words (See Planning proformas and scaffolds in Section 5)

								
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