Business Process Modeling with Event-driven Process Chains by qws18475

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									Business Process Modeling with
Event-driven Process Chains


Jan Mendling
Institute of Information Systems and New Media
WU Wien
You will learn in this session…


• What business process management is,

• How business process modeling works, and

• What event-driven process chains are.
BPM and Workflow




         1. Business Process Management
A Retail Process




  Welcome      Offer     Bill      Hand over
  customer     Clothes   Clothes   clothes
Different business processes


• Production process



• Support process



• Managerial process
What is a Business Process?




                              Organization Chart:
                              units with assigned tasks
                              Business Process:
                              execution of tasks
                              coordination between tasks
                              Activity:
                              elementary part of a working step
Organization Chart WU Wien
Definitions related to Business Process


• “A process is a completely closed, timely and logical sequence of activities
  which are required to work on a business object” (e.g. invoice).

• “A business process is a special process that is directed by the business
  objectives of a company and by its business environment.”
  (Becker, Kahn 2003).

• “The real structure of the operation is that of a river. It continuously creates and distributes
  new products and services based on the same tasks or on tasks which only vary in detail.”
  (Nordsieck 1972).

• “The truth of Being and Nothing is accordingly the unity of the two: and this unity is
  BECOMING”
  (Hegel: Phänomenologie des Geistes, 1807)

• “Panta rhei - Everything flows, nothing stands still.”
  (Heraklitus of Ephesos, 535 - 475 BC)
Business Process versus Case



• Business Process                        • Case (Process Instance)
• Activity                                • Instance Activity
• Business Process Attributes             • Case Attributes


                   Car Assembly Process                         Car Assembly Case 3324
                   Mount doors                                  Mount doors on 3324
                   Car body number,                             Car body number 3324,
                   (Buyer),                                     Buyer Henry Ford,
                   Car color                                    Car color white
Business Process Management


• Task efficiency
 “It follows that the most important object of both the workmen and the
 management should be the training and development of each individual in
 the establishment, so that he can do (at his fastest pace and with the
 maximum of efficiency) the highest class of work for which his natural
 abilities fit him.”
 (Frederick W. Taylor 1911)

• Coordination efficiency
 “The question in view of this overall thinking is how to divide the tasks of a
 company other than by natural technical process phases?”
 (Nordsieck 1972)
BPM Lifecycle




                v.d.Aalst, t.Hofstede, Weske 2003
BPM and Workflow




           2. Business Process Modeling
Why Modeling?
What is Modeling?


• “A model is a simplifying mapping of reality to serve a specific purpose”
  (Stachowiak: Allgemeine Modelltheorie, 1973)

    • Mapping:      representation of natural or artificial originals that can be
                    models themselves

    • Simplying:    only those attributes of the original that are considered relevant
                    (abstraction)

    • Pragmatics: model is used by modeler in place of original for a certain time and
                    a certain purpose
Guidelines of Modeling (GoM)


1. Correctness:
    relates to the mapping, capture attributes of the original correctly

2. Relevance:
    abstract from those aspects that are not relevant

3. Economic Efficiency:
    Keep an eye on the purpose of modeling task

4. Clarity:
    the model should be intuitive to understand for involved stakeholders

5. Comparability:
    Use a similar mapping for similar aspects

6. Systematic Design:
    define interfaces to related models
Schütte, Rotthowe: The Guidelines of Modeling - An Approach to Enhance the Quality in Information Models, 1998.
Purposes of Business Process Modeling:
Organization Design


•   Process Documentation

•   Process Reorganization

•   Process Monitoring and Controlling

•   Continuous Improvement

•   Quality Management: ISO 9000

•   Benchmarking: Compare with best practice

•   Knowledge Management:
Purposes of Business Process Modeling:
Information Systems Design


•   Selection of ERP software

•   Model based Customizing

•   Software Development

•   Workflow Management

•   Simulation
What to model of a business process


• Tasks
• Coordination between tasks
    • synchronization
    • decisions
    • parallel work
    • repetition
    • …
• Organizational responsibilities
• Required resources
• Information input and output
• …
Modeling method, technique, and language




                       Karagiannis, Kühn 2002: Metamodelling Platforms.
                       http://www.dke.univie.ac.at/mmp/FullVersion_MMP_DexaECWeb2002.pdf
 Business Process Modeling Languages




               XOR




               XOR




    Event-driven Process Chains (EPC)            Petri Nets




Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN)   UML Activity Diagrams
Business Process Modelling Tools 2004




                            Gartner: Magic Quadrant for Business Process Analysis, 2004, 04 March 2004
                            (http://mediaproducts.gartner.com/reprints/idsscheer/119964.html)
The BPM Life cycle


                           analysis

                                 requirements

           requirements                         process model
                           design




       evaluation                                   implementation




                          enactment
              case data                         infrastructure

                                 case data

                          monitoring
BPM and Workflow




        3. Event-driven Process Chains (EPC)
Example from the SAP Reference Model
EPC Semantics: prose version


• Functions:
  activities of the business process
• Events:
  pre- and post-conditions of functions            EPC                 EPC
                                                            Activity           Pre- & Post-
• AND split:                                     Function              Event    condition

  activates all subsequent branches
  in concurrency
• OR split:                                                  XOR                   XOR
                                                             Join                  Split
  triggers one, two or up to all of multiple
  subsequent branches.
• XOR split:
  defines a choice to activate one of multiple               AND                   AND
                                                             Join                  Split
  subsequent branches.
• AND join:
  waits for all incoming branches to complete.
                                                             OR                    OR
• OR join:
                                                             Join                  Split
  waits for all active branches to complete.
• XOR join:
  continue when one of alternative branches
  has completed.
                   Exercise


• Have a look at the EPC business process model below. Write down the information that is
  represented by this model in English language sentences. Be precise and detailed, but not dissipated.
  Use this little exercise for a brief explanation in how far modeling is efficient.
            Exercise


• Wenn der Filialbestand unter die Bestellmenge fällt, wird
 automatisch eine Bestellung generiert. Diese wird gegen den
 Zentralbestand geprüft. Falls dieser nicht ausreicht, werden
 Artikel nachbestellt. Wenn diese eingetroffen sind oder falls der
 Bestand von vornherein ausreicht, werden die Artikel ausgeliefert.
 Somit ist die Bestellung abgeschlossen.
Solution




                                                                     Ereignis           Funktion

                                                                      Bestand
                                                                                          Artikel      Nachbestellung
                                                                       nicht
                                                                                       nachbestellen    eingetroffen
                                                                    ausreichend



                                                                                           xor
Filialbestand    Automatische
                                Bestellung   Zentralbestand                Bestand
unter Bestell-     Bestell-
                                vorhanden        prüfen                  ausreichend
    menge        Generierung

                                                              xor
 Ereignis         Funktion      Ereignis       Funktion                   Ereignis
                                                                                                          Artikel         Bestellung
                                                                                                         ausliefern     abgeschlossen



                                                                                                         Funktion         Ereignis
Combine Views with extended EPCs (eEPC)
           Exercise


• Die automatische Bestellgenerierung erfolgt auf Seiten der
 Filiale. Die erzeugte Bestellung geht in das Warenwirtschafts-
 system ein, anhand dessen die Zentrale Disposition den
 Zentralbestand prüft. Die Zentrale Disposition führt auch eine
 eventuelle Nachbestellung aus, die zu einer Bereitstellung der Waren
 führt. Der Transport ist für die Auslieferung der Waren zuständig, die
 ebenfalls im Warenwirtschaftssystem erfasst wird.
Solution


                                                                                                            Organisation        Leistung


             Organisation        Leistung                      Daten           Organisation                  Zentrale
                                                                                                                                  Artikel
                                                                                                            Disposition
                                                               Waren-            Zentrale
                 Filiale        Bestellung     geht ein in   wirtschafts-       Disposition
                                                                daten                                           führt aus    stellt bereit


                                                                                                Bestand
                                                                                                                       Artikel                Nachbestellung
                                                                                                 nicht
                                                                                                                    nachbestellen              eingetroffen
                                                                                              ausreichend
                   führt aus    erzeugt                         geht ein in   führt aus




Filialbestand          Automatische
                                             Bestellung           Zentralbestand                     Bestand
unter Bestell-           Bestell-
                                             vorhanden                prüfen                       ausreichend
    menge              Generierung



                                                                                                                                                     Artikel                Bestellung
                                                                                                                                                    ausliefern            abgeschlossen



                                                                                                                                             führt aus      geht ein in



                                                                                                                                                               Waren-
                                                                                                                                    Transport                wirtschafts-
                                                                                                                                                                daten


                                                                                                                                  Organisation                   Daten
BPM and Workflow




               4. Semantic Issues
EPC Semantics: Transition Relation


      (a)                  (b)




      (c)                  (d)




      (e)                  (f)




                                     Cuntz, Kindler, 2004
EPC Semantics: Transition Relation II



  (g)                        (h)




                                   Non-local semantics
How EPCs work


                     e1

                          a1

                     f1

                          a2

                c1

                          a3                    a9

                     e2                    f3

                          a4                    a8

                     f2                    e3

                          a5                    a7

                c2

                          a6

                     e4



                     (a) One OR-Join Loop EPC
How EPCs work II


                        e5                              e7

                         a11                              a17

                        f5                              f7

                         a12                              a18
                                  a23       a24
                   c3                                         c5

                         a13                              a19

                        e6                              e8

                         a14                              a20

                        f6                              f8

                         a15                              a21

                   c4                                         c6

                         a16                              a22

                        e9                              e10



                             (b) Two OR-Join Loop EPC
How EPCs work III


               e1                       e3                        e5

                    a1                       a8                    a15

               f1                       f3                        f5

                    a2                       a9                    a16
    a21                       a7                       a14
                         c1                       c3                   c5

                    a3                   a10                       a17      • Only if nothing can be
               e2                       e4                        e6
                                                                              propagated to arc a21, c1 is
                                                                              allowed to proceed.
                    a4                   a11                       a18
                                                                            • But if c1 is allowed to
               f2                       f4                        f6
                                                                              proceed, a folder can be
                    a5                   a12                       a19        propated to a21.
          c2                       c4                        c6             • But if something can be
                    a6                   a13                       a20        propagated to a21, c1 may
               e7                       e8                        e9          not proceed.
                                                                            • If c1 may not proceed,
                                                                              nothing can be propagated
                                                                              to arc a21 (see 1.)
                                                                            • …
Which one can fire?


                    e1
                    e1                                e1

                          a1
                          a1                               a1

                     f1
                     f1                               f1

                          a2
                          a2                               a2


             a3
             a3                        a6
                                       a6        a3                                   a6
                    c1
                    c1                                c1


                                                                     a7a                     a7d
                                                                               c3a
        f2
        f2                       e3
                                 e3         f2                    e3a                      e3b

             a4
             a4                        a7
                                       a7        a4                  a7b                     a7e

        e2                       f3         e2                    f3a                      f3b

                                                                               c3b
                                                                     a7c                     a7f


                    c2                                c2
             a5                        a8        a5                                   a8


                          a9                               a9

                    e4                                e4



        (a) EPC with OR-join on loop                  (b) Refinement of e3-f3 block
           Exercise


• Bei einer Ausschreibung werden zuerst die verschiedenen
 Einreichungen geprüft. Falls kein Angebot den Erwartungen
 entspricht, wird geprüft, ob die Ausschreibung zurückgestellt
 werden kann. Falls nein erfolgt eine neue Ausschreibung. Falls ja
 wird die Ausschreibung auf Wiedervorlage gestellt. Falls mindestens
 ein Angebot den Erwartungen entspricht, wird das beste Angebot
 ausgewählt. Wenn sowohl das Angebot ausgewählt ist als auch die
 Ausschreibung auf Wiedervorlage gelegt wurde, wird ein
 Abschlussbericht erstellt.
Solution

                                        Einreichungen
                                         eingetroffen



           Einreichungen
            eingetroffen


                                        Einreichungen
                                            prüfen




                                                     mindestens
                           kein Angebot
                                                    ein Angebot
                           angemessen
                                                    angemessen


                             Zurück-
                                                         Angebot
           ausschreiben      stellung
                                                        auswählen
                              prüfen


            neue Aus-
                                                         Angebot
            schreibung
                                                        ausgewählt



                           zurückstellen


                                                        Abschluss-
                                                         bericht
                                                        anfertigen


                                                        Aus-
                                                     schreibung
                                                    geschlossen
Problems with Connector Mismatch
Problems with Connector Mismatch
Lessons Learned


Use structured blocks




Use simple loops
BPM and Workflow




             5. EPC Reference Models
Real World EPC Process Models


• SAP Reference Model
 Keller & Teufel: SAP R/3 Process-oriented Implementation, 1998.

• Handels-H-Modell
 Becker & Schütte: Handelsinformationssysteme, 2nd Edition, 2006.

• Y-CIM-Modell für die Produktion
 Scheer: Wirtschaftsinformatik – Referenzmodelle für industrielle Geschäftsprozesse,
 7th Edition, 1997.



• ARIS Platform 7.0 by IDS Scheer AG: http://www.ids-scheer.de/
The SAP Reference Model


• About 10,000 information models

• 5 Hierarchy Levels

• 29 Branches

• Various model types: data, organization, processes, etc.

• 604 EPC business process models
Reusing Reference Models


                              analysis

                                    requirements

           requirements                            process model
                               design
                          Change EPC Models




       evaluation                                     implementation
                                                     Change SAP System




                             enactment
              case data                            infrastructure

                                    case data

                             monitoring
Why Correct EPC Models?


• Misunderstandings in

   • Teaching Processes

   • Comparing System with existing processes

   • Customization of System
How to find errors?


• Soundness (v.d.Aalst 1997):

   • For every state that is reachable from the start, the end
    can be reached.

   • If the end is reached, there is no activity still active.

   • All activities can be reached.

• Relaxed Soundness (Dehnert, Rittgens 2001):

   • Every activity participates in a run from start to end.
Verification Approach




 SAP Reference Model                                                                   WofYAWL Analysis
                                            Generated YAWL Models                           Output
                         EPC to YAWL                                        WofYAWL    <warning>
                                                                                       Task or (ahvi) may not forward
                                                                                       control to task xor (aho7)
       V
                                                                                       </warning>
                                                                                       <warning>
           V
                                                                                       Task or (ahvi) may not forward
               V                                                                       control to task and (ahql)
                                                                                       </warning>
                                                                                       ...



                                                                             Table
                                            Model Characteristics
                   Model Analyzer                                          Generator
                                       <model>
                                       <treenr>Asset Accounting</treenr>
                                       <modelnr>1</modelnr>
                                       <modeltype>MT_EEPC</modeltype>                         Analysis Table
                                       <level>5</level>
                                                                                             #   #   #   #   #   #   #   #
                                       <name>Index Series</name>
                                       <events>0</events>                                    #   #   #   #   #   #   #   #
                                       <andsplits>0</andsplits>                              #   #   #   #   #   #   #   #
                                       <arcs>2</arcs>                                        #   #   #   #   #   #   #   #
                                       <hasCycles>false</hasCycles>                          #   #   #   #   #   #   #   #
                                       ...                                                   #   #   #   #   #   #   #   #
An EPC from the SAP Reference Model
Mapping to YAWL




            (a)                    (b)                                         Input
   EPC            Atomic   EPC             no                                Condition
 Function          Task    Event         mapping
                                                                   (i)
                                                   Start   Start


            (c)                    (d)                                    OR
                   XOR                     XOR                           Split
                   Split                   Split                         Task
                   Task                    Task



            (e)    AND             (f)     AND
                   Join                    Split                          OR
                   Task                    Task                          Join
                                                                         Task
                                                                   (j)

                                                   End     End
            (g)     OR             (h)      OR
                   Join                    Split                              Output
                   Task                    Task                              Condition
The resulting YAWL net




             or               and                                       xor                         or
           (c91z)            (c92k)                                   (c8zy)                      (c93t)


                      or         Certificate Profile and Profile          Creation of a Quality
                    (c8yr)            Assignment (c92d)                    Certificate (c91h)


            and                    xor                         and                                         Out
   Split
           (c8z0)                (c8zg)                      (c90q)       Edit Recipient of Quality        put
                                                                             Certificate (c939)
                      or
                    (c8z9)                                              and
                                                                      (c907)
                                                                                    or
                                                                                  (c90e)
Petri Net analysis within WofYAWL
Potential Correction
Results
Modeling Error 1: Deadlock
Modeling Error 2: Livelock
Modeling Error 3: Multiple Instantiation
Why Errors


• Hypotheses:
  • Model Size
  • Model Complexity
  • Error Patterns
• Independent variables:
  • Number of each element type
  • Cycles
  • Complexity metrics based on state space
• Logistic Regression:
  • Explain error (yes/no)
  • Nagelkerke R2:            0.30 and 0.26 in significant models
  • Correct Classification:   about 95%
Conclusion


• Correctness is an issue in practice

   • Relaxed Soundness as a lower bound

   • At 5.6% of the models with errors

• Model Complexity matters

• Closer coupling of process models and enterprise system needed
BPM and Workflow




                   6. Summary
ARIS House of Business Engineering




                                     Nüttgens, Scheer 2000
Lessons Learned


Use structured blocks




Use simple loops

								
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