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					Audio/Video compression
Recent progress


Alain Bouffioux
December, 20, 2006
Agenda

 Digital cinema
 3D-television
 High-definition television and DVD




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                                      AV Compression / Alain Bouffioux   December, 20, 2006
Agenda

 Digital cinema
 3D-television
 High-definition television and DVD




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                                      AV Compression / Alain Bouffioux   December, 20, 2006
Introduction

 2002 – Digital cinema initiative created by 7 studios
 2006 – First standardized (non-proprietary) trial
 Advantages of digital cinema
  – Higher quality image
  – No deterioration with time (scratches, dirt…)
  – Possibility of 3-D offering (need to carry glasses with polarized lenses)
       • Passive: one lens polarized in one direction, the other one in the other one
         (cheap lenses but special screen for keeping polarization of reflected light)
       • Active: lenses are switched on/off by an infrared signal
         (normal screen but need to collect and wash the lenses at the end of the
         projection)
  – Ease of copy and distribution (satellite or hard-disk drive via truck)
  – Possibility of new applications: football match or concert in real-time 3D
    rendering



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                                                  AV Compression / Alain Bouffioux   December, 20, 2006
About the digital cinema standard

 Some numbers;
  –   Film still shot on 35-mm film
  –   After capture and digitization: about 5000 Terabytes
  –   Final uncompressed movie: some terabytes
  –   After compression: about 300 Gigabytes
 The standard
  – Resolution: equivalent to 35 mm film
    Minimum resolution: 2048 * 1080 (called 2K)
    Other resolution: 4096 * 2160 (called 4K)
  – 16 bits per color/48 bits per pixels
  – Video compression: Not MPEG-2 to avoid motion artifact
     JPEG2000 – each frame encoded individually (no removal of intra-
    frame redundancy, wavelet transform)
  – Audio compression: “uncompressed” CD-quality



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                                             AV Compression / Alain Bouffioux   December, 20, 2006
System workflow   (From Digital Cinema System specification v1.0, www.dcimovies.com)




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                                      AV Compression / Alain Bouffioux   December, 20, 2006
Agenda

 Digital cinema
 3D-television
 High-definition television and DVD




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                                      AV Compression / Alain Bouffioux   December, 20, 2006
3D-television (1/2)

 3D-television without wearing glasses is possible.
 The television screen is covered with small lenses. Each eye sees
 other parts of the television screen and perceives other images. When
 the two images are stereoscopic views of the same scene, a 3D-
 experience is provided.
 3D content is needed
 3D content may be provided from traditional film after processing.
 Depth information may be computed when the camera is moving.
 Depth information encoding within MPEG stream currently under
 definition.




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                                         AV Compression / Alain Bouffioux   December, 20, 2006
3D-television (2/2)

 2D-to-3D conversion may occur in real-time.
  3-D television possible with 2D-content and processing within
 television set.
 But, problem when hidden surface becoming visible (no depth
 information)
 2D-to-3D conversion off-line
 Film may be processed in both directions (begin-to-end and end-to-
 begin) to solve the problem of hidden surface becoming visible. Depth
 information is then stored in MPEG stream.




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                                        AV Compression / Alain Bouffioux   December, 20, 2006
Agenda

 Digital cinema
 3D-television
 High-definition television and DVD




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                                      AV Compression / Alain Bouffioux   December, 20, 2006
Blue-ray versus HD-DVD



 Two competing format:
 Blue-ray and HD-DVD format
 Some readers equipped with both formats
 Blue-laser for both but different wavelength
 Blue-Ray (25Mbps) versus HD-DVD (15 Mbps)




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                                         AV Compression / Alain Bouffioux   December, 20, 2006
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AV Compression / Alain Bouffioux   December, 20, 2006