"SOLARGE -National market analysis for CSTS in 2005 Resear"
SOLARGE - National market analysis for CSTS in 2005 Research design, research results and conclusions for SOLARGE 2006 Presentation by Christoph Urbschat, eclareon GmbH Anja Schlieder, eclareon GmbH Susanne Berger, Berliner Energieagentur GmbH The sole responsibility for the content of this presentation lies with the authors. It does not represent the opinion of the European Communities. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein. 1 1. Research Design 2 Aims and objectives • WP 1 carries out a systematic overview of national structures, policies and market situations in the relevant building sectors and collective solar heating potentials of the partner countries. • The analysis focuses on the main market obstacles and barriers for the implementation of CSTS. • The market studies create the basis to define strategies and concrete actions to be worked out in the following work packages to achieve the intended market stimulation for CSTS technologies. • They will also generate recommendations to policy makers on how to overcome market barriers. 3 Market model for analysis National housing and hotel sector • National building stock • Used heating systems • Refurbishment and new construction activities • Actors involvement in solar obstacles obstacles National legislative and National energy policy economic framework framework CSTS • Energy prices • National energy policy implementation • Capital market terms for • National administration this kind of investments • National incentives for • Legal conditions for CSTS refurbishment activities • Building sector regulations barriers barriers National solar industry • Market history – has market and industry for CSTS developed? • Micro: commercial products available? 4 Work programme 2005 1. Definition of research objectives and design of a draft Version 1.0 2. Circling around to WP partners 3. Evaluation by Work Package Partners 4. Finalisation of research objectives and design 5. Providing the research guidelines to project partners (questionnaire) 6. Data collection phase 1: Collection of public available macro analysis data 7. Definition of data needed to finalise the data collection 8. Data collection phase 2: Collection of macro analysis data by National WP partners 9. Programming of database relating to the Research Objects and Design Document 10. Definition of data still needed to finalise the data collection 11. Data collection phase 3: Primary research of still missing data 12. Comparative country analysis 13. Summary + conclusions for 2006 5 Deliverables December 2005 Data Collection / Structuring SOLARGE Macro profiles Assessment Comparative Analysis Available PDFs for public dissemination Brochure Presentation Country profiles 6 2. Country research results - status 2005 7 1. Spain (1) National building stock of about 14.1 million dwellings in 2000, thereof 65 % apartments 42 % of the dwellings built between 1980 and 2000 Share of privately owned dwellings: about 85 % 48 % of the building stock equipped with a heating system; heating in most National multi family areas only used from December to February housing sector Individual heating overweighs centralised heating Main energy source for heating is gas (mainly in the north), amounting to 39 %, followed by electricity and liquid fuels; district heating is rare Many new building activities, whereas yearly refurbishing rate is around 0,5 % 89 % condominium ownership In 2004, total number of hotels and hostels about 13,832 with almost 1,2 million beds in total and an occupation rate of around 54 % Generally, space heating and hot water provided by central systems National hotel sector Energy sources are mainly gas or oil Refurbishing rate unknown, newly constructed hotels amount to 1.1 %, i. e. >152 hotels per year 70 % of the hotel sector is privately owned (in 1999) 8 1. Spain (2) Galicia Galicia Bask region Bask region Gas Electricity Madrid Madrid Induvidual Liquid Central Wood Catalonia Catalonia Carbon Others Andalusia Andalusia Spain (total) Spain (total) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Penetration of individual (per dwelling) and centralized (per apartment Penetration of energy sources for space heating in different regions building) heating equipment in different regions Source: INE, 2001 Source: INE, 2001 9 1. Spain (3) By 2004, around 420,370 m² installed glazed collectors in total However, installed surface per 1,000 inhabitants still below European average National CSTS market Market share CSTS: about 80 %; market growth in the last 2 years: 5-11 % development Large systems are the main market segment: 69 % of the installations with collector area of ≥30 m², representing 92 % of the total collector area in 2002 Systems with a collector surface of more than 100 m² are dominant Energy prices are quite low National legislative Interest rate for real estate loans amounts to 3-4 %, equity minimum: 20 % and economic Expected pay back time for refurbishments in the range of 5 to 10 years framework Solar Ordinance of 50 municipalities: SWH is obligatory in new buildings and renovation projects (solar fraction: 60 %) New building code (CTE) to come into force by 2005/2006, applicable for all new buildings and major renovation projects (minimum solar fraction: 30 %) Update of Renewable Energy Plan 2005-2010 (PER 2005): Goal by 2010: 4.9 National energy million m² solar thermal installations (10 % more than the original plan) policy Special loans and a budget of 348 M€ for subsidies up to 2010; maximum finance: 80 % of the eligible costs (30 % subsidies + 50 % loans) Tax deduction of 10 % of investment costs (enterprises) and intended implementation of a fiscal incentive on income tax for private persons 10 2. Denmark (1) Total of 2.6 million dwellings, most of them (38 %) multi family houses, followed by one-family houses and terraced houses Most of the dwellings built between 1975 and 1979 and before 1900 Major part of the multi family houses (36 %) owned by non profit (social) National multi family housing associations, followed by condominium ownership (20 %), housing sector municipalities and others (20 %) Very high share of district heating; central oil and gas are rare DHW and space heating in nearly all cases with same energy source Estimated refurbishing rate: 0,2 %; new constructions exceeded 4 % in 2004 Number of rooms in 2005 registered to be 41,838 located in 527 hotels Amount of hotels plunged by 43 % from 1993-2003, whereas increasing number of rooms Rate of occupancy: about 35 % in 2003 National hotel sector Mostly used heating systems: radiators; in some new hotels floor heating common DHW segment dominated by central systems Majority of the hotels connected to district heating Nearly 72 % of the hotel sector owned by commercials (chains of hotels) 11 2. Denmark (2) Source of heating Private person Cooperative housing ass. Joint-stock companies etc. District heating Central, oil Private multi-ow ner scheme Central, gas (Houses) Central, other fuel Authorities Electricity Other owens Private multi-ow ner scheme (Flats) n.a. Other Ownership of all dwellings Sources of heating in multi family houses Source: www.danmarksstatistik, 2004 Source: www.danmarksstatistik.dk, 2004 12 2. Denmark (3) Large systems still installed by the manufacturers Development of district heating systems is a special Danish feature National CSTS market 283,500 m² glazed collectors supposed to be installed in total by end of 2004, development thereof 45-50,000 m² of CSTS Market growth expected to amount to 50 % in 2005 Compared to the periods before 2002, the market is still at a low level Wide range of prices for district heating Combined heat and power common in large scale, thus lower prices in big cities National legislative and economic framework Access to loans (housing and hotel sector) and low interest loans guaranteed by the government (cooperative housing sector and municipalities) New building code to come into force January 2006 Particular goal: reduction of CO2-emissions, according to the Kyoto-treaty, at the lowest price possible Solar energy considered to be one of the most expensive ways to reduce CO2- National energy policy emissions (thus, low priority of the government) National support schemes undertaken by the Energy Agency under the Ministry of Traffic and Energy No subsidy schemes or other incentives for solar energy 13 3. Italy (1) 21.5 million dwellings (i. e. 30 % of the total amount of dwellings) One family houses (6.9 million) outweigh multi family houses 3.95 million dwellings built between 1961-1981 About 75 % of the population own their apartment, i. e. 15 million flats Mostly multi ownerships, administrated by external companies/single persons National multi >90 % of the dwellings are privately owned houses and flats, including condominium family housing ownership sector DHW: autonomous heating systems very common (e. g. boilers); rarely centralized DHW systems and district heating Space heating: centralized systems widely spread Trend towards autonomous heating plants, especially in social housing sector High refurbishment rate: after 1991, more than 430,000 buildings refurbished Certain share of MFH with beneficial heating system Almost 33,500 hotels, mostly located in the north and centre of the country 1.9 million beds; occupancy rate amounts to 44 % Centralized heating is most common for DHW and space heating National hotel The energy resource used in almost every hotel is gas sector In the south also autonomous heating systems; on the islands electric DHW 72 % of the hotels (in Venice and Mestre) refurbished between 1995 and 2001 45 % part of consortiums, 25 % in ownership and in franchising respectively 14 3. Italy (2) electricity 260.000 6,5 100% 100 90% solid fuel 1.400.000 90 non electric 18,5 80% 80 DHW 70% gas, lpg and 70 3.870.000 60% gasoline 60 lpg 50% 12.100.000 [%] 50 75 gasoline 40% electric 40 natural gas 30% DHW 20% 4.650.000 30 10% 20 0% 10 heating and DHW in one plant heating and DHW separated 0 Share of different types of fuels in space heating plants of Italian Share of different types of fuels in DHW-preparation of Italian apartments apartments Source: ISTAT, 2001 Source: ENEA, 2004 15 3. Italy (3) 4,000 to 8,000 m² CSTS installed so far, which corresponds to an estimated National CSTS market share of only 1-2 % market development Market growth of about 25 % during the past 2 - 3 years In the centre and the south thermosiphon systems mostly used Interest rates for real estate investment amount to 3.5-4 % Bank finance: 75-80 % of acquirement investment and 100 % for refurbishment Refurbishment payback times: 8 years for plants, 20-25 years for buildings National legislative and economic Law (Legge 10/91) on maximum primary energy demand of buildings and framework obligation for administrations to install solar systems; however: obsolete Regional laws, to be included in the local building codes, exist in some cases Building directive 2002/91/ICE will come into force by the end of 2006, defining maximum values for heat consumption In 2001, allocation of 6 million € for support of CSTS by environment ministry VAT reduction of 10 % for solar thermal systems Subsidy program of 15.5 million €, managed by the regions, started in 2002 National energy policy Accorded subsidies: 30 % of the investment; each region decides on how to finance solar thermal plants Promotion program (9 million €) for central and southern regions with subsidies of up to 50 % of the investment costs 16 4. Slovenia (1) National building stock of >777,000 dwellings, of which 242,000 (31 %) are multifamily houses and 65 % are equipped with central heating systems 59 % of the houses built before 1975 and 31 % between 1975 and 1990 More than 92 % of the dwellings are privately owned, due to sales of state National multi owned building stock under very favourable conditions in the 1990s family housing 27,000 non-occupied dwellings sector High energy consumption for water heating, arousing potential for solar thermal Oil is dominant for space heating (almost 45 %), followed by biomass (29 %) and district heating (12 %) For water heating, electricity is also common (29 %) Rate of new constructions in 2002 less than 0,1 % 190 hotels, mainly built after 1965, situated in 30 important tourist centres Capacity of 27,500 to 30,000 beds in total; 400 to 500 beds on average Yearly occupancy rate of about 47.9 % 65 % of the hotels are privately owned, with only a few hotel chains National hotel sector Also interesting for solar thermal: 13 existing larger campsites Renovation realised by important hotel chains in recent years; 2,000 boilers are to be replaced by 2010 On average, around 90 buildings newly constructed per year Refurbishment activities due to developing tourist sector 17 4. Slovenia (2) Share of space heating systems according to the Share of water heating systems according to the type of heating systems (2002) type of heating systems (2002) District heating, 14% District heating; 14% Local boiler; 4% Local boiler 4% Central heating Central system, 66% heating system, 66% Share of energy sources in final energy consumption for Type of heating systems for heating and hot water heating in households heating and hot water heating in households Source: Statistical Yearbook Republic of Slovenia; 2002 Source: Statistical Yearbook Republic of Slovenia; 2002 18 4. Slovenia (3) Large number of solar systems installed between 1980 and 1990 Around 9,000 m² of glazed solar collectors installed from 2000-2004 National CSTS market development Approx. 1,800 m² newly installed glazed collectors in 2004, thereof 250 m² CSTS Only very few CSTS installed per year, due to bad experiences concerning durability in the past Payback times vary, depending on the dimension and technology of refurbishment measures (from 3-4 up to 25 years) Mechanisms to shift investment costs from the investor/owner to the National legislative users/tenants are fixed in individual agreements and economic framework Regulation on thermal protection and efficient energy use in buildings: solar systems can be included in the calculation of the final energy consumption in buildings with up to 4 apartments (individual buildings only) No obligations for CSTS and no solar ordinance regulations so far Objective: share of heat production out of RES of 25 % by 2010 (today: 22 %) National environment protection program envisions 10,000 m² of solar National energy collectors newly installed by 2010 policy No direct support scheme or promotion program for CSTS In the past, support for self-construction for small systems Subsidies in 2004 for MFH and hotels: up to 40 % of eligible costs 19 5. Germany (1) National building stock of about 38 million apartments, thereof 54 % (three million) multifamily buildings and 18 % two-family houses, i. e. 17 million dwellings Most multifamily houses with central heating systems for several buildings Differences in the building stock between old and new federal states Most common energy source for heating: natural gas National multi family housing In the new federal states, district heating and coal fired systems also common, sector whereas in the old federal states oil is used to a great extend In 2003, 92 billion € invested in refurbishment, while 52 billion € invested in new constructions; certain share of MFH with beneficial heating system 60 % of the building stock is privately owned in the old federal states, whereas the majority in the new federal states is conducted by cooperatives, communities or municipal housing companies (almost 70 %) Capacity of more than 2.5 million beds in 53,771 accommodation facilities in 2003 Most overnight stays in summer, which is advantageous for the adoption of solar thermal energy National hotel In 2004, 549 newly constructed and 1,156 refurbished hotels sector Concerning the ownership structure, there is a trend towards expansion of hotel chains (38 % in 2000) Short payback times and image reasons for CSTS 20 5. Germany (2) Western Germany States Eastern States Natural gas 43,3% 44,7% 37,1% Oil 34,0% 38,5% 14,4% District heating 13,1% 8,8% 31,8% Electricity 4,6% 5,2% 2,0% Coal, Lignite 3,1% 1,4% 14,1% Renewable energy 1,1% 1,2% 0,6% Heating systems of German residential buildings Source: destatis 2005 21 5. Germany (3) National CSTS 750,000 m² of glazed collector surface installed in 2004, thereof about 5 % CSTS market In total, an estimated collector area of 60,000 to 75,000 m² is installed in the development multifamily building sector Interest rates for real estate investment around 3.5 %; reduced interest rates granted by the Reconstruction Loan Cooperation (KfW) Shorter pay back times for refurbishment in the hotel sector (< 5 years) than in National the housing sector legislative and Tendency towards lower equity and/or liquidity in the housing sector economic Heating costs are paid by the tenants; investments in energy refurbishment can be framework refinanced by a rent increase Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV, 2002) limits the energy supply of buildings Regulations of the Energy Performance Building Directive (EPBD) will be integrated into EnEV by the end of 2005 Goal: doubling the cumulative installed collector area to 10 million m² by 2010 Promotion initiative “Solar Thermal Energy for Multifamily Buildings” since 2002 Subsidy programs Solarthermie 2000+ and market incentive program National energy (Marktanreizprogramm) policy Numerous initiatives and subsidy programs on national, regional and local level Soft loans by the Reconstruction Loan Cooperation (KfW) of up to the total of investment costs for building reconstruction 22 6. Netherlands (1) National building stock of 6.8 million houses, thereof two million (30 %) multifamily dwellings in about 70,000 buildings 3.4 million houses built after 1970 63 % of the multifamily dwellings owned by housing associations, 27 % privately owned and 10 % privately rented National multi Non profit housing associations own 35 % of all dwellings family housing 10 % of the social and privately rented houses with collective heating installations; sector hot water is also provided individually in most cases (84 %) For space heating, gas is used in 97 % of the houses For water heating, natural gas is mostly used (79 %); also electricity (11 %) and collective systems (10 %) Yearly refurbishing rate amounts to 6.7 %, whereas new construction rate is only about 0.8 % In 2003, about 90,850 accommodations in 2,900 hotels existing Occupancy rate amounts to 63.2 % Central gas-fired boilers are common for heating and hot water supply National hotel Refurbishing rate of hot water systems in 2004 amounts to 6.7 % sector Privately owned: 80 % of the hotels small enterprises, 20 % large hotel chains Payback times for investments in energy savings are short (3-5 years) which is unfavourable CSTS opportunities more on image than on economic aspects 23 6. Netherlands (2) District Heat 10% Hot water demand per occupied bed Electricity (litres/day at 60º C) 11% Room with washbasin 6±1 Room with washbasin and 21 ± 3 shower Room with washbasin, 54 ± 8 shower and bath Natural Gas 79% Laundry 18 ± 9 Energy sources for water heating Hot water demand for hotel facilities Source: De Kwaliteit van de Nederlandse woning en woonomgeving rond Ssource: ISSO Publicatie 59 Grote zonneboilers – ontwerp, uitvoering de millenniumwisseling – Basisrapportage Kwalitatieve Woonregistratie en beheer, 2000 2000 (VROM) 24 6. Netherlands (3) Stabilised market volume (stagnating) due to the abolition of the national subsidy scheme in 2003; only tax reduction for companies + local subsidy schemes remaining National CSTS market Objective of 400,000 solar water heaters by 2010 unlikely to be reached development 36,000 m² CSTS installed by 2002; >5,000 m² CSTS newly installed in 2004 CSTS market growth is 13 % in 2004 Due to the small size of the market no continuing market development Low interest rates granted for non-profit housing associations, investing in real estate, with payback times of 10-15 years National legislative For commercial investors, payback times amount to 3-5 years and economic framework Heating costs sometimes included in service costs, but generally paid by tenants No mechanism to shift the investment costs to the tenants without their written permission; however, exception for new rent contracts National goal of 400,000 solar water heaters by 2010 doubtful due to abandoned national subsidy program (see above) Still existing: Fiscal stimuli, e. g. Energy Investment Allowance (EIA) and Green National energy Investment tax deduction policy Since 2005, subsidy program for dissemination activities and feasibility studies Several responsibilities shifted from national to local governments 25 7. Cyprus (1) National building stock of about 300,000 dwellings (2003) mainly consists of single houses and apartment blocks MFH with 6 to 8 apartments are currently very much increasing National multi Space heating usually done with large diesel fired boiler units; hot water supply is family housing managed by thermosiphon solar water heaters; each dwelling has its own sector system Yearly refurbishing rate between 7 and 9 % 80 % condominium ownership of the total housing stock; the rest of 20 % consists of Government low-cost housing schemes and self-help housing schemes Around 100,000 beds capacity located in around 1,000 hotels, hotel apartments, apartment blocks and tourist villages; falling rate of occupancy from 75 % in 2001 to 55 % in 2004 50 % of hotels are utilising large solar water heating systems with diesel fire boilers for support during winter National hotel Forced circulation systems are used with large array of flat plate collectors (300m²) sector and central hot water storage tank Central heating systems like HVAC most commonly used for space heating Refurbishing rate about 1,000 to 1,500 hotels per year Until 1990, 100 % were family businesses, nowadays chain of hotels run by large companies are taking over the business more and more (40 % of capacity until today) 26 7. Cyprus (2) Energy Balance for Households Energy Balance for Hotels Solar, 5% Electricity, 13% LPG, 12% Solar, 29% , Electricity, 38% LPG, 12% Diesel, 42% Kerosine, 4% Diesel, 45% Electricity Diesel Kerosine LPG Solar Electricity Diesel LPG Solar Energy sources used in households in 2003 Energy sources used in hotels in 2003 Source: Cyprus Solar Thermal Market 2003, Cyprus Institute of Energy Source: Cyprus Institute of Energy, 2003 27 7. Cyprus (3) With 450,000 m² glazed collectors word leader in respect to installed solar collectors per capita National CSTS market 45,000 m² CSTS already installed (by 2005); yearly market growth from 10- development 15 % National production capacities of about 30,000 m²/year High energy prices National legislative Interest rates from 4.25 % for short term up to 4.75 % for long term loans; and economic expected pay back time for refurbishments is 10 years framework Heating costs are paid by tenants; no mechanisms used to shift the investment costs from the investor/owner to the users/tenants Action plan towards sustainable energy for Cyprus is also focussing on utilisation of solar thermal energy for further application like space heating and space cooling A grant scheme covers investments in Solar thermal based on mature National energy policy technologies up to 40 % of the investment maximum not exceeding 83,000 euros The Cyprus Institute of Energy runs the programme; beneficiaries are schools, municipalities and communities 28 7. France (1) Total housing stock of 29.4 million units in 2002 10.6 million dwellings, i. e. 43.3 %, are multifamily houses 13.7 million houses (56 %) are privately owned, thereof 2.6 million MFH 17.3 % are tenants in the social sector and 20.7 % in the private sector National multi Most dwellings (35 %) built between 1949 and 1974 and before 1948 (31.2 %) family housing sector Decentralized heating systems are common Energy source in most cases: gas and electricity; trend towards individual gas heating systems In 2004, more than 133,000 MFH houses newly constructed 45 % social housing ownership National building stock of 27,629 hotels in 2005 In most cases (50 %) privately/family owned (independent hotels), National hotel 18 % commercial ownership (voluntary/integrated chains) sector Mostly decentralized heating systems In economic class hotels mostly electric heating systems, in upper class hotels different energy sources are used 29 8. France (2) Heating systems in MFH > 19 Apartments Heating types in MFH referring to year of construction 90% District heating 80% No 20,0% 70% Central heating 34,9% 60% 50% 40% Coal Gas central heating 30% / Wood heating 21,0% 20% 0,1% 10% 0% Electric CentraleheatingFuel central heating 1,3% 22,7% Vor 1915 1915 - 1949 - 1968 - 1975 - 1982 - ab 1990 1948 1967 1974 1981 1989 District heating Gas Fuel Electric and cabbage and wood No Central heating Fraction of heating systems in MFH Source: - Fraction of heating types in MFH, referring to year of construction Source: - 30 8. France (3) In the past, some public owners very active in CSTS, especially in social housing National CSTS In 2004, about 7,768 m² of CSTS installed, i. e. market share of 7.8 % market development For 2005, estimation of 15,000 m² of CSTS installed, i. e. 20 % of the market share Objective by the end of 2006: 15,000 m² of CSTS installed yearly Reallocation of the investment costs from the owner to the tenants is impossible SRU Law with reference to decent housing (bonus on the utilisation of renewable energies) National legislative and economic Girardin Law for overseas departments, containing tax credits dispositions for framework investments in renewable energy New thermal regulation 2005 to come into force by 2006, with stricter requirements on energetic performance in new buildings (for hot water production) Objective: one million m² installed per year by 2010, i. e. at least 200,000 m² yearly for CSTS Plan Soleil, continuing until the end of 2006, has been revised in 2004 National energy policy Promotion measures by ADEME as well as financial supports, i. e. subsidies renegotiated each year Support only granted when successive steps are followed (feasibility studies, certificated collectors, realisation) 31 3. Summary and overview – Comparison between countries 32 Summary – Assessment criteria Assessment criteria = assess the effects of the present market conditions and framework on the implementation of CSTS in each national housing and hotel sector +++ = optimal conditions for CSTS implementation ++ = advantageous conditions + = rather advantageous 0 = without influence - = rather disadvantageous -- = disadvantageous --- = implementation almost impossible 33 Summary – Comparison between SOLARGE countries (1) CSTS in the MFH sector CSTS in the hotel sector DENMARK 0 -- NETHERLANDS + 0 GERMANY + + FRANCE ++ ++ SPAIN + ++ ITALY + + SLOVENIA 0 + CYPRUS + ++ Legend: +++ = optimal conditions, ++ = advantageous, + = rather advantageous, 0 = without influence, - = rather disadvantageous, -- = very disadvantageous, --- = almost impossible 34 Summary – Comparison between SOLARGE countries (2) National National economic National energy legislative framework for policy for CSTS framework for CSTS CSTS DENMARK --- 0 + NETHERLANDS 0 0 + GERMANY + + + FRANCE ++ + ++ SPAIN ++ - + ITALY + ++ + SLOVENIA + 0 - CYPRUS + ++ 0 Legend: +++ = optimal framework, ++ = advantageous, + = rather advantageous, 0 = without influence, - = rather disadvantageous, -- = very disadvantageous, --- = almost impossible 35 4. Conclusions for SOLARGE activities in 2006 36 1. SOLARGE Spain Interesting market segment for SOLARGE: new housing sector of multi family Conclusion housing houses sector Most important market segment for SOLARGE is the condominium ownership of apartments Due to significant energy costs: hot water production as promising market Conclusion hotel segment for SOLARGE sector Low production rate of new hotels calls for focusing on existing hotels Market is slowly becoming mature and professional Need/potential for large systems remains, due to high market share of Conclusion CSTS apartment buildings market Necessity to find adequate solutions for decentralized systems Technological development must be improved, including minimum requirements, optimal (building) integration etc. Low energy prices are not a main aspect for the market development Conclusion legislative New building code (CTE) will have a major effect on the market, especially in and economic the new building sector framework Main challenge/success factor will be to facilitate the implementation of the CTE The combination of CTE, PER 2005 as well as subsidies and credit lines will Conclusion energy create a sound basis for the market development policy Key actors on the implementation of the CTE are public bodies on national, regional and local level 37 2. SOLARGE Denmark More CSTS to be installed at the district heating plant Conclusion housing District heating, though, will not be possible for new buildings sector For the few buildings with oil and gas solar will be an issue Wide-spread use of central hot water is essential for CSTS at building level Only a small share of the building stock interesting for CSTS due to common district heating Conclusion hotel Long pay back period of investments causes reluctance; adequate incentives sector needed Solar is attractive due to central heating systems and hot water production Important focus: Horesta, the Danish association for hotels and restaurants Sector of large scale plants for district heating of interest for SOLARGE Conclusion CSTS Also in focus: new construction sector, based on buildings energy market performance regulations Knowledge/capacity of the manufacturers available for a larger market Conclusion legislative and economic Relatively high energy prices due to heavy taxation motivate to invest in CSTS framework No incentives at hand in order to promote CSTS, although high fuel prices Conclusion energy result in a growing market policy Promotion by SOLARGE: demonstration of CSTS advantages in comparison to other energy sources 38 3. SOLARGE Italy Large share of dwellings situated in MFH with high refurbishment rate Conclusion housing However, mostly autonomous heating systems and privately owned flats sector Installation of CSTS hindered by technical and decisional problems Target group: housing associations and building companies Hotels in the south more and more interested in solar thermal plants Conclusion hotel High technical potential for solar thermal sector However, moderate development due to subsidized energy prices by hotel owners, assuming short payback times for investments Supply side not very sufficiently established to satisfy a broader demand Conclusion CSTS Bottleneck: missing knowledge of installers market Crucial aspect for SOLARGE: cooperation with all actors of supply side High energy prices as important precondition for cost-effective CSTS Conclusion legislative Despite new economic and legislative schemes underway, investors not and economic convinced yet framework Necessity to establish complete service packages and collateral measures, while collaborating with investors (e. g. building enterprises) Despite incentive systems, the goal of 3 million m² installed collector area will Conclusion energy not be reached by 2010 policy Long term R&D program for CSTS would be crucial to develop appropriate technology and to build up confidence 39 4. SOLARGE Germany Intended CSTS integration is based on about three million multifamily houses, thereof 80 % with a technical beneficial system, and a high potential for energetic optimization Conclusion housing Ownership associations are a relevant target group for SOLARGE sector activities Solar activities should be a part of marketing strategy, especially for demand dominated market relations Hotel chains are a relevant target group for SOLARGE, although the financial scope for additional (e. g. solar) activities is relatively low Conclusion hotel sector Integration of solar solutions into the marketing strategy (e.g. Wellness- Hotels, Eco-Tourism) could be realised Market sector for CSTS still little developed, although actors show an Conclusion CSTS market increasing interest for its improvement Due to high energy prices and price increases the framework is Conclusion legislative advantageous for CSTS and economic framework Integration of solar activities also to be simplified by the obligation of an energy efficiency label for residential buildings Conclusion energy Different subsidies for CSTS investments are available policy Subsidies might arouse positive effects for CSTS 40 5. SOLARGE Netherlands Most important stakeholders for SOLARGE are housing associations Conclusion Promotion to be embedded in refurbishment approaches (e. g. comfort, health) housing sector Attention for energy savings will grow, due to fast growing energy prices Few hotel chains, owning 20 % of all hotels, allow focused dissemination efforts Conclusion hotel Payback times, though, usually amount to 3-5 years sector Interest in solar thermal may grow due to environmental image reasons Potential also for campsites (34 % of the hotel sector) Ups and downs in the market can be explained by few large installations and by Conclusion CSTS changing government policies market Currently, no specific active support programs for CSTS Solar thermal tap water heating is a predominant technology Favourable capital market terms for social housing Conclusion From 2006 on, strengthened building regulations to stimulate new construction, legislative and and EPBD to stimulate the market for solar refurbishment economic framework Important stimulus could be the full incorporation of energy quality in rent prices Solar thermal not favoured very well, in contrast to wind and biomass energy Conclusion energy policy Institutional focus to be targeted to the ministries of housing (VROM) and of economic affairs (EZ) 41 6. SOLARGE Slovenia Less than half of the building stock are multifamily houses Relatively old houses, in most cases privately owned (thus, lack of expertise) Potential of solar thermal due to high energy consumption and individual Conclusion housing heating systems (66 %) sector Initiatives to combining biomass and solar water heating Increasing renovation activities during the last decade Target group for SOLARGE are designers and building managers Solar energy not ambitiously included in the national energy supply plan Predicted investment of almost 100 million € in refurbishment and 150 million Conclusion hotel € in new construction by 2010: advantageous indicator for CSTS sector Target group for SOLARGE: mainly hotel chains Relatively unorganised domestic industry as starting point for SOLARGE Conclusion CSTS Subsidy schemes with larger effects on individual investors market Environmental reputation and good practise examples as important aspects Conclusion Future situation for CSTS will improve, due to rising energy prices legislative and economic framework SOLARGE is to enhance demand in multifamily buildings, hotels etc. Favourable current national subsidy scheme Conclusion energy Goal should be a long term subsidy scheme, with annual decrease of support policy Target groups for SOLARGE are the national institutions 42 7. SOLARGE Cyprus Ministry departments are target group for SOLARGE WP 3 activities Conclusion housing Focus should be on utilizing solar energy also for space heating and on sector further system development (forced circulation, open or closed loop solar systems) The Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism is under consultation with Conclusion hotel sector the other associations in order to introduce new measures / policies for improving the quality of tourist services => potential for SOLARGE? Local industry existing; potential for international co-operation Conclusion CSTS market introducing other applications Due to high energy prices it is the right time to introduce more CSTS Conclusion legislative and economic framework Currently no legal dependence between the rent and the energy efficiency of a flat Due to the implementation of the action plan many hotels will be renovated in the next few years for the quality improvement of the hotel sector services; this will give the opportunity to replace the old solar thermal Conclusion energy policy systems by new efficient systems Current grant scheme gives the opportunity to introduce new CSTS applications to schools and municipalities 43 8. SOLARGE France Conclusion housing Potential for CSTS especially in social housing sector sector (Integrated) hotel chains could be an interesting target group Conclusion hotel sector (multipliers) Development still strongly linked to public authorities’ actions Conclusion CSTS market Still relatively low degree of organization and lobbying regarding manufacturers and other actors Conclusion legislative Evolutions of regulations are designed in connection with the new and economic framework law of 2005 and the objectives for the market share of solar thermal Continuous actions, framework and support scheme with increasing Conclusion energy policy communication measures Relevant target groups are local authorities (regional councils) 44