Jeong Ju Yoo, Hyeong Ho Lee, and Chu Hwan Yim

                                Switching & Transmission Technology Laboratory
                          Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI)
                            161 Kajong Dong, Yusong Gu, Taejon, 305-350, KOREA
                               Tel : +82-42-860-5316         Fax : +82-42-860-5410
                                       Email : jjyoo[holee, chyim]


     In 1995 Korea launched an ambitious three-stage project establishing the Korea Information Infrastructure (KII).
This project aims to construct nationwide next generation high-speed networks, the government KII-G and the KII-P for
the public. KII-G is designed to meet the needs of public administrations, research institutes, and universities, and KII-P
to meet the needs of industry and the general public.
     From 1995 to 1997, the first stage of the project was carried out successfully and the backbone network for KII-G
was constructed by installing 7 ATM switching systems and optical fiber transmission networks of 2.5 Gbps rate. In the
second stage, between 1998 and 2002, the transmission rate will be increased up to 10Gbps and the backbone network
expanded to cover the entire nation using 103 ATM switching systems. Moreover, in this stage, the interoperability be-
tween KII-G and KII-P will also be considered. KII started ATM trial services with PVC-based CBR service in 1998,
and commercial ATM services will be offered from the end of 1999. Finally, in the third stage, between 2003 and 2010,
the transmission rate among major cities will reach 160 Gbps by introducing Wavelength Division Multiplexing
(WDM) optical networks, and additional 451 ATM switching systems will be incorporated to complete the construction
of KII by 2010.
     In this paper, our strategies for the evolution of KII are described, and the experiences gained from the first stage of
the project are discussed. In addition, the R&D activities related to the KII are introduced, which are the development of
the ATM switching systems, the establishment of a national test bed, and the operation of pilot services.

1.   INTRODUCTION                                                     The Korea Information Infrastructure (KII) plan was
                                                                 announced in March 1995 to develop an information
     An information infrastructure for an information su-        super highway, to provide advanced IT services to the
perhighway has become an essential indirect capital for          public, and to promote the information in every sector of
the future information society. It will promote the trans-       society [1]. The purpose of KII is to provide various mul-
formation of our entire community into an information            timedia communications anywhere, anytime, and to any-
society and a knowledge-based economy in the 21st cen-           one; also, to turn Korea into one of the top ten advanced
tury.                                                            countries in the IT industry by the year 2002. The KII
     These countries which are leaders in the Information        plan promotes R&D in advanced technologies, which
and Telecommunications (IT) industry, such as the US             can be applied to the information superhighway. The
and Japan, give priority to the development of informa-          information superhighway will promote every sector of
tion superhighways. The US plans to enlarge the policy           society, including education, administration, environ-
of its national information highway worldwide with two           ment, trade, and transportation. Demands for and in-
projects, the National Information Infrastructure (NII)          vestment in advanced IT services in the private sector
and the Federal Telecommunications System-2000 (FTS-             will improve the international trade balance, create new
2000). Japan is making an effort to promote high eco-            jobs, stimulate production, attract foreign investment and
nomic growth by establishing an optical communications           contribute to overcoming the current economic recession
network. Japan is also establishing an information infra-        [1, 2, 3, 4, 5].
structure, the Japan Information Infrastructure (JII) com-            The Korea Information Infrastructure has two kinds
parable to the US‟s NII. JII is intended to maintain com-        of networks, KII-G and KII-P. The government stimu-
petitive advantages in the global economy and to assist in       lates service demand by establishing its own KII-G, and
solving the problems of an aging society. The European           then leads network providers to build the KII-P.
Community is also trying to establish its own network,                The KII plan comprises three stages to be completed
the Trans-European Network (TEN), in order to realize a          by 2010. The first stage of plan, from 1995 to 1997, aims
unified market, to promote harmony in economical social          at building network infrastructure for high-speed and
issues, and to stimulate the export and import of goods,         multimedia services. As a result of the first stage, a
capital, services and labor.                                     backbone network was constructed using PVC-based
ATM switching systems, which were located in 5 major           2002 is geared toward spreading the use of information
cities and connected by optical fiber transmission lines of    networks by encouraging individual and industrial end
155 Mbps, 622 Mbps, and 2.5 Gbps rates. Upon comple-           users. Finally, during the third stage from 2003 to 2010,
tion of the first stage, the second stage was set up in Sep-   a higher level use of information network is to be pro-
tember 1997. In the second stage, between 1998 to 2002,        moted. The national information network will intercon-
the objectives of each subproject and the relationships        nect each and every corner of society, reaching out to the
among the subprojects are to be further clarified so that      global network.
they can be coordinated and contribute to highly sustain-           Recent technology development, such as Digital
able growth and industrial competitiveness in the IT sec-      Subscriber Line (xDSL), indicates that the existing Pub-
tors in the global knowledge-based environment. The            lic Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) is adequate to
second stage will further expand the national backbone         carrying broadband data to some residences, particularly
network built in the first stage with the ATM network,         because of rapid improvements in data transmission
and develop KII application services, for example, Inter-      technology. The original Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH)
net service. This is intended to further advance the IT        plan, however, planned for completion by 2015, pro-
infrastructure and information revolution of every sector      jected the construction of optical fiber networks to reach
in the nation. By the end of the second stage, a 622 Mbps      every home. Cost benefit analysis of residential demand
environment for high-speed Internet, ATM services, and         for new multimedia applications and observation of for-
high-speed image transmission will be operative. Cur-          eign trends in network construction, coupled with tech-
rently, private and public research organizations are in-      nology development, indicated the inevitability of stra-
volved in the R&D activities in support of ATM technol-        tegic changes in the FTTH KII plan that would combine
ogies and B-ISDN applications for KII. The final stage,        Fiber-To-The-Curb (FTTC) and Fiber-To-The-Office
between 2003 to 2010, will focus heavily on knowledge-         (FTTO). In addition to these modifications to the FTTH
based industry and economic reform through the infor-          plan, done for economic reasons, a new plan was added
mation industry.                                               to improve the existing PSTN and international network
     In order to verify the technology security and service    in preparation for greater usage Internet [1]. It is now
feasibility of KII-G, a backbone network connecting the        expected to be completed earlier and more economically
two cities of Seoul and Taejon, was installed in 1995,         than the original plan envisioned. In place of FTTH,
with 43 institutes connected to it through optical cables      FTTC is now accepted as a satisfactory alternative.
and test bed systems. The establishment of the super                While KII aims to construct high-speed government
high-speed network is based on ATM products devel-             and public information networks, KII-G aims at meeting
oped under the national Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN)                the needs of public administrations, research institutes,
R&D project (the HAN/B-ISDN project) started in 1992.          and universities, offering a wider range of flexible and
     In Section 2, we briefly describe the current status      cost-effective services. The construction of KII-G is be-
and deployment plan of KII including the evaluation of         ing led by Korea Telecom (KT) and Dacom Corp. (DA-
the first stage results. Section 3 depicts the migration       COM), the top two facilities-based service providers, and
directions from an overlay network to an integrated net-       is scheduled to be completed by 2010. KII-G will be
work. In Section 4, we introduce some research and de-         implemented to create the initial demand for KII-P and to
velopment trials related to KII, in particularly, the na-      provide the foundation for enhanced services and tech-
tional test bed and ATM trial service, the pilot service       nology development. KII-G has been developed in three
project, and major ATM products developed under the            stages with each stage having different features, as
HAN/B-ISDN project. Finally, some concluding remarks           shown in Table 1.
are given in Section 5.
                                                               2.1 The First Stage of KII
2. CONSTRUCTION PLAN FOR THE KOREA IN-                              The high-speed government network, KII-G, pro-
    FORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE                                   vides necessary services to the government, public insti-
                                                               tutions, universities, primary, middle and high schools.
     As demands for more diversified and high quality          The construction of KII-G will encourage network pro-
telecommunications increase, Korea is now preparing for        viders to build KII-P by providing enhanced service and
a major communications infrastructure that can serve as        technology. The government is funding the KII-G project,
a common network foundation for upcoming telecom-              and two major telecommunication carriers, KT and DA-
munications services. The KII is planned to provide a          COM, were contracted by the government to construct
new network foundation that will service as the core of        KII-G. The KII-G project is expected to be completed by
the information society in the 21st century. The KII con-      the year 2010. As shown in Figure 1, KII-G was to be
struction plan consists of three stages, with the objective    connected to five major cities with PVC-based ATM
of bringing about an information society in Korea by           exchanges and optical transmission facilities of 2.5 Gbps
2010. The first stage from 1995 to 1997 is aimed at lay-       rate between Seoul and Taejon. The objective of the first
ing the foundation for building a national information         KII-G stage is to construct the backbone network of the
network, with the government as the forerunner in mak-         Korean information superhighway and to develop appro-
ing the initial investment. The second stage from 1998 to      priate technology for KII-P.
                                                                       Table 1. Detailed Plan of KII-G
          Stage                         First stage (1995-1997)              Second stage (1998-2002)     Third stage (2003-2010)
          Services                      Limited ATM Services                 IP Services,                 Enhanced Integrated Multimedia
                                                                             Native ATM Services,         Service, Next Generation Internet
                                                                             AAL Type 2 Voice Service     Service
          Switching                     PVC-based ATM                        SVC-based ATM Switch,        MPLS Switch, Multi-terabit
                                        Switch                               MPLS Switch                  Switch/Router, Optical Switch
          Transmission                  2.5 Gbps SDH                         10 Gbps SDH                  160 Gbps WDM
          Access                        Leased Line(lower than               ATM, ADSL, ISDN, Frame       VDSL, ATM PON, B-WLL,
                                        155 Mbps)                            Relay, Cable TV, FTTO,       FTTH
                                                                             FTTC, FTTH

                                                                                              In the second stage, from 1998 to 2002, the trans-
                                                   Seoul    12 Switching Points
                                                            68 Access Points (1999)
                                                                                         mission rate among 5 major cities will be increased up to
                                                            64 Access Points (2000)      10 Gbps. Interoperability among KII-G, KII-P, and the
                                                            155 Mbps                     national test-bed will also be considered in this stage. A
                                                            622 Mbps
                                                                                         backbone network will be constructed, in which ATM
                                                            2.5 Mbps
                                                                                         core and edge switches using 103 SVC-based ATM
                                 Chunchon                                                switching systems will be located in large or medium
                                                                                         size cities. The backbone network will be expanded to
           Inchon      Seoul
                                                                                         cover the entire nation by the end of this stage. Network
                                                                                         providers will supply various subscriber access networks
                           Cheongju                                                      with the cheapest and most available technical solutions.
                        Taejon                                                           For example, access networks can be dedicated lines, a
                                                                                         Frame Relay network, an Integrated Services Digital
                        Chunju                                                           Network (ISDN), an Asynchronous Digital Subscriber
                                                                                         Line (ADSL), a Cable TV (CATV) network, FTTO,
                                                                                         FTTC, or FTTH. Instead of replacing all existing net-
                                                                                         works with the fiber optic cables that were planned for at
                                                                                         the early stage of KII, upgraded telephone lines using
                                                                                         advanced digital and wireless technologies will also be
                                                                                         used to set up economic and efficient subscriber loops.
             Cheju                                                                       To support the dramatically increasing Internet services,
                                                                                         high-speed routers will be installed at the 5 major cities.
      Figure 1. Network Configuration of the KII-G                                       It is also possible that an overlay network connecting a
                                                                                         high-speed router to an ATM core network may be con-
      Subscribers are connected to the backbone network                                  structed. Moreover, the high-speed network will provide
via various access networks including a dedicated optical                                multimedia services to over 7.5 million PC communica-
fiber. Services are provided at the rates of 1.5 Mbps, 45                                tions subscribers by the year 2002. During the second
Mbps, and 155 Mbps. The most valuable contribution to                                    stage, the KII-G backbone network will be expanded.
KII during the first stage is to establish the foundation on                             KII-P to be mainly used for commercial purposes is also
which government and private companies are able to                                       to be constructed [6].
make their own efforts towards KII. The first stage em-                                       Finally, in the third stage, from 2003 to 2010, the
phasized too much the supply side of the telecommunica-                                  transmission rate between major cities will reach 160
tions infrastructure and, as a result, the markets for appli-                            Gbps by introducing Wavelength Division Multiplexing
cations, services, and business contents were not built up                               (WDM) optical networks, and KII construction will be
enough to realize KII.                                                                   completed with additional 451 ATM switching systems
      In contrast to KII-G, KII-P is open to the public and                              [1]. The number of PC communications subscribers is
funded by private telecommunications companies. The                                      expected to exceed 30 million by 2010. In this period,
first stage of the KII-P deployment aimed at setting up                                  ATM-based Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)
access networks, by means of which public customers                                      switches will be installed nationwide. Subscribers will be
were connected to the services offered by KII-G. By                                      able to choose the most economical solution from among
June 1997, 1,019 large buildings were connected through                                  VDSL, ATM PON, B-WLL, or FTTH. An intensive
high-capacity fiber optic cables, providing services to                                  communications area will choose a full mesh structure
over 200,000 subscribers. Moreover, the high-speed in-                                   for its network construction whereas a less intensive
formation network, connecting 80 major cities, was ex-                                   communications area will choose either a ring or star
tended to 151 telephone offices nationwide [5].                                          structure. The overlay network will evolve towards an
                                                                                         integrated network capable of providing both Internet
2.2 The Second and Third Stages of KII                                                   services and native ATM services.
3. MIGRATION PLAN FROM OVERLAY NET-                                                                                                                         Telephony

                                                              Number of subscribers (million)
     As more advanced services emerge in the telecom-                                           16
munications market, telecommunication demands change                                            14
accordingly. Figure 2 shows demand changes (number of                                           10

subscribers) for voice and data communications services                                          8
                                                                                                                                                             PC Comm.

in Korea. The demand for fixed telephone service is al-                                          6
ready saturated, but public Internet service in Korea is                                         4
now growing rapidly. As shown in Figure 2, Internet                                              0
                                                                                                        1997          1998   1999    2000     2001      2002    YEAR
service will dominate in the early 2000s. Figure 3 shows
the changes in total bandwidth for voice (local, toll, in-             Figure 2. Changes in Demand for Telecommunications
ternational, and wireless) traffic and Internet traffic in                               Services in Korea
Korea. Internet traffic volume was about 18% of voice                       Traffic (                   Gbps )
traffic at the end of 1998, and will exceed voice traffic                                                        Voic e
                                                                                                                                                                      1.1 T

volume after 2001. Therefore, we are preparing a staged                                                         Internet

strategy so that KII-G can accommodate more conve-
nient high-speed Internet services.

3.1 Current Status of Internet Service in Korea                                                      500 G

     As of June 1999, Korea had 6 non-profit and 24
commercial Internet Service Providers (ISPs). Figure 4                                                       180 G
                                                                                                                                                                   258 G

shows an Internet connectivity map of Korea, and all
ISPs are connected with each other through four Internet                                                     28 G

exchanges, KIX-NCA, KINX, KT-IX, and DIX. The                                                            1998        1999    2000   2001    2002     2003      2004           2005
current ISP backbone network in Korea consists of rou-
ters and dedicated lines of various rates such as T1, E1,                                       Figure 3. Changes in Total Bandwidth for Voice and
T3, and STM-1. This is accessible via several networks                                                       Internet Traffic in Korea.
such as the Fame Relay and telephone networks.

                                     Figure 4. Internet Connectivity Map in Korea
                                                                                  while, ATM-based trial Internet services using IP over
                                                                                  ATM (IPOA) technology are offered to subscribers for
                      NCA            Foreign Network                              ATM trial service in the second stage of KII.
                                      Access Router
   Dedicated                                        NCA : KIX-NCA                      As shown in Figure 5, PUBnet uses dedicated lines
    Network                                         KIX : KINX, KT -IX, DIX       for its backbone and also uses various kinds of access
                                                                                  networks such as dedicated lines, packet switching, and
                                                                                  Frame Relay. As of April 1999, 2,572 subscriber lines of
                                                                                  2,553 organizations were in service, and the subscriber
                                                         Dedicated Network
        Dedicated                                                                 line has various rates from 56Kbps to 45Mbps. The re-
         Network        TAEJON                                                    quired maximum bandwidth of the PUBnet subscribers is
                                                T AEGU                            in total about 1,024 Mbps.

                                                                                  3.2 Overlay and Integrated Network Configuration
                                                                                       Currently, conventional IP router-based PUBnet and
                                                     PUSAN                        ATM-based switching networks are being constructed
                    KWANGJ U
                                                                                  separately from each other. Their configuration is called
                                                                                  the overlay network. On the other hand, the integrated
                                                             Dedicated Network
                                                                                  network is an ATM-based telecommunications network
                                                                                  including Internet, dedicated circuit and Frame Relay
               Figure 5. PUBnet Configuration                                          In Korea, a gradual evolution is required for the in-
                                                                                  tegrated network. At present, An independent router
     The domestic Internet is showing a drop in efficien-                         network has been constructed. The PUBnet as an inde-
cy because Internet traffic in the public and government                          pendent router network from KII-G is currently support-
sectors has been sharply increasing recently and its net-                         ing Internet services. This service method is not econom-
work is very complicated. In order to meet such increas-                          ical due to duplicated investment. It also degrades Inter-
ing demand by government and public organizations, a                              net efficiency because of the detouring connection
public sector network for the Internet (PUBnet), as a part                        through the Korea Internet exchange (KIX-NCA). Figure
of KII-G, was established in the first stage of KII for                           6 shows the current configuration of the independent
offering Internet services. PUBnet is one of 6 non-profit                         router network.
ISPs in Korea. Its objectives are to provide government                                In the integrated network, conventional Internet ser-
organizations with Internet services and to stimulate the                         vice can be offered by adding routing functions to an
use of KII through its Internet service.                                          ATM switching system. The integrated network can also
     During the first stage of KII, a conventional IP rou-                        offer Internet services through several interworking net-
ter-based PUBnet was constructed independently from                               work functions. Pure integrated services can be offered
an ATM-based switching network to meet the rapidly                                when the network supports not only native ATM services
growing Internet service demands and to offer Internet                            but also Internet and legacy services. This network has
services at an early stage. The PUBnet started commer-                            some of the following advantages:
cial Internet services at the beginning of 1998. Mean-




                                                                    ATM-based KII-G                          Internet
                               Test Bed

                       ATM Terminal Equipment
                                                                                                       ATM LAN

                      ATM Terminal Equipment
                                                                                                           Public ATM switch


                                     Figure 6.           Current Configuration of the Independent Router Network.



                          National Test                                                  Internet

                             ATM                                                       ATM
                           Terminal                                                    LAN
                                                 ATM-based KII-G
                                                                              Public ATM switch
                          Equipment                                           Router
                    Figure 7. Configuration of the Integrated Network Using the PVC (First Phase)

                  LAN                                           KIX-NCA              PUBnet

                                      (KORNET, BORABET, etc.)
                 PSTN                                                         ATM-based KII-G


                 N-ISDN                     Frame Relay

                                      Network/Incorporation                                        ARP Server

                                         Access Network
                  ATM Terminal              (FTTO)                        Public ATM switch
                                                                          Edge ATM switch

                  ATM Terminal                                            Router
                 Figure 8. Configuration of the Integrated Network Based on the IPOA (Second Phase)

        Solves technical difficulties of the router‟s ex-        net service based on an ATM network.
     Provides various types of services.                         3.3 Three-phased Evolution towards the Integrated Net-
     Guarantees quality of service.                                  work
     Easily creates new services by its integrated
                                                                       In 1999, the first phase, we integrated the connection
                                                                  between routers through the ATM PVC (Permanent Vir-
     Can be economically constructed when network
                                                                  tual Circuit) shown in Figure 7. In order to integrate the
         expansion is required by increased traffic
                                                                  PUBnet and KII-G, the dedicated lines between routers
    On the other hand, there are some disadvantages:
                                                                  should be changed to ATM PVC. ATM PVC will eco-
     High initial investment cost
                                                                  nomically support the connection by comparison with
     More time to offer service compared to the
                                                                  previous dedicated lines. It is possible to provide various
         overlay network.
                                                                  PVCs considering the traffic characteristics of routers
    Based on the above-mentioned concerns, three-
                                                                  and to enhance efficiency.
phased evolution strategy of the overlay network towards
                                                                      In the second phase, by the year 2000, both the ATM
an integrated network is being provided. In the first
                                                                  backbone network and router network will be integrated
phase, an ATM Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC) con-
                                                                  using IPOA, shown in Figure 8. The previously dedi-
nects routers. In the second phase, the integrated network
                                                                  cated lines can be replaced gradually with ATM
should offer Internet services using the IPOA model. It
should ultimately use MPLS to provide high speed Inter-
                                                                KIX-NCA              Foreign

                                                                                  MPLS /
                    PSTN                  MPLS Public                        ATM-Based KII-G

                                                                                         ARP Server
                                          Access Network
                       ATM Terminal    (FTTO/FTTC/ADSL)
                                                                                        Public ATM switch
                                       Private/Incorporation                            Edge ATM switch
                       ATM Terminal         Network                                     (Edge LSR)
                                                        MPLS                            Router
                                                                                        Router with the MPLS
                                                        Relay Network)

            Figure 9. Configuration of the Integrated Network with the MPLS Based on ATM (Third Phase)

Circuit Emulation (CE). ATM PVC and Switched Vir-                       In connection with KII, the B-ISDN test bed called
tual Circuit (SVC) will be used for connections between            National Test Bed (NTB) was implemented and installed
routers. Sub-networks will be constructed with the unit            in 1995 and has been improved. The role of the NTB is
of the Logical Internet protocol Sub-network (LIS). It is          to provide a platform that can assist in the development
also possible to expand the ATM address resolution pro-            of switching system, transmission and terminal equip-
tocol (ARP) server based on its network scale.                     ment, and application services using the ATM-based B-
     For the final phase after 2001, an integrated network         ISDN technology. It will also play a leading role in creat-
based on ATM with MPLS is planned as shown in Fig-                 ing a research and development environment. The initial
ure 9. The router will be replaced gradually with ATM              test bed was constructed using domestic pilot ATM
exchange with an externally installed MPLS function,               switching systems and optical fiber transmission facili-
and the existing dedicated line will be gradually replaced         ties of 2.5 Gbps rate. It has constantly included other
with the ATM CE. On the other hand, the subscriber and             network elements and services. The main purpose of
access network will use IPOA as well as MPLS. The                  NTB is to evaluate technologies and applications servic-
PUBnet implemented on the ATM-based integrated net-                es for KII before they are applied to KII. The interna-
work will provide high-speed and high-quality Internet             tional networks of the Asia Pacific Advanced Network –
service. Several MPLS networks for each network pro-               Korea (APAN-KR) and APEC‟s Asia Pacific Informa-
vider can be established and the connections among such            tion Infrastructure (APII) have utilized NTB for their
networks can be handled by the edge ATM exchange of                domestic backbone networks [8].
KII-G. Current ISP will be merged with the integrated                   In the first stage, from 1995 to 1997, a backbone
MPLS network. The integrated network will be able to               network between Seoul and Taejon at 2.5 Gbps rate, and
support integrated services including not only Internet            11 common utilization centers in the two cities were es-
service but also conventional services.                            tablished to test high-speed network environments and to
     The objective of the final phase is to establish an in-       drive interconnection with foreign test beds and other
tegrated network, which can offer integrated service eco-          networks. The technological adaptation of application
nomically at high speed. By the year 1999, an MPLS                 services was evaluated on the NTB. The second stage,
function is to be implemented on domestic ATM switch,              from 1998 to 2002, speeded up the backbone network
HANBit ACE 64+ [7]. Therefore, the investment neces-               from 2.5 Gbps to 10 Gbps, and the supply of ATM
sary can be economized using the integrated network                switched interconnections at the 622 Mbps maximum
including the high-speed routing functions. It should be           rate to users will be achieved. Also, the construction of
possible to create new services proper to the real Korean          interoperability testing environment with the Internet, the
environment, and to realize the next generation Internet           KII pilot network, a foreign test bed, and other networks
with the necessary core technology.                                will be implemented to develop new technologies. In the
                                                                   final stage, from 2003 to 2010, backbone networks will
4. RELATED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT                                achieve speeds over 160 Gbps, and an open interconnec-
   TRIALS                                                          tion environment based on user requirements will be
4.1 National Test Bed and ATM Trial Service                             Since 1998, ATM trial service in Korea has been
implemented in five cities in the first stage of KII. The    jectives of the second stage will be to expand service
objectives of ATM trial services are to test and to verify   areas, to extend the optical subscriber network, and to
the performance of the ATM switching system, its inte-       supply various multimedia services.
roperability with other networks, its ability to provide
various services, and an user communications environ-        4.3 Related R&D Project
ment that can provide high-speed multimedia services. In
                                                                  Major telecommunications research institutes, net-
addition, another major target is to create initial demand
                                                             work operators, communications manufacturers, and
in the private sector by allowing use of an ATM pilot
                                                             universities jointly participate in the national HAN/B-
network. These comprise ATM services, Frame Relay
                                                             ISDN project resulting in the efficient utilization of the
interworking services, and CE services – all types of
                                                             limited human and financial resources allocated to it. The
ATM trial services. Considering the capability of the
                                                             tasks and responsibilities that the project entails are
ATM switching system, these trial services are offered in
                                                             shared among them, depending on their specialties and
two steps. The first trial services have been provided
                                                             advantages. The research institutes, especially ETRI, are
since April of 1998, and the second trial services are to
                                                             responsible for developing the base technologies and
be offered in the last half of 1999. The total number of
                                                             implementing experimental systems. The network opera-
institutes using the ATM trial services is about 100,
                                                             tors (e.g., Korea Telecom) are involved in extensive field
among which 36 institutes were selected as the prime
                                                             trials for experimental systems on network test beds and
institutes. The subscriber lines are ATM 2, 45, and 155
                                                             developing application services. The manufacturers take
Mbps, and Frame Relay 128 Kbps and 2 Mbps. The first
                                                             charge of refining the experimental systems to upgrade
trial services consist of ATM services with PVC and
                                                             their performance and developing manufacturing tech-
CBR functions, Frame Relay services with interworking
                                                             nologies to improve the competitiveness of their com-
function, Internet services and CE services. The second
                                                             mercialized products. The universities mostly work on a
trial services consist of ATM services with SVC and
                                                             variety of fundamental research issues in ATM-based B-
VBR functions, and ATM supplementary services in-
cluding Virtual Private Network (VPN).
                                                                  The HAN/B-ISDN project embraces several R&D
                                                             areas of ATM-based B-ISDN technologies such as net-
4.2 Pilot Project for Information Society
                                                             work integration and development of ATM switching
     The aim of this project is to examine and verify the    systems, the 10 Gbps Optical transmission system, B-NT,
social, cultural, and technological acceptance of users by   B-TA, and ATM terminal equipment. The project spans
providing various multimedia services in a specific area,    9 years from 1992 to 2000 [6].
Taejon, prior to the construction of KII. The project will        The ATM switching system development project is
examine the usage environment of the high-speed infra-       considered one of the key elements in the establishment
structure to create new demand, to test the functionality    of KII. An ATM switching system on two scales – small
and utility of the information infrastructure, and to ana-   and large – has been developed. The small scale ATM
lyze user requirements. In order to carry out efficiently    switching system completed in 1996, was equipped with
this project, it is necessary to thoroughly analyze the      several interfaces such as STM-1, DS3, DS1E, and
reaction of users to various types of services provided      POTS, while the large scale ATM switching system is to
and their content by categorizing users into two groups,     be completed by 2000 and has STM-1/4, DS3, DS1E,
home users and public institution users. This means that     and POTS interfaces. The features of the HAN/B-ISDN
we need to set up the direction and methods of our ser-      development results are summarized in Table 2.
vices and to analyze the results based on a staged strate-        The systems developed from the projects, as shown
gy for supplying services.                                   in Table 2, are utilized in establishing a national test bed
     This project has two stages: the first stage, from      and have their functions verified using the national test
1995 to 1997, was to construct a framework for the pro-      bed. Such R&D results as the ATM switching and access
vision of video service, and the second stage, from 1998     systems are used practically in KII-G. The KII construc-
to 2002, is to provide several multimedia services to ex-    tion project is linked to the HAN/B-ISDN R&D project
amine usage patterns. In the first stage, frameworks for     and standardization activities for the interoperability be-
information infrastructure usage were established and        tween the systems developed are promoted. MPLS tech-
high-speed services were provided to 2,000 trial users       nology is being developed as a follow-up project and a
through FTTO and FTTC. Although only seven kinds of          super high-speed router will be developed in the near
services were offered at the starting point, it now pro-     future.
vides about forty kinds of multimedia services [4].
Through interconnection with a national test bed, and a      5.   CONCLUSION
satellite and wireless telecommunications network, new
technological services may be provided to users. The              We have reviewed the KII plan, scheduled between
currently supplied services are high-quality video confe-    1995 to 2010. The plan has been revised once to incorpo-
rencing, desktop video conferencing, electronic mail and     rate newly developed technology and to respond to ac-
bulletin board, high-speed FTP/TELNET, high-speed            tual demand for broadband network necessary for the
Internet access services, video on demand, etc. The ob-      provision of service on the network. It is now expected to
                               Table 2. Features of HAN/B-ISDN Development Products [6]
                              Features                           Small Scale                 Large Scale
                         Subscriber Interface            STM-1, DS3, DS1E, POTS              STM-1/4, DS3, DS1E, POTS
                          Network Interface                PSTN, PSDN, N-ISDN                PSTN, PSDN, N-ISDN
                                                       Point-to-point, partially point-to-   Point-to-point, partially point-to-
       ATM Switch-          Call Processing
                                                             multipoint PVC/SVC              multipoint PVC/SVC
        ing System
                        Switching Architecture                 64*64, 256*256                256*256, 1024*1024
                        Switching Throughput                   10Gbps, 40Gbps                More than 159 Gbps
                                                     ATM Switching Node for the KII at the
                             Application                                                     Main Switching Node for the KII

                                                                                                                   Home Type
                               Features               Centralized Type (CANS)        Distributed Type (DANS)
                                                                                    Maximum 64 STM-1 or 128        Maximum 8
           B-NT                Capacity                  Maximum 8 Ports
                                                                                             UTP                   Terminals
          Network                                    STM-1, TAXI, DS3, UTP,
        Terminator)            Interface             MPEG-2 Video, Ethernet               STM-1, UTP              STM-1, UTP
                           Connection Ratio                Maximum 8:1                   Maximum 16:1             Maximum 2:1
                            Call Processing          Multicast, Local Switching     PVC/SVC, P-to-P, P-to-MP        PVC/SVC

                               Features                                                 Contents
                                           Service   Video: MPEG-2(DTV), Audio: Digital Phone/MPEG-2, Data: less than 155 Mpbs
          ATM                              Media
                       System Ar-
         Terminal                                                 Service Type : CBR, VBR, Connection-oriented data
                        chitecture      Network
        Equipment                                                       Transmission Rate : 155.52Mbps(STM-1)
                                                                      Signaling : Point-to-point, point-to-multipoint
                         Application Service                  Video phone, DTV receiving, DB Retrieval, Video Conference

                                 Type                                                   Contents

                                                      Development             Network Interface : Ethernet LAN, Frame Relay
           B-TA             Separated type              Target             Terminal Interface : ISDN Terminal, Video Terminal
                                                      Final Target                LAN, Frame Relay, Video, N-ISDN, B-TA
                           Combined Type                                Integrated B-TA(Video, LAN, N-ISDN)

                               Features                                                 Contents
         10 Gbps         Multiplexing / Optical
         Optical       Signal / Transmission Ca-             SDH STM-64 Hierarchy / 9.95328Gbps (STM-64) / 64*STM-1
       Transmission              pacity
          System      Tributary Interface/ Optical     ATM-1 (155M), STM-4 (622M), STM-16 (2.5G) / Booster, Pre-amp, Optical
                           Amplifier/ OAM                          Repeater / OAM and TMN Interface Function

completed earlier and more economically than the origi-                formation interface, and a more convenient everyday life.
nal plan envisioned. In place of FTTH, FTTC is now                          A description of the gradual evolution towards an in-
accepted as a satisfactory alternative. The first stage was            tegrated network has been presented. The original plan
successfully completed and the second stage is under                   was to establish a super high-speed network that accom-
construction. The KII plan has social as well as econom-               modates only indigenous ATM service. To meet the sud-
ic implications. Depending on cost, customers are al-                  den increase in Internet services, the network architec-
lowed to use any of the various technologies such as                   ture should be changed from an IP and ATM overlay
ADSL, VDSL, ATM PON, Cable TV, and B-WLL. First                        networks to an integrated network based on MPLS. Al-
of all, the higher economic efficiency associated with                 though lack of demand for ATM services could affect
economic restructuring can be realized via KII. Secondly,              network provider motivation for the establishment of KII,
electronic government can be realized. Eventually, elec-               increasing demand for IP services will accelerate the
tronic signatures, and document interchange via the net-               network access rate. The existing Internet in Korea is an
work will be officially accepted, and the human capital                overlay network. We are considering a KII with MPLS
for the information society will be also created. Finally, a           function, which will be able to support integrated servic-
better quality of life can be achieved by a more useful                es including both Internet service and previously existing
information availability, a safer environment, better in-              conventional services. We expect that Internet will be
naturally integrated with KII and voice service will be         and Future of Korean Information Infrastructure
offered using AAL type 2 in the second stage of KII.            (KII),” 2nd Korea-Vietnam Technology Interchange
     In addition, we have described R&D activities in-          Seminar, PTIT, Hanoi ,Vietnam, June 7, 1999
cluding a national test bed, a pilot project and major
                                                             [4] Seong-Youn Kim, “Strategic Network Planning for
ATM products developed under the HAN/B-ISDN
                                                                 the Second Phase of Korea Information Infrastruc-
project. Core functions of ASIC chips have been being
                                                                 ture,” 8th Int‟l Telecommunications Network Plan-
developed to increase competitive power. We work to-
                                                                 ning Symposium, Italy , Oct. 1998
gether with industry, universities and research institutes
to accelerate commercial usage, to secure base technolo-     [5] Sanghoon Lee and Jae-Il Jung, “Telecommunications
gies and to promote joint research with advanced coun-           Markets, Industry, and Infrastructure in Korea,”
tries especially in high technology area.                        IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 59-64, Nov.
     The government is now preparing a core technology           1998
development and Internet network plan for the next gen-
eration Internet. In March 1999, the Government formu-       [6] Soo Hyung Kim, “Network Evolution Strategies to-
lated the “Cyber Korea 21” policy to inspire the con-            ward B-ISDN in Korea,” Information Superhighway
                                                                 Group, Korea Telecom, Sept. 1996
struction of a creative knowledge-based nation. The ma-
jor objective of Cyber Korea 21 is to prepare the infra-     [7] Hyeong Ho Lee et al., “Structures of an ATM
structure for the creation of a knowledge-based nation           Switching System with MPLS Functionality,” to be
construction. KII will play a leading role in constructing       presented in Globecom‟99, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,
Cyber Korea 21 [9].                                              Dec. 5-9, 1999
                                                             [8] C. H. Youn, D. Y. Kim, Y. H. Choi, and J. Y. Lee,
                                                                 “ATM Networks and Service Plans in Korea,” Glo-
[1] Ministry of Information and Communication, “Plan             becom„97, SAS Session A19, Presentation Material,
    for Advancing Information Infrastructure,” Sept.             Nov. 7, 1997
                                                             [9] Ministry of Information and Communication, “CY-
[2] Ministry of Information and Communication, “Plan             BER KOREA 21,” Mar. 2, 1999
    for the second stage of KII deployment,” May 1998
[3] Seung Woo Seo, and Moon Soo Kim , “The Present

Jeong Ju Yoo took his sabbatical at Computing Department, Lancaster University, U.K. from September 1995 to August
1996 and received his Master degree in Telecommunications, Kwang-woon University, Korea in 1984. He has worked
at Telecommunications System Department, Switching and Transmission Technology (STT) Laboratory, Electronics
and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) in Korea since 1984. Currently, he is a Senior Member in ETRI.
Hyeong Ho Lee received B.S. degree from the Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul, Korea in 1977, and the M.S.
and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST),
Taejon, Korea in 1979 and 1983, respectively. He joined ETRI, Taejon, Korea in 1983. From 1984 to 1986, he was on
leave as a Visiting Engineer with AT&T Bell Laboratories, Naperville, U.S.A., and involved in the development of the
No.5 ESS digital switch. From 1987 to 1998, he was engaged in the research and development of digital switching sys-
tems such as TDX-10, TDX-10 SSP, TDX-10 ISDN, and ATM, and responsible for the development of HANbit ACE
ATM Switching System from 1997 to 1998. Since January 1999, he is Director of Router Technology Department at
STT Laboratory, and engaged in the research and development of ATM LAN switching system, Gigabit Ethernet switch,
and Wireless ATM LAN systems.
Chu Hwan Yim received his Dr.-Ing degree in Communication Systems, Technical University of Braunschweig, Ger-
many in 1984. He has worked in ETRI since 1978 and is currently in charge of STT Laboratory and a Vice President,
ETRI in Korea.

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