NATIONAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE IN KOREA Jeong Ju Yoo, Hyeong Ho Lee, and Chu Hwan Yim Switching & Transmission Technology Laboratory Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) 161 Kajong Dong, Yusong Gu, Taejon, 305-350, KOREA Tel : +82-42-860-5316 Fax : +82-42-860-5410 Email : jjyoo[holee, chyim]@etri.re.kr ABSTRACT In 1995 Korea launched an ambitious three-stage project establishing the Korea Information Infrastructure (KII). This project aims to construct nationwide next generation high-speed networks, the government KII-G and the KII-P for the public. KII-G is designed to meet the needs of public administrations, research institutes, and universities, and KII-P to meet the needs of industry and the general public. From 1995 to 1997, the first stage of the project was carried out successfully and the backbone network for KII-G was constructed by installing 7 ATM switching systems and optical fiber transmission networks of 2.5 Gbps rate. In the second stage, between 1998 and 2002, the transmission rate will be increased up to 10Gbps and the backbone network expanded to cover the entire nation using 103 ATM switching systems. Moreover, in this stage, the interoperability be- tween KII-G and KII-P will also be considered. KII started ATM trial services with PVC-based CBR service in 1998, and commercial ATM services will be offered from the end of 1999. Finally, in the third stage, between 2003 and 2010, the transmission rate among major cities will reach 160 Gbps by introducing Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) optical networks, and additional 451 ATM switching systems will be incorporated to complete the construction of KII by 2010. In this paper, our strategies for the evolution of KII are described, and the experiences gained from the first stage of the project are discussed. In addition, the R&D activities related to the KII are introduced, which are the development of the ATM switching systems, the establishment of a national test bed, and the operation of pilot services. 1. INTRODUCTION The Korea Information Infrastructure (KII) plan was announced in March 1995 to develop an information An information infrastructure for an information su- super highway, to provide advanced IT services to the perhighway has become an essential indirect capital for public, and to promote the information in every sector of the future information society. It will promote the trans- society . The purpose of KII is to provide various mul- formation of our entire community into an information timedia communications anywhere, anytime, and to any- society and a knowledge-based economy in the 21st cen- one; also, to turn Korea into one of the top ten advanced tury. countries in the IT industry by the year 2002. The KII These countries which are leaders in the Information plan promotes R&D in advanced technologies, which and Telecommunications (IT) industry, such as the US can be applied to the information superhighway. The and Japan, give priority to the development of informa- information superhighway will promote every sector of tion superhighways. The US plans to enlarge the policy society, including education, administration, environ- of its national information highway worldwide with two ment, trade, and transportation. Demands for and in- projects, the National Information Infrastructure (NII) vestment in advanced IT services in the private sector and the Federal Telecommunications System-2000 (FTS- will improve the international trade balance, create new 2000). Japan is making an effort to promote high eco- jobs, stimulate production, attract foreign investment and nomic growth by establishing an optical communications contribute to overcoming the current economic recession network. Japan is also establishing an information infra- [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. structure, the Japan Information Infrastructure (JII) com- The Korea Information Infrastructure has two kinds parable to the US‟s NII. JII is intended to maintain com- of networks, KII-G and KII-P. The government stimu- petitive advantages in the global economy and to assist in lates service demand by establishing its own KII-G, and solving the problems of an aging society. The European then leads network providers to build the KII-P. Community is also trying to establish its own network, The KII plan comprises three stages to be completed the Trans-European Network (TEN), in order to realize a by 2010. The first stage of plan, from 1995 to 1997, aims unified market, to promote harmony in economical social at building network infrastructure for high-speed and issues, and to stimulate the export and import of goods, multimedia services. As a result of the first stage, a capital, services and labor. backbone network was constructed using PVC-based ATM switching systems, which were located in 5 major 2002 is geared toward spreading the use of information cities and connected by optical fiber transmission lines of networks by encouraging individual and industrial end 155 Mbps, 622 Mbps, and 2.5 Gbps rates. Upon comple- users. Finally, during the third stage from 2003 to 2010, tion of the first stage, the second stage was set up in Sep- a higher level use of information network is to be pro- tember 1997. In the second stage, between 1998 to 2002, moted. The national information network will intercon- the objectives of each subproject and the relationships nect each and every corner of society, reaching out to the among the subprojects are to be further clarified so that global network. they can be coordinated and contribute to highly sustain- Recent technology development, such as Digital able growth and industrial competitiveness in the IT sec- Subscriber Line (xDSL), indicates that the existing Pub- tors in the global knowledge-based environment. The lic Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) is adequate to second stage will further expand the national backbone carrying broadband data to some residences, particularly network built in the first stage with the ATM network, because of rapid improvements in data transmission and develop KII application services, for example, Inter- technology. The original Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH) net service. This is intended to further advance the IT plan, however, planned for completion by 2015, pro- infrastructure and information revolution of every sector jected the construction of optical fiber networks to reach in the nation. By the end of the second stage, a 622 Mbps every home. Cost benefit analysis of residential demand environment for high-speed Internet, ATM services, and for new multimedia applications and observation of for- high-speed image transmission will be operative. Cur- eign trends in network construction, coupled with tech- rently, private and public research organizations are in- nology development, indicated the inevitability of stra- volved in the R&D activities in support of ATM technol- tegic changes in the FTTH KII plan that would combine ogies and B-ISDN applications for KII. The final stage, Fiber-To-The-Curb (FTTC) and Fiber-To-The-Office between 2003 to 2010, will focus heavily on knowledge- (FTTO). In addition to these modifications to the FTTH based industry and economic reform through the infor- plan, done for economic reasons, a new plan was added mation industry. to improve the existing PSTN and international network In order to verify the technology security and service in preparation for greater usage Internet . It is now feasibility of KII-G, a backbone network connecting the expected to be completed earlier and more economically two cities of Seoul and Taejon, was installed in 1995, than the original plan envisioned. In place of FTTH, with 43 institutes connected to it through optical cables FTTC is now accepted as a satisfactory alternative. and test bed systems. The establishment of the super While KII aims to construct high-speed government high-speed network is based on ATM products devel- and public information networks, KII-G aims at meeting oped under the national Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN) the needs of public administrations, research institutes, R&D project (the HAN/B-ISDN project) started in 1992. and universities, offering a wider range of flexible and In Section 2, we briefly describe the current status cost-effective services. The construction of KII-G is be- and deployment plan of KII including the evaluation of ing led by Korea Telecom (KT) and Dacom Corp. (DA- the first stage results. Section 3 depicts the migration COM), the top two facilities-based service providers, and directions from an overlay network to an integrated net- is scheduled to be completed by 2010. KII-G will be work. In Section 4, we introduce some research and de- implemented to create the initial demand for KII-P and to velopment trials related to KII, in particularly, the na- provide the foundation for enhanced services and tech- tional test bed and ATM trial service, the pilot service nology development. KII-G has been developed in three project, and major ATM products developed under the stages with each stage having different features, as HAN/B-ISDN project. Finally, some concluding remarks shown in Table 1. are given in Section 5. 2.1 The First Stage of KII 2. CONSTRUCTION PLAN FOR THE KOREA IN- The high-speed government network, KII-G, pro- FORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE vides necessary services to the government, public insti- tutions, universities, primary, middle and high schools. As demands for more diversified and high quality The construction of KII-G will encourage network pro- telecommunications increase, Korea is now preparing for viders to build KII-P by providing enhanced service and a major communications infrastructure that can serve as technology. The government is funding the KII-G project, a common network foundation for upcoming telecom- and two major telecommunication carriers, KT and DA- munications services. The KII is planned to provide a COM, were contracted by the government to construct new network foundation that will service as the core of KII-G. The KII-G project is expected to be completed by the information society in the 21st century. The KII con- the year 2010. As shown in Figure 1, KII-G was to be struction plan consists of three stages, with the objective connected to five major cities with PVC-based ATM of bringing about an information society in Korea by exchanges and optical transmission facilities of 2.5 Gbps 2010. The first stage from 1995 to 1997 is aimed at lay- rate between Seoul and Taejon. The objective of the first ing the foundation for building a national information KII-G stage is to construct the backbone network of the network, with the government as the forerunner in mak- Korean information superhighway and to develop appro- ing the initial investment. The second stage from 1998 to priate technology for KII-P. Table 1. Detailed Plan of KII-G Stage First stage (1995-1997) Second stage (1998-2002) Third stage (2003-2010) Services Limited ATM Services IP Services, Enhanced Integrated Multimedia Native ATM Services, Service, Next Generation Internet AAL Type 2 Voice Service Service Switching PVC-based ATM SVC-based ATM Switch, MPLS Switch, Multi-terabit Switch MPLS Switch Switch/Router, Optical Switch Transmission 2.5 Gbps SDH 10 Gbps SDH 160 Gbps WDM Access Leased Line(lower than ATM, ADSL, ISDN, Frame VDSL, ATM PON, B-WLL, 155 Mbps) Relay, Cable TV, FTTO, FTTH FTTC, FTTH In the second stage, from 1998 to 2002, the trans- Seoul 12 Switching Points 68 Access Points (1999) mission rate among 5 major cities will be increased up to 64 Access Points (2000) 10 Gbps. Interoperability among KII-G, KII-P, and the 155 Mbps national test-bed will also be considered in this stage. A 622 Mbps backbone network will be constructed, in which ATM 2.5 Mbps core and edge switches using 103 SVC-based ATM Chunchon Chunchon switching systems will be located in large or medium Seoul size cities. The backbone network will be expanded to Inchon Inchon Seoul cover the entire nation by the end of this stage. Network Suwon Suwon providers will supply various subscriber access networks Cheongju Cheongju with the cheapest and most available technical solutions. Taejon Taejon For example, access networks can be dedicated lines, a Frame Relay network, an Integrated Services Digital Chunju Chunju Network (ISDN), an Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Taegu Taegu Line (ADSL), a Cable TV (CATV) network, FTTO, Kwangju Kwangju Changwon FTTC, or FTTH. Instead of replacing all existing net- Changwon Pusan Pusan works with the fiber optic cables that were planned for at the early stage of KII, upgraded telephone lines using advanced digital and wireless technologies will also be used to set up economic and efficient subscriber loops. Cheju Cheju To support the dramatically increasing Internet services, high-speed routers will be installed at the 5 major cities. Figure 1. Network Configuration of the KII-G It is also possible that an overlay network connecting a high-speed router to an ATM core network may be con- Subscribers are connected to the backbone network structed. Moreover, the high-speed network will provide via various access networks including a dedicated optical multimedia services to over 7.5 million PC communica- fiber. Services are provided at the rates of 1.5 Mbps, 45 tions subscribers by the year 2002. During the second Mbps, and 155 Mbps. The most valuable contribution to stage, the KII-G backbone network will be expanded. KII during the first stage is to establish the foundation on KII-P to be mainly used for commercial purposes is also which government and private companies are able to to be constructed . make their own efforts towards KII. The first stage em- Finally, in the third stage, from 2003 to 2010, the phasized too much the supply side of the telecommunica- transmission rate between major cities will reach 160 tions infrastructure and, as a result, the markets for appli- Gbps by introducing Wavelength Division Multiplexing cations, services, and business contents were not built up (WDM) optical networks, and KII construction will be enough to realize KII. completed with additional 451 ATM switching systems In contrast to KII-G, KII-P is open to the public and . The number of PC communications subscribers is funded by private telecommunications companies. The expected to exceed 30 million by 2010. In this period, first stage of the KII-P deployment aimed at setting up ATM-based Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) access networks, by means of which public customers switches will be installed nationwide. Subscribers will be were connected to the services offered by KII-G. By able to choose the most economical solution from among June 1997, 1,019 large buildings were connected through VDSL, ATM PON, B-WLL, or FTTH. An intensive high-capacity fiber optic cables, providing services to communications area will choose a full mesh structure over 200,000 subscribers. Moreover, the high-speed in- for its network construction whereas a less intensive formation network, connecting 80 major cities, was ex- communications area will choose either a ring or star tended to 151 telephone offices nationwide . structure. The overlay network will evolve towards an integrated network capable of providing both Internet 2.2 The Second and Third Stages of KII services and native ATM services. 28 3. MIGRATION PLAN FROM OVERLAY NET- Telephony 24 WORK TO INTEGRATED NETWORK Number of subscribers (million) 20 Internet 18 As more advanced services emerge in the telecom- 16 munications market, telecommunication demands change 14 12 accordingly. Figure 2 shows demand changes (number of 10 CATV subscribers) for voice and data communications services 8 PC Comm. in Korea. The demand for fixed telephone service is al- 6 ready saturated, but public Internet service in Korea is 4 ISDN 2 now growing rapidly. As shown in Figure 2, Internet 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 YEAR service will dominate in the early 2000s. Figure 3 shows the changes in total bandwidth for voice (local, toll, in- Figure 2. Changes in Demand for Telecommunications ternational, and wireless) traffic and Internet traffic in Services in Korea Korea. Internet traffic volume was about 18% of voice Traffic ( Gbps ) traffic at the end of 1998, and will exceed voice traffic Voic e 1.1 T volume after 2001. Therefore, we are preparing a staged Internet strategy so that KII-G can accommodate more conve- nient high-speed Internet services. 3.1 Current Status of Internet Service in Korea 500 G As of June 1999, Korea had 6 non-profit and 24 commercial Internet Service Providers (ISPs). Figure 4 180 G 258 G shows an Internet connectivity map of Korea, and all ISPs are connected with each other through four Internet 28 G Year exchanges, KIX-NCA, KINX, KT-IX, and DIX. The 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 current ISP backbone network in Korea consists of rou- ters and dedicated lines of various rates such as T1, E1, Figure 3. Changes in Total Bandwidth for Voice and T3, and STM-1. This is accessible via several networks Internet Traffic in Korea. such as the Fame Relay and telephone networks. Figure 4. Internet Connectivity Map in Korea while, ATM-based trial Internet services using IP over ATM (IPOA) technology are offered to subscribers for NCA Foreign Network ATM trial service in the second stage of KII. Access Router Dedicated NCA : KIX-NCA As shown in Figure 5, PUBnet uses dedicated lines Network KIX : KINX, KT -IX, DIX for its backbone and also uses various kinds of access SEOUL networks such as dedicated lines, packet switching, and Frame Relay. As of April 1999, 2,572 subscriber lines of 2,553 organizations were in service, and the subscriber Dedicated Network Dedicated line has various rates from 56Kbps to 45Mbps. The re- Network TAEJON quired maximum bandwidth of the PUBnet subscribers is T AEGU in total about 1,024 Mbps. 3.2 Overlay and Integrated Network Configuration Dedicated Network Currently, conventional IP router-based PUBnet and PUSAN ATM-based switching networks are being constructed KWANGJ U separately from each other. Their configuration is called the overlay network. On the other hand, the integrated Dedicated Network network is an ATM-based telecommunications network including Internet, dedicated circuit and Frame Relay networks. Figure 5. PUBnet Configuration In Korea, a gradual evolution is required for the in- tegrated network. At present, An independent router The domestic Internet is showing a drop in efficien- network has been constructed. The PUBnet as an inde- cy because Internet traffic in the public and government pendent router network from KII-G is currently support- sectors has been sharply increasing recently and its net- ing Internet services. This service method is not econom- work is very complicated. In order to meet such increas- ical due to duplicated investment. It also degrades Inter- ing demand by government and public organizations, a net efficiency because of the detouring connection public sector network for the Internet (PUBnet), as a part through the Korea Internet exchange (KIX-NCA). Figure of KII-G, was established in the first stage of KII for 6 shows the current configuration of the independent offering Internet services. PUBnet is one of 6 non-profit router network. ISPs in Korea. Its objectives are to provide government In the integrated network, conventional Internet ser- organizations with Internet services and to stimulate the vice can be offered by adding routing functions to an use of KII through its Internet service. ATM switching system. The integrated network can also During the first stage of KII, a conventional IP rou- offer Internet services through several interworking net- ter-based PUBnet was constructed independently from work functions. Pure integrated services can be offered an ATM-based switching network to meet the rapidly when the network supports not only native ATM services growing Internet service demands and to offer Internet but also Internet and legacy services. This network has services at an early stage. The PUBnet started commer- some of the following advantages: cial Internet services at the beginning of 1998. Mean- PUBnet ISP LAN KIX-NCA Foreign ATM-based KII-G Internet National Test Bed ATM Terminal Equipment ATM LAN ATM Terminal Equipment Public ATM switch Router Figure 6. Current Configuration of the Independent Router Network. PUBnet ISP LAN KIX-NCA Foreign National Test Internet Bed ATM ATM Terminal LAN Equipment ATM-based KII-G Public ATM switch ATM Terminal Equipment Router Figure 7. Configuration of the Integrated Network Using the PVC (First Phase) Foreign Internet LAN KIX-NCA PUBnet ISP (KORNET, BORABET, etc.) PSTN ATM-based KII-G PSDN AICPS N-ISDN Frame Relay Private Network/Incorporation ARP Server Network Access Network ATM Terminal (FTTO) Public ATM switch Equipment Edge ATM switch ATM Terminal Router Equipment Figure 8. Configuration of the Integrated Network Based on the IPOA (Second Phase) Solves technical difficulties of the router‟s ex- net service based on an ATM network. tension. Provides various types of services. 3.3 Three-phased Evolution towards the Integrated Net- Guarantees quality of service. work Easily creates new services by its integrated In 1999, the first phase, we integrated the connection structure. between routers through the ATM PVC (Permanent Vir- Can be economically constructed when network tual Circuit) shown in Figure 7. In order to integrate the expansion is required by increased traffic PUBnet and KII-G, the dedicated lines between routers On the other hand, there are some disadvantages: should be changed to ATM PVC. ATM PVC will eco- High initial investment cost nomically support the connection by comparison with More time to offer service compared to the previous dedicated lines. It is possible to provide various overlay network. PVCs considering the traffic characteristics of routers Based on the above-mentioned concerns, three- and to enhance efficiency. phased evolution strategy of the overlay network towards In the second phase, by the year 2000, both the ATM an integrated network is being provided. In the first backbone network and router network will be integrated phase, an ATM Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC) con- using IPOA, shown in Figure 8. The previously dedi- nects routers. In the second phase, the integrated network cated lines can be replaced gradually with ATM should offer Internet services using the IPOA model. It should ultimately use MPLS to provide high speed Inter- KIX-NCA Foreign Internet LAN Exitsing ISP MPLS / PSTN MPLS Public ATM-Based KII-G Network PSDN AICPS N-ISDN Frame Relay ARP Server Access Network ATM Terminal (FTTO/FTTC/ADSL) Equipment Public ATM switch (LSR) Private/Incorporation Edge ATM switch ATM Terminal Network (Edge LSR) Other Equipment MPLS Router (Incorporation/Frame Router with the MPLS Relay Network) Figure 9. Configuration of the Integrated Network with the MPLS Based on ATM (Third Phase) Circuit Emulation (CE). ATM PVC and Switched Vir- In connection with KII, the B-ISDN test bed called tual Circuit (SVC) will be used for connections between National Test Bed (NTB) was implemented and installed routers. Sub-networks will be constructed with the unit in 1995 and has been improved. The role of the NTB is of the Logical Internet protocol Sub-network (LIS). It is to provide a platform that can assist in the development also possible to expand the ATM address resolution pro- of switching system, transmission and terminal equip- tocol (ARP) server based on its network scale. ment, and application services using the ATM-based B- For the final phase after 2001, an integrated network ISDN technology. It will also play a leading role in creat- based on ATM with MPLS is planned as shown in Fig- ing a research and development environment. The initial ure 9. The router will be replaced gradually with ATM test bed was constructed using domestic pilot ATM exchange with an externally installed MPLS function, switching systems and optical fiber transmission facili- and the existing dedicated line will be gradually replaced ties of 2.5 Gbps rate. It has constantly included other with the ATM CE. On the other hand, the subscriber and network elements and services. The main purpose of access network will use IPOA as well as MPLS. The NTB is to evaluate technologies and applications servic- PUBnet implemented on the ATM-based integrated net- es for KII before they are applied to KII. The interna- work will provide high-speed and high-quality Internet tional networks of the Asia Pacific Advanced Network – service. Several MPLS networks for each network pro- Korea (APAN-KR) and APEC‟s Asia Pacific Informa- vider can be established and the connections among such tion Infrastructure (APII) have utilized NTB for their networks can be handled by the edge ATM exchange of domestic backbone networks . KII-G. Current ISP will be merged with the integrated In the first stage, from 1995 to 1997, a backbone MPLS network. The integrated network will be able to network between Seoul and Taejon at 2.5 Gbps rate, and support integrated services including not only Internet 11 common utilization centers in the two cities were es- service but also conventional services. tablished to test high-speed network environments and to The objective of the final phase is to establish an in- drive interconnection with foreign test beds and other tegrated network, which can offer integrated service eco- networks. The technological adaptation of application nomically at high speed. By the year 1999, an MPLS services was evaluated on the NTB. The second stage, function is to be implemented on domestic ATM switch, from 1998 to 2002, speeded up the backbone network HANBit ACE 64+ . Therefore, the investment neces- from 2.5 Gbps to 10 Gbps, and the supply of ATM sary can be economized using the integrated network switched interconnections at the 622 Mbps maximum including the high-speed routing functions. It should be rate to users will be achieved. Also, the construction of possible to create new services proper to the real Korean interoperability testing environment with the Internet, the environment, and to realize the next generation Internet KII pilot network, a foreign test bed, and other networks with the necessary core technology. will be implemented to develop new technologies. In the final stage, from 2003 to 2010, backbone networks will 4. RELATED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT achieve speeds over 160 Gbps, and an open interconnec- TRIALS tion environment based on user requirements will be provided. 4.1 National Test Bed and ATM Trial Service Since 1998, ATM trial service in Korea has been implemented in five cities in the first stage of KII. The jectives of the second stage will be to expand service objectives of ATM trial services are to test and to verify areas, to extend the optical subscriber network, and to the performance of the ATM switching system, its inte- supply various multimedia services. roperability with other networks, its ability to provide various services, and an user communications environ- 4.3 Related R&D Project ment that can provide high-speed multimedia services. In Major telecommunications research institutes, net- addition, another major target is to create initial demand work operators, communications manufacturers, and in the private sector by allowing use of an ATM pilot universities jointly participate in the national HAN/B- network. These comprise ATM services, Frame Relay ISDN project resulting in the efficient utilization of the interworking services, and CE services – all types of limited human and financial resources allocated to it. The ATM trial services. Considering the capability of the tasks and responsibilities that the project entails are ATM switching system, these trial services are offered in shared among them, depending on their specialties and two steps. The first trial services have been provided advantages. The research institutes, especially ETRI, are since April of 1998, and the second trial services are to responsible for developing the base technologies and be offered in the last half of 1999. The total number of implementing experimental systems. The network opera- institutes using the ATM trial services is about 100, tors (e.g., Korea Telecom) are involved in extensive field among which 36 institutes were selected as the prime trials for experimental systems on network test beds and institutes. The subscriber lines are ATM 2, 45, and 155 developing application services. The manufacturers take Mbps, and Frame Relay 128 Kbps and 2 Mbps. The first charge of refining the experimental systems to upgrade trial services consist of ATM services with PVC and their performance and developing manufacturing tech- CBR functions, Frame Relay services with interworking nologies to improve the competitiveness of their com- function, Internet services and CE services. The second mercialized products. The universities mostly work on a trial services consist of ATM services with SVC and variety of fundamental research issues in ATM-based B- VBR functions, and ATM supplementary services in- ISDN. cluding Virtual Private Network (VPN). The HAN/B-ISDN project embraces several R&D areas of ATM-based B-ISDN technologies such as net- 4.2 Pilot Project for Information Society work integration and development of ATM switching The aim of this project is to examine and verify the systems, the 10 Gbps Optical transmission system, B-NT, social, cultural, and technological acceptance of users by B-TA, and ATM terminal equipment. The project spans providing various multimedia services in a specific area, 9 years from 1992 to 2000 . Taejon, prior to the construction of KII. The project will The ATM switching system development project is examine the usage environment of the high-speed infra- considered one of the key elements in the establishment structure to create new demand, to test the functionality of KII. An ATM switching system on two scales – small and utility of the information infrastructure, and to ana- and large – has been developed. The small scale ATM lyze user requirements. In order to carry out efficiently switching system completed in 1996, was equipped with this project, it is necessary to thoroughly analyze the several interfaces such as STM-1, DS3, DS1E, and reaction of users to various types of services provided POTS, while the large scale ATM switching system is to and their content by categorizing users into two groups, be completed by 2000 and has STM-1/4, DS3, DS1E, home users and public institution users. This means that and POTS interfaces. The features of the HAN/B-ISDN we need to set up the direction and methods of our ser- development results are summarized in Table 2. vices and to analyze the results based on a staged strate- The systems developed from the projects, as shown gy for supplying services. in Table 2, are utilized in establishing a national test bed This project has two stages: the first stage, from and have their functions verified using the national test 1995 to 1997, was to construct a framework for the pro- bed. Such R&D results as the ATM switching and access vision of video service, and the second stage, from 1998 systems are used practically in KII-G. The KII construc- to 2002, is to provide several multimedia services to ex- tion project is linked to the HAN/B-ISDN R&D project amine usage patterns. In the first stage, frameworks for and standardization activities for the interoperability be- information infrastructure usage were established and tween the systems developed are promoted. MPLS tech- high-speed services were provided to 2,000 trial users nology is being developed as a follow-up project and a through FTTO and FTTC. Although only seven kinds of super high-speed router will be developed in the near services were offered at the starting point, it now pro- future. vides about forty kinds of multimedia services . Through interconnection with a national test bed, and a 5. CONCLUSION satellite and wireless telecommunications network, new technological services may be provided to users. The We have reviewed the KII plan, scheduled between currently supplied services are high-quality video confe- 1995 to 2010. The plan has been revised once to incorpo- rencing, desktop video conferencing, electronic mail and rate newly developed technology and to respond to ac- bulletin board, high-speed FTP/TELNET, high-speed tual demand for broadband network necessary for the Internet access services, video on demand, etc. The ob- provision of service on the network. It is now expected to be Table 2. Features of HAN/B-ISDN Development Products  Features Small Scale Large Scale Subscriber Interface STM-1, DS3, DS1E, POTS STM-1/4, DS3, DS1E, POTS Network Interface PSTN, PSDN, N-ISDN PSTN, PSDN, N-ISDN Point-to-point, partially point-to- Point-to-point, partially point-to- ATM Switch- Call Processing multipoint PVC/SVC multipoint PVC/SVC ing System Switching Architecture 64*64, 256*256 256*256, 1024*1024 Switching Throughput 10Gbps, 40Gbps More than 159 Gbps ATM Switching Node for the KII at the Application Main Switching Node for the KII beginning Home Type Features Centralized Type (CANS) Distributed Type (DANS) (HANS) Maximum 64 STM-1 or 128 Maximum 8 B-NT Capacity Maximum 8 Ports UTP Terminals (Broadband Network STM-1, TAXI, DS3, UTP, Terminator) Interface MPEG-2 Video, Ethernet STM-1, UTP STM-1, UTP LAN Connection Ratio Maximum 8:1 Maximum 16:1 Maximum 2:1 Call Processing Multicast, Local Switching PVC/SVC, P-to-P, P-to-MP PVC/SVC Features Contents Service Video: MPEG-2(DTV), Audio: Digital Phone/MPEG-2, Data: less than 155 Mpbs ATM Media System Ar- Terminal Service Type : CBR, VBR, Connection-oriented data chitecture Network Equipment Transmission Rate : 155.52Mbps(STM-1) Interface Signaling : Point-to-point, point-to-multipoint Application Service Video phone, DTV receiving, DB Retrieval, Video Conference Type Contents Development Network Interface : Ethernet LAN, Frame Relay B-TA Separated type Target Terminal Interface : ISDN Terminal, Video Terminal Final Target LAN, Frame Relay, Video, N-ISDN, B-TA Combined Type Integrated B-TA(Video, LAN, N-ISDN) Features Contents 10 Gbps Multiplexing / Optical Optical Signal / Transmission Ca- SDH STM-64 Hierarchy / 9.95328Gbps (STM-64) / 64*STM-1 Transmission pacity System Tributary Interface/ Optical ATM-1 (155M), STM-4 (622M), STM-16 (2.5G) / Booster, Pre-amp, Optical Amplifier/ OAM Repeater / OAM and TMN Interface Function completed earlier and more economically than the origi- formation interface, and a more convenient everyday life. nal plan envisioned. In place of FTTH, FTTC is now A description of the gradual evolution towards an in- accepted as a satisfactory alternative. The first stage was tegrated network has been presented. The original plan successfully completed and the second stage is under was to establish a super high-speed network that accom- construction. The KII plan has social as well as econom- modates only indigenous ATM service. To meet the sud- ic implications. Depending on cost, customers are al- den increase in Internet services, the network architec- lowed to use any of the various technologies such as ture should be changed from an IP and ATM overlay ADSL, VDSL, ATM PON, Cable TV, and B-WLL. First networks to an integrated network based on MPLS. Al- of all, the higher economic efficiency associated with though lack of demand for ATM services could affect economic restructuring can be realized via KII. Secondly, network provider motivation for the establishment of KII, electronic government can be realized. Eventually, elec- increasing demand for IP services will accelerate the tronic signatures, and document interchange via the net- network access rate. The existing Internet in Korea is an work will be officially accepted, and the human capital overlay network. We are considering a KII with MPLS for the information society will be also created. Finally, a function, which will be able to support integrated servic- better quality of life can be achieved by a more useful es including both Internet service and previously existing information availability, a safer environment, better in- conventional services. We expect that Internet will be naturally integrated with KII and voice service will be and Future of Korean Information Infrastructure offered using AAL type 2 in the second stage of KII. (KII),” 2nd Korea-Vietnam Technology Interchange In addition, we have described R&D activities in- Seminar, PTIT, Hanoi ,Vietnam, June 7, 1999 cluding a national test bed, a pilot project and major  Seong-Youn Kim, “Strategic Network Planning for ATM products developed under the HAN/B-ISDN the Second Phase of Korea Information Infrastruc- project. Core functions of ASIC chips have been being ture,” 8th Int‟l Telecommunications Network Plan- developed to increase competitive power. We work to- ning Symposium, Italy , Oct. 1998 gether with industry, universities and research institutes to accelerate commercial usage, to secure base technolo-  Sanghoon Lee and Jae-Il Jung, “Telecommunications gies and to promote joint research with advanced coun- Markets, Industry, and Infrastructure in Korea,” tries especially in high technology area. IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 59-64, Nov. The government is now preparing a core technology 1998 development and Internet network plan for the next gen- eration Internet. In March 1999, the Government formu-  Soo Hyung Kim, “Network Evolution Strategies to- lated the “Cyber Korea 21” policy to inspire the con- ward B-ISDN in Korea,” Information Superhighway Group, Korea Telecom, Sept. 1996 struction of a creative knowledge-based nation. The ma- jor objective of Cyber Korea 21 is to prepare the infra-  Hyeong Ho Lee et al., “Structures of an ATM structure for the creation of a knowledge-based nation Switching System with MPLS Functionality,” to be construction. KII will play a leading role in constructing presented in Globecom‟99, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Cyber Korea 21 . Dec. 5-9, 1999  C. H. Youn, D. Y. Kim, Y. H. Choi, and J. Y. Lee, REFERENCES “ATM Networks and Service Plans in Korea,” Glo-  Ministry of Information and Communication, “Plan becom„97, SAS Session A19, Presentation Material, for Advancing Information Infrastructure,” Sept. Nov. 7, 1997 1997  Ministry of Information and Communication, “CY-  Ministry of Information and Communication, “Plan BER KOREA 21,” Mar. 2, 1999 for the second stage of KII deployment,” May 1998  Seung Woo Seo, and Moon Soo Kim , “The Present BIOGRAPHIES Jeong Ju Yoo took his sabbatical at Computing Department, Lancaster University, U.K. from September 1995 to August 1996 and received his Master degree in Telecommunications, Kwang-woon University, Korea in 1984. He has worked at Telecommunications System Department, Switching and Transmission Technology (STT) Laboratory, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) in Korea since 1984. Currently, he is a Senior Member in ETRI. Hyeong Ho Lee received B.S. degree from the Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul, Korea in 1977, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Taejon, Korea in 1979 and 1983, respectively. He joined ETRI, Taejon, Korea in 1983. From 1984 to 1986, he was on leave as a Visiting Engineer with AT&T Bell Laboratories, Naperville, U.S.A., and involved in the development of the No.5 ESS digital switch. From 1987 to 1998, he was engaged in the research and development of digital switching sys- tems such as TDX-10, TDX-10 SSP, TDX-10 ISDN, and ATM, and responsible for the development of HANbit ACE ATM Switching System from 1997 to 1998. Since January 1999, he is Director of Router Technology Department at STT Laboratory, and engaged in the research and development of ATM LAN switching system, Gigabit Ethernet switch, and Wireless ATM LAN systems. Chu Hwan Yim received his Dr.-Ing degree in Communication Systems, Technical University of Braunschweig, Ger- many in 1984. He has worked in ETRI since 1978 and is currently in charge of STT Laboratory and a Vice President, ETRI in Korea.
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