Stronger Together- University-Community Partnerships

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					          Stronger Together:
University-Community Partnerships for
   Social Justice and Sustainability



              Edward T. Jackson
              Carleton University

     Public Lecture, Lansdowne Lecture Series,
            University of Victoria, Victoria
                  October 19, 2005
What Are Universities For?
“Great universities should be judged not just
by the quality of their research, the learning
of their students, and the contributions and
accomplishments of their graduates, but also
by their service to democratic society as
critic, conscience, and public intellectual and
by their preparation of students for
citizenship.”
                            Fallis, 2005

                                              2
Should We Renew the Public’s
Social Contract with Universities?
Through Government,              In Return, Universities
the Public Would Grant           Would Deliver:
Universities:
                                     Mass liberal education
                                     Social mobility and
    Recurrent operational
                                      citizenship
     funding
                                     Advanced research
    Targeted research funding
                                     Innovation and economic
    Academic freedom                 development
    Institutional autonomy          Professional training
    Collegial governance            Community resilience
                                     Corporate social
                                      responsibility
                                                                3
Corporate Social Responsibility


Commitment of a company to its
stakeholders to promote economic well-
being, environmental health and social
equity, in response to the needs of
present and future generations.

                            Willard, 2005


                                            4
The Need for University-
Community Partnerships
                    Strengthening the capabilities and assets
 Sustainable        of the bottom two income quintiles, and of
  Livelihoods        geographic communities under stress
                    Devoting special resources to addressing
                     the needs of persistent low-income
                     groups
                   
 Social Justice     Ensuring full rights and freedoms for
                     marginalized groups
                    Ensuring full access to social and
                     economic services and programs for
                     communities of interest

 Environmental       Promoting environmentally sustainable
                       government policies and business
  Sustainability       practices for current and future
                       generations

                                                               5
Sustainable Livelihoods
“A livelihood becomes sustainable when it can:
 Minimize vulnerability – coping with and recovering
  from shocks and stresses
 Ensure economic productivity – putting assets to
  work efficiently in order to generate income and
  other resources”
Livelihood strategies facilitate the development
of assets and capabilities, supporting people to
“more basic income generation towards
increased economic resilience”
            Women’s Economic Development Consortium, 2002
                                                            6
Vulnerability to Low Income
                            Incidence of Low-   Incidence of Low-
                           Income (Excluding    Income (Including
                                Transfers)          Transfers)
         Group               1996      2001     1996        2001
Unattached Individuals       46%       35%      38%         29%
(Aged 45-64)
Work-Limiting Disability     52%       37%      34%         21%
Recent Immigrants            47%       31%      35%         25%
Lone Parents                 60%       49%      40%         31%
Aboriginals Off-Reserve      44%       29%      32%         17%
Non High-Risk                13%       9%        9%         5%

                                                 Hatfield, 2004     7
“Students are yearning for meaning,
    faculty for relevance and the
    community for engagement”

                Whitmore and Stuart, 2004




                                            8
Forms of Partnership
 Project (research study, training workshop,
    curriculum/tools development, etc.)
   Program (multiple research projects,
    courses, etc.)
   Organization (non-profit, association,
    foundation, institute, chair, etc.)
   Network (incorporated, unincorporated)
   Coalition (incorporated, unincorporated)
   Campaign (policy advocacy, social-cause
    marketing, etc.)
                                                9
Characteristics of Effective
Partnerships
 Mutual understanding and respect
 Trust
 Reciprocity of benefit
 Clear, negotiated, written agreements (MOUs, etc.)
 Financial transparency
 Joint accountability
 Co-management of implementation
 Co-production of results
 Shared celebration of success
 Stable, extended funding

                                                       10
Issues in Designing and
Managing Partnerships
 Scope: broad-based, multi-sector or narrow gauge,
    single-sector or single organization?
   Duration: ad hoc or ongoing?
   Governance and Management: appropriate structures
    and systems to make policy and strategic decisions and
    manage and report on implementation
   Resources: project or program funding, short-term or
    multi-year funding, single donor or multiple funders?
   Politics: continuous engagement of key
    constituencies/stakeholders with both/all partner
    organizations
   Champions: gaining and maintenance of substantive
    support by senior leaders on both/all sides.
                                                             11
        Community Economic Development
        Technical Assistance Program
                         Major Funders                                      Carleton University
                   - McConnell Foundation                                 - Office of the Dean
                   - Bell Canada                                          - CCCI

Regional/Smaller Funders
- Corporations                               Management Committee
- Regional Agencies                          - Funders (3)
                                             - Carleton (3)                          Advisory Panel
  Project Selection Committee                                                      - 7 sector/policy-
  - 7 sector leaders and funders                                                     research leaders
                                                        Secretariat
                                                                                   - 3 university reps
                                                   - Director
                                                   - Officers / RAs
                                                   - Administrator
                                   1997-ongoing               2001-2004
                                                              2005-ongoing     1997-2003
                                                    Regional
                                                  Coordinators        Sector Initiatives
        Technical          Community                                                          Network
                                                  - Quebec            - Conferences,
       Assistance           Initiatives                                                     Participation
                                                  - B.C.                Research, Tools
     Providers (600+)         (400+)
                                                  - Prairies

                        Community-Based                     Professional / Sector Organizations
                          Organizations                    (CED, Coops, Universities, Futures, etc.)
                                                                                                         12
Community-Based Knowledge and
Action: The Dynamic Triangle

               Community-Based
                Service Learning




 Community-Based              Community-Based
Continuing Education             Research

                                                13
Civic Education
At engaged institutions, multiple stakeholders are united
by a common language and a dedication to fostering
the civic skills, attitudes, and values that will enable
students to take an active role in their communities both
during the college years and after graduation.
                         Pew Partnership for Civic Change, 2005


Ultimately, treading the path of engagement can and
should serve both universities and communities by
advancing theoretical knowledge, training productive
citizens, and helping to solve community problems.
                          Pew Partnership for Civic Change, 2005

                                                             14
Community Service Learning
 Integrates service experiences within
  academic courses or extra-curricular
  programs
 Strong emphasis on inclusive partnerships
  between universities and non-profit
  community organizations
 Clear objectives for both student learning and
  resulting benefits to the community
        Canadian Association of Community Service Learning, 2005

                                                               15
Community Service Learning
A form of experiential education in which
students engage in activities that address
human and community needs together with
structured opportunities intentionally designed
to promote student learning and development.
Reflection and reciprocity are key concepts of
service learning.

                           Jacoby and Associates, 1996


                                                         16
Success Factors in CBSL

 Community voice
 Orientation and training
 Meaningful action
 Reflection
 Evaluation

                             Mac Neil, 2005



                                              17
Community-Based Research

A partnership of students, faculty, and
community members who collaboratively
engage in research projects for the
purpose of solving a problem or creating
social change.

                              Stoecker, 2005




                                               18
Tensions and Directions in CBR
     Tensions                           Directions
 Community versus            Integrate community-
  academy                      academy interests (eg.
                               MOUs, joint publications)
 Research versus action      Integrate research and
                               action (put research funds in
                               hands of community)
 Training students versus    Shift students from charity to
  solving problems             social-change work
 Service versus social       Turn social service into
  change                       social change

                                       Stoecker, 2004      19
Divergences and Convergences in
Community-University Partnerships
                          Community Organization
        ISSUE                 /Non-Profit                        University

Mission / Core Business   Policy/services/rights change   Degree-based education
Organizational Structure Usually small, flat              Large, bureaucratic
Governance                Often simple; power with        Complex, collegial; power
                          board and staff                 is dispersed
Management Capacity       Often low, uneven               Well-developed at the
                                                          centre
Idea-to-Action Cycle      Fast; 4-6 months                Slow; 8-24 months
Success Indicators        Policy reform                   Knowledge production
                          Service improvements            Knowledge transfer
                          Rights enforcement              Academic publications
                          Membership recruitment          Student recruitment
                          Funds mobilization              Funds mobilization
                          Positive media coverage         Positive media coverage
                                                                                  20
Crucial Factors To Be Better
Understood

  University     Community


  Collective        Core
  Bargaining       Funding



                               21
   Some people have the idea that the
       President runs the University.
That’s not true. It’s run by everybody, the
faculty, staff, Senate, Board of Governors
    and to some extent the students.
The President stands in the middle of it all.

              Davidson Dunton
              former President
             Carleton University

                                            22
University Governance
Centres of Power
 Student           Board of           Senate        Faculty
Government        Governors                          Union

                   President
                                                   University
               VP         VP                       Committee
             Research   Academic

                                   Faculty Deans
                                                   Committees
                               Department Chairs
                                  / Directors
                                                   Committees
                                    Professors
                                     Students
                                                                23
Levels of University Change
Board of Governors     Corporate
      Senate           President        Level 3

  Chairs/Directors       Faculty
                          Dean
                                        Level 2
 Promotion &Tenure

     Research             Unit
      Centre         Chair / Director

      Project            Course         Level 1
    Researcher         Professor

    Research            Students
    Assistants
                                                  24
Community-Based Service
Learning: Program-Support Model
                       External Funders
Corporate Centre                                       Sector
                             Level 3

                             Level 2
 Faculty Dean                                      NGO Corporate
                       Program Support


 Academic Unit                                       NGO Team
                             Level 1

   Professor                                       Field Supervisor
                           Course
                      Project / Placement
    Student

                   Project             Placement

                                                                      25
A University Change Strategy

  CBR



                CBSL    CSR


  CBCE


   Levels 1 and 2      Level 3
                                 26
Components Contributing to University
Corporate Social Responsibility Equity
                                        Services
                CSR
                                       Eco-Action
                                        Pension
                                       Management
    CBCE        CBR         CBSL        Volunteer/
                                       Fundraising

   Programs    Centres     Courses



    Courses    Programs   Placements



   Workshops   Projects    Projects
                                                   27
Stages of Corporate Social
Responsibility
                                                                   Stage 5:
                                                                 Purpose and
                                                  Stage 4:         Passion
                                                 Integrated
                                Stage 3:          Strategy       Driven by
                                Beyond                           passionate,
                               Compliance         Transformed    values-based
                   Stage 2:                       and rebranded commitment to
   Stage 1:
                Compliance Pro-active and as firm                improving the
     Pre-                      incremental        integrates CSR well-being of the
 Compliance     Manages        initiatives in     with key       company, society
                liabilities,   CSR, but they      business
Ignores                                                          and the
                obeys the law, are not            strategies;
sustainability,                                                  environment –
                pays lip-      institutionalized, enjoys
actively fights                                                  because it is the
                service to     and remain         competitive
regulations,                                                     right thing to do
                CSR            marginalized       advantages
cheats systems
                                                  from CSR
                                                               Willard, 2005

                                                                                28
Useful Websites
Action Research: An International Journal                    sagepub.com/journal
Canadian Association of Community Service Learning communityservicelearning.ca
Canadian Research Alliance for Community Innovation and Networking       cracin.ca
Community Based Research Forum, University of Victoria       research.uvic.ca/cbrf
Community Based Research Network of Ottawa         spcottawa.on.ca/cbrno_website
Community Organizing and Development On-Line Conference       comm-org.wisc.edu
Community University Institute for Social Research                  usask.ca/cuisr
Community-University Research Conference (CUExpo)          usask.ca/cuisr/cuexpo
Loka Institute                                                            loka.org
J.W. McConnell Family Foundation                          mcconnellfoundation.ca
Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning                 servicelearning.org
Pew Partnership for Civic Change                              pew-partnership.org
Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council                           sshrc.ca
Trent Centre for Community-Based Education                         trentu.ca/tccbe




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