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Stronger Together- University-Community Partnerships

VIEWS: 100 PAGES: 29

									          Stronger Together:
University-Community Partnerships for
   Social Justice and Sustainability

              Edward T. Jackson
              Carleton University

     Public Lecture, Lansdowne Lecture Series,
            University of Victoria, Victoria
                  October 19, 2005
What Are Universities For?
“Great universities should be judged not just
by the quality of their research, the learning
of their students, and the contributions and
accomplishments of their graduates, but also
by their service to democratic society as
critic, conscience, and public intellectual and
by their preparation of students for
                            Fallis, 2005

Should We Renew the Public’s
Social Contract with Universities?
Through Government,              In Return, Universities
the Public Would Grant           Would Deliver:
                                     Mass liberal education
                                     Social mobility and
    Recurrent operational
                                     Advanced research
    Targeted research funding
                                     Innovation and economic
    Academic freedom                 development
    Institutional autonomy          Professional training
    Collegial governance            Community resilience
                                     Corporate social
Corporate Social Responsibility

Commitment of a company to its
stakeholders to promote economic well-
being, environmental health and social
equity, in response to the needs of
present and future generations.

                            Willard, 2005

The Need for University-
Community Partnerships
                    Strengthening the capabilities and assets
 Sustainable        of the bottom two income quintiles, and of
  Livelihoods        geographic communities under stress
                    Devoting special resources to addressing
                     the needs of persistent low-income
 Social Justice     Ensuring full rights and freedoms for
                     marginalized groups
                    Ensuring full access to social and
                     economic services and programs for
                     communities of interest

 Environmental       Promoting environmentally sustainable
                       government policies and business
  Sustainability       practices for current and future

Sustainable Livelihoods
“A livelihood becomes sustainable when it can:
 Minimize vulnerability – coping with and recovering
  from shocks and stresses
 Ensure economic productivity – putting assets to
  work efficiently in order to generate income and
  other resources”
Livelihood strategies facilitate the development
of assets and capabilities, supporting people to
“more basic income generation towards
increased economic resilience”
            Women’s Economic Development Consortium, 2002
Vulnerability to Low Income
                            Incidence of Low-   Incidence of Low-
                           Income (Excluding    Income (Including
                                Transfers)          Transfers)
         Group               1996      2001     1996        2001
Unattached Individuals       46%       35%      38%         29%
(Aged 45-64)
Work-Limiting Disability     52%       37%      34%         21%
Recent Immigrants            47%       31%      35%         25%
Lone Parents                 60%       49%      40%         31%
Aboriginals Off-Reserve      44%       29%      32%         17%
Non High-Risk                13%       9%        9%         5%

                                                 Hatfield, 2004     7
“Students are yearning for meaning,
    faculty for relevance and the
    community for engagement”

                Whitmore and Stuart, 2004

Forms of Partnership
 Project (research study, training workshop,
    curriculum/tools development, etc.)
   Program (multiple research projects,
    courses, etc.)
   Organization (non-profit, association,
    foundation, institute, chair, etc.)
   Network (incorporated, unincorporated)
   Coalition (incorporated, unincorporated)
   Campaign (policy advocacy, social-cause
    marketing, etc.)
Characteristics of Effective
 Mutual understanding and respect
 Trust
 Reciprocity of benefit
 Clear, negotiated, written agreements (MOUs, etc.)
 Financial transparency
 Joint accountability
 Co-management of implementation
 Co-production of results
 Shared celebration of success
 Stable, extended funding

Issues in Designing and
Managing Partnerships
 Scope: broad-based, multi-sector or narrow gauge,
    single-sector or single organization?
   Duration: ad hoc or ongoing?
   Governance and Management: appropriate structures
    and systems to make policy and strategic decisions and
    manage and report on implementation
   Resources: project or program funding, short-term or
    multi-year funding, single donor or multiple funders?
   Politics: continuous engagement of key
    constituencies/stakeholders with both/all partner
   Champions: gaining and maintenance of substantive
    support by senior leaders on both/all sides.
        Community Economic Development
        Technical Assistance Program
                         Major Funders                                      Carleton University
                   - McConnell Foundation                                 - Office of the Dean
                   - Bell Canada                                          - CCCI

Regional/Smaller Funders
- Corporations                               Management Committee
- Regional Agencies                          - Funders (3)
                                             - Carleton (3)                          Advisory Panel
  Project Selection Committee                                                      - 7 sector/policy-
  - 7 sector leaders and funders                                                     research leaders
                                                                                   - 3 university reps
                                                   - Director
                                                   - Officers / RAs
                                                   - Administrator
                                   1997-ongoing               2001-2004
                                                              2005-ongoing     1997-2003
                                                  Coordinators        Sector Initiatives
        Technical          Community                                                          Network
                                                  - Quebec            - Conferences,
       Assistance           Initiatives                                                     Participation
                                                  - B.C.                Research, Tools
     Providers (600+)         (400+)
                                                  - Prairies

                        Community-Based                     Professional / Sector Organizations
                          Organizations                    (CED, Coops, Universities, Futures, etc.)
Community-Based Knowledge and
Action: The Dynamic Triangle

                Service Learning

 Community-Based              Community-Based
Continuing Education             Research

Civic Education
At engaged institutions, multiple stakeholders are united
by a common language and a dedication to fostering
the civic skills, attitudes, and values that will enable
students to take an active role in their communities both
during the college years and after graduation.
                         Pew Partnership for Civic Change, 2005

Ultimately, treading the path of engagement can and
should serve both universities and communities by
advancing theoretical knowledge, training productive
citizens, and helping to solve community problems.
                          Pew Partnership for Civic Change, 2005

Community Service Learning
 Integrates service experiences within
  academic courses or extra-curricular
 Strong emphasis on inclusive partnerships
  between universities and non-profit
  community organizations
 Clear objectives for both student learning and
  resulting benefits to the community
        Canadian Association of Community Service Learning, 2005

Community Service Learning
A form of experiential education in which
students engage in activities that address
human and community needs together with
structured opportunities intentionally designed
to promote student learning and development.
Reflection and reciprocity are key concepts of
service learning.

                           Jacoby and Associates, 1996

Success Factors in CBSL

 Community voice
 Orientation and training
 Meaningful action
 Reflection
 Evaluation

                             Mac Neil, 2005

Community-Based Research

A partnership of students, faculty, and
community members who collaboratively
engage in research projects for the
purpose of solving a problem or creating
social change.

                              Stoecker, 2005

Tensions and Directions in CBR
     Tensions                           Directions
 Community versus            Integrate community-
  academy                      academy interests (eg.
                               MOUs, joint publications)
 Research versus action      Integrate research and
                               action (put research funds in
                               hands of community)
 Training students versus    Shift students from charity to
  solving problems             social-change work
 Service versus social       Turn social service into
  change                       social change

                                       Stoecker, 2004      19
Divergences and Convergences in
Community-University Partnerships
                          Community Organization
        ISSUE                 /Non-Profit                        University

Mission / Core Business   Policy/services/rights change   Degree-based education
Organizational Structure Usually small, flat              Large, bureaucratic
Governance                Often simple; power with        Complex, collegial; power
                          board and staff                 is dispersed
Management Capacity       Often low, uneven               Well-developed at the
Idea-to-Action Cycle      Fast; 4-6 months                Slow; 8-24 months
Success Indicators        Policy reform                   Knowledge production
                          Service improvements            Knowledge transfer
                          Rights enforcement              Academic publications
                          Membership recruitment          Student recruitment
                          Funds mobilization              Funds mobilization
                          Positive media coverage         Positive media coverage
Crucial Factors To Be Better

  University     Community

  Collective        Core
  Bargaining       Funding

   Some people have the idea that the
       President runs the University.
That’s not true. It’s run by everybody, the
faculty, staff, Senate, Board of Governors
    and to some extent the students.
The President stands in the middle of it all.

              Davidson Dunton
              former President
             Carleton University

University Governance
Centres of Power
 Student           Board of           Senate        Faculty
Government        Governors                          Union

               VP         VP                       Committee
             Research   Academic

                                   Faculty Deans
                               Department Chairs
                                  / Directors
Levels of University Change
Board of Governors     Corporate
      Senate           President        Level 3

  Chairs/Directors       Faculty
                                        Level 2
 Promotion &Tenure

     Research             Unit
      Centre         Chair / Director

      Project            Course         Level 1
    Researcher         Professor

    Research            Students
Community-Based Service
Learning: Program-Support Model
                       External Funders
Corporate Centre                                       Sector
                             Level 3

                             Level 2
 Faculty Dean                                      NGO Corporate
                       Program Support

 Academic Unit                                       NGO Team
                             Level 1

   Professor                                       Field Supervisor
                      Project / Placement

                   Project             Placement

A University Change Strategy


                CBSL    CSR


   Levels 1 and 2      Level 3
Components Contributing to University
Corporate Social Responsibility Equity
    CBCE        CBR         CBSL        Volunteer/

   Programs    Centres     Courses

    Courses    Programs   Placements

   Workshops   Projects    Projects
Stages of Corporate Social
                                                                   Stage 5:
                                                                 Purpose and
                                                  Stage 4:         Passion
                                Stage 3:          Strategy       Driven by
                                Beyond                           passionate,
                               Compliance         Transformed    values-based
                   Stage 2:                       and rebranded commitment to
   Stage 1:
                Compliance Pro-active and as firm                improving the
     Pre-                      incremental        integrates CSR well-being of the
 Compliance     Manages        initiatives in     with key       company, society
                liabilities,   CSR, but they      business
Ignores                                                          and the
                obeys the law, are not            strategies;
sustainability,                                                  environment –
                pays lip-      institutionalized, enjoys
actively fights                                                  because it is the
                service to     and remain         competitive
regulations,                                                     right thing to do
                CSR            marginalized       advantages
cheats systems
                                                  from CSR
                                                               Willard, 2005

Useful Websites
Action Research: An International Journal          
Canadian Association of Community Service Learning
Canadian Research Alliance for Community Innovation and Networking
Community Based Research Forum, University of Victoria
Community Based Research Network of Ottawa
Community Organizing and Development On-Line Conference
Community University Institute for Social Research        
Community-University Research Conference (CUExpo)
Loka Institute                                                  
J.W. McConnell Family Foundation                
Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning       
Pew Partnership for Civic Change                    
Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council                 
Trent Centre for Community-Based Education               


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