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The Impact of Higher Education on National and Regional by wyf14327


									The Impact of Higher Education on
National and Regional Socio-
Economic Development: The
Bologna Process

Matthew Andrews
Director of the Graduate School, Durham University; and
AUA (Association of University Administrators) link with ACHEA
•   Launched in 1999 at the University of Bologna
•   Ten ‘action lines’ set out the priorities for the Bologna Process
•   Progressed through Ministerial summits and follow-up groups
•   Closely linked with the European Union (EU) but not part of the EU
•   ‘Soft legislation’ – not legally binding on signatory countries
•   Hugely varying impact on signatory countries
•   Countries outside of the EU are watching the Bologna Process closely
•   Significant potential benefits for national and regional development

     –   Development of the Bologna Process
     –   More than ‘just’ Bologna
     –   Stocktaking Exercise 2007
     –   Bologna and the global context
     –   Concluding thoughts
Development of the Bologna Process
Origins of the Bologna Process
•   1988: Magna Carta Universitatum – signed by heads of universities at
    the 900th anniversary of the University of Bologna: to “encourage
    mobility among teachers and students … a general policy of equivalent
    status, titles, examinations (without prejudice to national diplomas)”
•   1998: Sorbonne Declaration – signed by HE ministers from France,
    Germany, Italy and the UK committing to “harmonising the architecture
    of the European Higher Education system”
•                                       ∂
    1999: Bologna Declaration – signed by HE ministers from 29 European
    countries stating an intention to create the European Higher Education
    Area (EHEA) by 2010 recognising that, despite the intentions of the
    Magna Carta Universitatum and the Sorbonne Declaration, “the
    achievement of greater compatibility and comparability of the systems
    of higher education nevertheless requires continual momentum in order
    to be fully accomplished”

Bologna Declaration (1999)
“We need to support [the Process] through promoting concrete measures
to achieve tangible forward steps.” (Bologna Declaration)

     1. the adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees
     2. the adoption of a system essentially based on two cycles of higher
     3. the establishment of a system of∂ credits
     4. the promotion of mobility
     5. the promotion of European co-operation in quality assurance
     6. the promotion of the European dimension in higher education

Prague Summit (2001)
“Ministers reaffirmed that efforts to promote mobility must be continued to
enable students, teachers, researchers and administrative staff to benefit
from the richness of the European Higher Education Area including its
democratic values, diversity of cultures and languages and the diversity of
the higher education systems.” (Prague Communiqué)

     7. a focus on lifelong learning     ∂
     8. the inclusion of higher education institutions and students, and
     9. the promotion of the attractiveness of the European Higher Education Area

Berlin Summit (2003)
“Emphasise the importance of research and research training and the
promotion of interdisciplinarity in maintaining and improving the quality of
higher education and in enhancing the competitiveness of European higher
education more generally.” (Berlin Communiqué)

     10. the inclusion of doctoral studies (the third cycle of higher education) and
         the synergy between the European Higher Education Area and the
         European Research Area

Bergen Summit (2005)
“Building on the achievements so far in the Bologna Process, we wish to
establish a European Higher Education Area based on the principles of
quality and transparency. We must cherish our rich heritage and cultural
diversity in contributing to a knowledge-based society. We commit
ourselves to upholding the principle of public responsibility for higher
education in the context of complex modern societies. As higher education
is situated at the crossroads of research, education and innovation, it is
also the key to Europe‟s competitiveness. As we move closer to 2010, we
undertake to ensure that higher education institutions enjoy the necessary
autonomy to implement the agreed reforms, and we recognise the need for
sustainable funding of institutions.” (Bergen Communiqué)

•   European Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance and plans
    for a register of quality assurance agencies

London Summit (2007)
“We reaffirm our commitment to increasing the compatibility and
comparability of our higher education systems, whilst at the same time
respecting their diversity. We recognise the important influence higher
education institutions (HEIs) exert on developing our societies, based on
their traditions as centres of learning, research, creativity and knowledge
transfer as well as their key role in defining and transmitting the values on
which our societies are built. Our aim is to ensure that our HEIs have the
necessary resources to continue to fulfil their full range of purposes. Those
purposes include: preparing students for life as active citizens in a
democratic society; preparing students for their future careers and
enabling their personal development; creating and maintaining a broad,
advanced knowledge base; and stimulating research and innovation.”
(London Communiqué)
•   Mobility, the social dimension and the EHEA in the global context
     Countries in the Bologna Process
50                                 45        46

40                        33

20                        ∂


      Bologna   Prague   Berlin   Bergen   London
       (1999)   (2001)   (2003)   (2005)    (2007)
within the
(46)                 ∂

Map thanks to Ella
Ritchie, PVC
states of the
EU (27)


Map thanks to Ella
Ritchie, PVC
More than ‘just’ Bologna
More than ‘just’ Bologna
•   Overlap, overkill or confusion?
•   The Bologna Process has created a huge industry of working groups,
    committees and conferences generating guidance and documents: the
    Tuning Project, Dublin Descriptors, Salzburg Principles…
•   In addition, the Bologna Process is one aspect of greater co-operation
    within Europe and several other programmes and initiatives have an
    impact on the Process, including: ∂
     –   Lisbon Strategy (2000)
     –   Lisbon Recognition Convention (1997)
     –   European Research Area (2000)
     –   European Union (European Commission)
Lisbon Strategy
•   The Lisbon Strategy is the action and development plan agreed in 2000
    which committed the EU to develop, by 2010, the most dynamic and
    competitive knowledge-based economy in the world and one capable
    of sustained economic growth
•   The Lisbon Strategy was created to deal with the low productivity and
    stagnation of economic growth
•   Re-launched in 2005 with a focus∂ jobs and growth
•   The main areas of activity/priority include:
     – encouraging a knowledge-based economy and society by better policies
       for the information society and research & development, as well as by
       stepping up the process of structural reform for competitiveness and
       innovation and by completing the internal market
     – modernising the European social model, investing in people and
       combating social exclusion
Lisbon Recognition Convention
•   The Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications concerning Higher
    Education in the European Region (Lisbon Recognition Convention)
    aims to ensure that holders of a qualification from one European
    country have that qualification recognised in another European country
    was agreed in 1997 by the Council of Europe (which has 47 member
•                                      ∂
    Access to further HE study and use of an academic title should be
    granted to holders of qualifications on the same grounds as citizens
    from the country where recognition is sought
•   The convention also encouraged all signatory countries to issue the
    Diploma Supplement to their graduating students
•   This is the only legally binding aspect of the Bologna Process: in
    Bergen all signatory countries were urged to ratify the Lisbon
    Recognition Convention
European Research Area (ERA)
•   Established in 2000 by the European Union, with the following main
     – Enable researchers to move and interact seamlessly, benefit from world-
       class infrastructures and work with excellent networks of research
     – Share, teach, value and use knowledge effectively for social, business and
       policy purposes
     – Optimise and open European, national and regional research programmes
       in order to support the best research throughout Europe and coordinate
       these programmes to address major challenges together
     – Develop strong links with partners around the world so that Europe
       benefits from the worldwide progress of knowledge, contributes to global
       development and takes a leading role in international initiatives to solve
       global issues
•   The Bologna Process seeks to unite the ERA with the EHEA through
    third cycle awards: Doctoral degrees
European Union
•   The European Commission is part of the Executive of the European
•   The EU‟s role in education is limited by treaty and the constitutional
    foundations of the EU and the Bologna Process are very different
•   The Commission activity is based on Article 149 of the EU Treaty which
    entitles the Commission “to contribute to the development of quality
    education by encouraging co-operation between member states”
•   Nevertheless, the EU plays a significant role in the Bologna Process,
    Commission staff are fully engaged and many key mobility
    programmes are EU funded
•   Concern of „mission creep‟ and changing attitudes: Bologna is „bottom
    up‟ whilst the EU is generally „top down‟
Stocktaking Exercise 2007
Stocktaking Exercise 2007
•   Stocktaking is an important exercise undertaken to ensure continual
    progress is made towards the „implementation‟ of the EHEA in 2010
•   Key conclusions in Stocktaking 2007:
     – countries need to use learning outcomes (rather than volume measures)
       as the basis for national qualifications frameworks, credit systems, diploma
       supplements and quality assurance
     – the Bologna process is an effective catalyst for reform at national level: all
       participating countries have shown measurable progress in key areas
     – there is a need for greater integration of the different action lines to ensure
       their interdependence is appreciated in providing additional opportunities
       for learners and institutions
Action                              Green      Light   Yellow   Orange   Red
Degree Cycles                        23         11      10        4       0
Access to next cycle                 37          5       2        1       3
Qualifications Framework              7          6      11        23      1
QA implementation                    17         26       4        1       0
External QA system                   18         23       5        2       0
Student participation in QA          17         16      11        4       0
International participation in QA    11    ∂    14      16        3       4
Diploma supplement                   25          7      14        1       1
Lisbon Recognition Convention        31          5       1        3       8
Implementation of ECTS               27          9       6        6       0
Recognition of prior learning        17         11       9        9       2
Recognition of joint degrees         32         16       0        0       0
Total                                262        149     89        57     19
Action                              Green   Light   Yellow   Orange   Red
Degree Cycles                       48%     23%      21%      8%      0%
Access to next cycle                77%     10%      4%       2%      6%
Qualifications Framework            15%     13%      23%      48%     2%
QA implementation                   35%     54%      8%       2%      0%
External QA system                  38%     48%      10%      4%      0%
Student participation in QA         35%     33%      23%      8%      0%
International participation in QA   23% ∂   29%      33%      6%      8%
Diploma supplement                  52%     15%      29%      2%      2%
Lisbon Recognition Convention       65%     10%      2%       6%      17%
Implementation of ECTS              56%     19%      13%      13%     0%
Recognition of prior learning       35%     23%      19%      19%     4%
Recognition of joint degrees        67%     33%      0%       0%      0%
Total                               45%     26%      15%      10%     3%

Bologna and the global context
Bologna and the global context
•   The Bologna Process has ushered in a remarkable series of changes
    in HE across the signatory countries, whether or not these changes
    lead ultimately to the achievement of the stated aims of the Process is
    yet to be seen
•   Nevertheless, many countries and regions outside Europe are keen
    followers of the Process‟ progress
•                                    ∂
    London Summit included representatives from Australia, Canada, Chile
    and New Zealand
•   Examples of the global context
     –   Brisbane Communiqué
     –   USA admissions
     –   New Zealand Ministry of Education „Bologna Day‟ in February 2007
     –   EU-LAC Summits
     –   Activities of the European Commission
     –   The EHEA in a global context
Brisbane Communiqué
An agreement between 27 countries in the Asia-Pacific region (53 countries)

Brisbane Communiqué
•   Launched in April 2006 to encourage and facilitate regional student and
    academic mobility and exchange, with four main themes:
     1. Quality assurance frameworks for the region linked to international
        standards, including courses delivered online
     2. Recognition of educational and professional qualifications
     3. Common competency based standards for teachers, particularly in science
        and mathematics
     4. The development of common recognition of technical skills across the
        region in order to better meet the overall skills needs of the economic base
        of the region
•   Turkey involved with Bologna and the Brisbane Communiqué Initiative
•   Aim 4 more equivalent to the Bruges-Copenhagen Process
•   No intention to create an equivalent to the EHEA – a more limited
    process? – though there will be biennial meetings
USA Admissions
•   “While three-year baccalaureate degree programs are not new,
    institutions in the United States have been and will be affected by the
    Bologna process, in particular, to an unprecedented extent in the near
    future.” (The Impact of Bologna and Three-year Degrees on U.S.
    Admissions, AACRAO)
•   Can and should US Universities accept „Bologna bachelors‟ onto US
    postgraduate programmes on the∂     same basis as US graduates given
    the difference in duration and content between the two systems?
•   Pressure for review is coming from a decline in international
    applications for postgraduate programmes: 28% decline in 2003/4
•   In 2005 30% of 177 institutions in an AACRAO survey did not accept
    three-year degrees for postgraduate entry, in 2006 only 18% would not
•   Will US institutions consider establishing three-year degrees – perhaps
    even join the Bologna Process? Will US students seek shorter, cheaper
    routes to a degree in Bologna countries?
New Zealand ‘Bologna Day’
•   The NZ Ministry of Education held a Bologna Day in February 2007 to
    promote a clearer understanding of the Bologna Process, the
    implications and opportunities for New Zealand, and to identify issues
    which need further investigation
•   Key benefits of closer alignment identified as:
     – Access to the EHEA (4000+ institutions and 12 million + students)
     – Facilitate the movement of students between New Zealand and Europe
     – Aid in the marketing of New Zealand international education in third
       countries through greater recognition
     – Easier to set up joint programmes
     – Aid in the recognition of New Zealand qualifications for European jobs
•   Initial steps taken to identify commonality and alignment between New
    Zealand HE and Bologna
EU-LAC Summits
•   Every two years there are Summits between the Heads of State and
    Government of the European Union and Latin America and the
    Caribbean to advance co-ordinated action in political, social and
    economic matters of interest
     –   I Rio 1999
     –   II Madrid 2002
     –   III Guadalajara 2004       ∂
     –   IV Vienna 2006
•   “We attach priority to the creation of the EU-LAC Common Area of
    Higher Education, geared towards mobility and cooperation” (Vienna
    Declaration 2006)
•   Declaration of Guadalajara of the Universities of Europe, Latin America and the
    Caribbean (2004) between the European Universities Association (EUA) and
    Consejo Universitario Iberoamericano (CUIB) expressed a joint conviction to
    “create an integrated area, which may encourage the compatibility and
    comparability of the higher education systems”
•   Asturisa Declaration (2006) to establish a shared knowledge area with seven
     1. Supporting the development of human resources
     2. Promoting information sharing on reform process in Europe, Latin America and the
     3. Developing innovative inter-institutional research collaboration and partnerships
     4. Enhancing cooperation with business and enterprises
     5. Increasing the two-way mobility of students, researchers and academic staff
     6. Strengthening quality assurance
     7. Language learning
The European Commission
•   The EU is a major world player and the Commission wants to promote
    the EHEA
•   The EU has a population of nearly 500 million – more than the USA
    and Russia combined. It is the world‟s biggest trader and generates
    one quarter of global wealth. It gives more aid to poor countries than
    any other donor. Its currency, the euro, comes second only to the US
    dollar in international financial markets
•   Links between the Lisbon Strategy and Bologna.
Erasmus Mundus
•   The Erasmus Mundus programme is a co-operation and mobility
    programme in the field of higher education which promotes the
    European Union as a centre of excellence in learning around the world
•   It supports European Masters courses and enhances the visibility and
    attractiveness of European higher education in third countries
•   It also provides EU-funded scholarships for third country nationals
    participating in these Masters courses, as well as scholarships for EU-
    nationals studying at partner universities throughout the world
•   Masters courses must have three partners: two EU and one from the
    rest of the world and students must study at at least two of these
The EHEA in a global context
•   The Bologna Process calls for a greater understanding of the
    international setting for the EHEA
•   “We are pleased that in many parts of the world, the Bologna reforms
    have created considerable interest and stimulated discussion between
    European and international partners on a range of issues. These
    include the recognition of qualifications, the benefits of cooperation
    based upon partnership, mutual trust and understanding, and the
    underlying values of the Bologna Process. Moreover, we acknowledge
    that efforts have been made in some countries in other parts of the
    world to bring their higher education systems more closely into line with
    the Bologna framework.” (London Communiqué 2007)
Concluding thoughts
Concluding thoughts
•   The Bologna Process is an anomaly: driven from the bottom up, given
    importance by Ministers and the EU, and embracing autonomy and
    independence within ever-increasing harmonisation – can this seeming
    paradox be maintained?
•   What is the reality behind the changes? New names, same systems?
    Europe remains a continent of strong, independent countries, regions
    and sub-regions – institutions too∂
                                      have varying degrees of autonomy
•   Will the EHEA deliver the mobility, social, economic and cultural
    benefits that are envisaged?
•   Does the EHEA presage a wider series of agreements and, through bi-
    lateral agreements, a global higher education area?
•   Is Bologna a threat, an opportunity or hot air?
•   Where does the Caribbean stand in relation to the EHEA?
Sources of further information
Bologna Secretariat:
Europe Unit
European Universities Association
European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education
European Commission: Education and Training
The Impact of Higher Education on National
and Regional Socio-Economic Development:
The Bologna Process (ACHEA Conference 2007)

Mr Matthew Andrews

Director of the Graduate School, Durham University; and
AUA (Association of University Administrators) link with ACHEA

• +44 (0)191 334 4567
• Durham University, The Graduate School, Mountjoy Research
  Centre, Durham, England, DH1 3UP. UK

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