# Chapter 4 Notes Atoms

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```					Chapter 4 Notes: Atoms

What do I know                What do I want to know        What have I learned

Scientists and the Historic path to the Model of an Atom:

Scientist             Evidence               Model                 Drawing

Dalton

Thompson

Rutherford

Bohr
Back in the old days…..

Aristotle: Everything is made up of:

fire

Air
Air

Water

But Thanks to Dalton we know……

Daltons Atomic Theory:                                 Example

1.

2.

3.

4.

Now what exactly does the atom look like???

Historic Experiments:
Thompson’s Adventures to find the ELECTRON ( e- )
Drawing:                                                       Blyth’s Example :

Explanation:                                                   Explanation:

Thompson’s Plum Pudding Model: Drawing

Question? How do objects of the same charge behave when they come close together?

Drawing of Demo:

Explanation:
Atomic Model progressing….
Rutherford’s experiment: He discovered ___________________________

Drawing:
Experiment-                        which lead to…..   Model of the Atom:

Expected results            Drawing                    What they thought

Actual (Oh my Gosh!)        Drawing                    What they thought

Let’s Look inside the atom now….
4.2 If an atom is made up of sub-atomic particles what are they, and what should I
What do I know               What do I want to know       What have I learned?

Atomic Structure: Inside the Atom
Particle               Charge and           Where is it?          Size
(abbreviation)

Periodic Table and how it helps us…

Atomic Number                 Atomic symbol and Name       Mass Number

These Three pieces of information can be used to help you develop a model of each atom
on the periodic table.
I Do          We Do          You do

Carbon:       Oxygen:        Nitrogen:

C
O                N

Sulfur:       Phosphorous:   Boron:
Atomic Model Drawings: Now let’s use the Data in the table above to create a model of
an atom.

Rules for Models of   I do                          We do           You do
Atoms
1. Use Name or        Carbon has the symbol         Oxygen          Sodium
Symbol to find        capitol C in periodic
element on Periodic   table.
Table
2. Use Atomic
Number to
determine number             6
of Protons AND                   C
Electrons                            12
3. To Find number     Mass Number –Atomic Number=
Number of Neutrons
of Neutrons:
subtract the Atomic   12 - 6 = 6 Neutrons
number from the
Mass number.

4. Draw correct
amount of rings
according to the
2 e – 1st ring
8 e – 2nd ring
18 e – 3rd ring
32 e – 4th ring
Filling rule.
Q 2? How can these models look different if there is a
change in the numbers?

Isotopes: These are elements that have the same
charge and number of protons and electrons as
the elements on periodic table BUT they are
lighter or heavier due to a different number of
_____________.
For Example:

Carbon has an Isotope we call Carbon-14. These
means that there are 2 more ________ in the
Nucleus of this Carbon than the one on the
periodic table.

C 12 now becomes C 14

Nucleus only
Nucleus only

What about another isotope? Oxygen 18?

O   16   now becomes   O    18
4.3 Modern Atomic Model – Bohr’s model

 Bohr focused on the location of the ____________ in the atom.
 Bohr coined the Phrase ________________to stand for the possible
energies that an electron could have in an atom.

Drawing:                                             Analogy:

Ground        Can you go up or down half of a
step?
State

 Movement of the _____________ must occur in these set energy
levels. NO HALF WAY! To jump up a step they need to Gain
(Absorb) _________. To Jump down (emission) a step they must
________ energy. (Usually in the form of Light        )

 Mrs. Miller’s Demo:

Electron Cloud Model: The famous picture
A Fan blade is a good example of how we cannot know
the location of an electron because:

This Modern Model is the most up to date picture of an atom. We can never
know the _______________ of an electron, just the __________ of finding
an electron in a given energy level.

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