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					    Ocean Energy
    Developments


         The Engineering Business


             Ocean Energy Developments at EB
                          Tide, wave and wind energy



                                                      Dr Tony Trapp
                                                Managing Director


1    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
        Ocean Energy
        Developments


                              EB – The company

    !    Established 1997 and owned by 4 directors

    !    40 staff – mainly professional engineers

    !    Headquarters and workshops in NE England

    !    Design, procure, assemble and integrate

    !    Commission, trial and operate

    !    Serial innovators


2        TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
    Ocean Energy
    Developments


            Cable installation & protection




3    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
    Ocean Energy
    Developments


      Pipeline trenching ploughs




4    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
    Ocean Energy
    Developments


               1200m Rock-dump ROV
                                   Courtesy Van Oord ACZ




5    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
    Ocean Energy
    Developments


                          Ormen Lange gas field
                                   20% of UK gas supply ?




6    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
    Ocean Energy
    Developments


      Launch & recovery systems




7    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
        Ocean Energy
        Developments


                                  Technology for ROPG

    !    Tidal stream power                                                                                      Stingray

    !    Wave power                                                                                              EB Frond

    !    Power cable installation and protection                                                                 Cable Guardian

    !    Low cost offshore wind installation                                                                     Merlin

    !    Localised becalming for system installation                                                             WaveMatt

    !    Offshore Wind Turbine Access System                                                                     WaterBridge



8        TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved                 7 January 2004
    Ocean Energy
    Developments


    Power and Energy - The Units

      !     TW: TerraWatt - 1012 Watts - POWER

      !     TW-hr: TerraWatt-hour 1012 Watts-hrs -ENERGY

      !     TW-hr/yr: ENERGY per year

      Convenient to use average power

      Comparisons:

      !     Large power station - 1 to 1.2GW (0.001TW)

      !     Average world electricity consumption 1.7TW (2001)

      !     Average UK electricity generation 0.044TW (2001)
9    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


     Waves – the global energy trail
                                                                Solar ra
                                                                           diation
                                                                 1 7 4 ,0 0 0
                                                                              TW


                        Wind Power                                    0T W
                        Recoverable                               174
                                                              ind
                       6TW (0.3%)?                        Tow       )?
                                                                (1%



                      Energy in Wind                                                                   Energy in
                                                             To waves 10TW                            Ocean Waves
                                                                (0.6%)?




                                  Turbulence and                                         1%-2% Recoverable
                                  Seabed friction                                           0.1-0.2TW?
                                      10TW?
10    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved         7 January 2004
         Ocean Energy
         Developments


                                  Waves - much studied


                                                                                                                  kW/m




     !    Characterisation complex because:
           –    Variable amplitude, frequency, wavelength, direction
           –    Subject to refraction, reflection, diffraction
           –    Large annual variations
11        TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved          7 January 2004
      Ocean Energy
      Developments

                          Waves - Energy Extraction




     NB: you cannot take
     the energy from mid-
     ocean and the coast!
                                                               Many sites with average energy > 50kW/m
                 !      Red lines represent about 20,000km
                 !      20,000km at average 50kW/m is 1TW
                 !      Realistic extraction 10% to 20%? - 0.1 to 0.2TW
12       TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
         Ocean Energy
         Developments


                          Waves - The Bigger Picture
     !    Torness nuclear power station - 1200MW
     !    Wave power
           –    Average @ 50kW/m @ 20% average collection?
           –    120km wave front required to replace one Torness
           –    This ignores the intermittent nature of waves

                                                                                                                  Torness

                                                                                                                   120km coast (NB bad
                                                                                                                   wave site)

                                                                                                                  Blyth

                                                                         0.2TW is about 13% of current world
                     1% to 2% Recoverable                                   electricity consumption [0.2T£ (£200
                        0.1 to 0.2TW?                                           billion) investment]

13        TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved                    7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


                                    Tides - energy trail

                                Solar gravity
                                   1.7TW                                                                      Lunar gravity
                                                                                                                 2.5TW
                                                        ns
                                                     ea
                                                  oc      ?
                                                 o TW
                                                T .5                                                          Rock 1.7TW?
                                                  2

                      Energy flow                                                       Earth slows - 2x10-5 sec/yr
                        in Ocean                                                          Moon recedes 40mm/yr
                      tides 5TW?



                                                                                        1% to 2% Recoverable
                               Seabed friction                                            0.02 to 0.05TW?
                                  2.5TW
14    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved                   7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments

                          Tides - much less studied

     Gravitational attraction of moon and sun:

     !    Very small forces: max effect 1.6×10-7 of gravity

     !    Large water movements, slow speeds

     !    Oscillatory dynamics - large scale exchange between KE and PE

     !    Tidal energy sites require special and rare local seabed and
          coastal features:
            –     Some places have high tidal ranges - barrage sites

            –     Some places have high tidal speeds - tidal stream energy sites




15    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
       Ocean Energy
       Developments


                              Tides - energy and power
           Flow of KE:                                                                                             work done:
          Energy passing                                                                                          Force x speed
             per sec

                                                              Units of Power
                                                             140MW @ 160km/hr
     Tidal streams appear very energetic, but they are not dissipating much energy




                                    Tug not moving                                                        140MW @ 2m/s
16        TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved                   7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


                Energetic Tidal Streams




             Shetland Islands


             !      How much energy is there?
             !      How much can be extracted?
             !      What is the effect of energy extraction?
17    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


                    Tidal Channel - Simplified

                              Yell sound




                                                                4km long, 1km wide, 30m deep
             !
             !      Rough of flow:
                    Analysisconclusions:
                       –
                       –     How much energy is flow approach
                             Simple open channel there? -       About 120MW @ 2m/s
                       –
                       –     The flow is driven by a head difference generated across the channel
                             How much can be extracted? - About 12MW
                             by the dynamics of the oceans.
                       –     What is the effect? -             About 10% slowing
                       –     There must be an energy balance, and mass must be conserved
18    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy                            •Tide is very 2-dimensional compared to wind
     Developments
                                             •Tidal generators take up a large proportion of the flow area


                  Compare tide with wind

                                                                                               Fluid mechanics very similar
                                                  Slice of atmosphere
                                                                                               The main difference is scale

                                                   Slice of tide channel                              Channel/swept area ratio 1700




                                                                                                        Channel/swept area ratio 8


19    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved                     7 January 2004
         Ocean Energy
         Developments


                                      Tides - Other Issues

     !   Many practical issues are similar to wave:
          –   Technical and commercial viability
          –   Irregular but predictable power output
          –   Difficult and dangerous environment
          –   Grid Connection - proximity to customers

     !   Environmental issues are similar to wave:
          –   Permissions : Other users/stakeholders
          –   Physical limitations
          –   Public resistance to interference with the tides

     !   Where does the electricity comes from when the tide is not running?
20        TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
         Ocean Energy
         Developments


                                    Tide - The Bigger Picture
     !    Torness nuclear power station - 1200MW
     !    Tide power
           –     Yell East channel @ 120 MW @ 10% collection?
           –    100 similar sites required to replace one Torness
           And this ignores the intermittent nature of tide




                                                              1% to 2% Recoverable
                                                                0.02 to 0.05TW?

                       0.05TW is about 3% of current world electricity
                          consumption. 0.05T£ (£50 Billion) investment?
21        TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
         Ocean Energy
         Developments


     Tide & wave resource conclusions

     !    Resource size and availability does matter

     !    It is important to understand the nature and the limitations of the resources

     !    There is no clarity in resource estimation, and a tendency to be vague and
          over-optimistic about what can be collected

     !    Wave and tide could make a significant (but probably relatively small)
          contribution to world energy needs

     !    But still create a large industry and provide increased security of supply

     !    UK is uniquely placed to exploit tide and wave energy

     !    Strong UK offshore sector provides human and physical resources
22         TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
      Ocean Energy
      Developments


     Demonstration programme



                     Tidal Stream Generator




23     TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


                       Stingray – the vision




24    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


                                      Hydroplane Angle




                                                                                                                                Net Flow
                                                                                                              Vertical
                                                                                                              Velocity
                                                                                                              Component   Tidal Flow



                                                                                                              θA



25    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved                            7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


     Tests at Newcastle University




26    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


       Permits, licences & consultations
     Shetland Island Council - Development Department
     Shetland Island Council - Infrastructure Services Department
     Shetland Island Council - Marine Operations Department
     Shetland Fishermens Association                                                                             Insurance
     Shetland Fish Producers Organisation
     Shetland Shellfish Management Organisation
     Shetland Salmon Farmers Association informed
     Shetland Shellfish Growers Association
     Shetland Sea Mammal Group
     Shetland Biological Records Centre
     Community Councils informed - Delting and Yell
     Sullom Voe Oil Terminal Environmental Advisory Group
     Scottish Executive - Environment and Rural Affairs
     Scottish Executive - Energy Division
     Scottish Executive Development Department
     Scottish Environment Protection Agency
     Crown Estate - lease issued
     Scottish Natural Heritage
     UK Hydrographic Office
     MOD
     BP
     Scottish and Southern
     Scottish Coastal Forum informed
     RSPB
     Sea Mammals Research Unit, St Andrews University
27       TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved               7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


                      Stingray results 2003




                                     Energy collected over one typical tide




28    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
         Ocean Energy
         Developments


                        Tidal Energy Business

     !    TEB is a new company jointly owned by EB and NaREC
     !    TEB is established to develop Stingray technology
     !    Existing Phase 3 programme nearly completed
     !    Developing plans for Phase 4


          www.Tidal-EB.co.uk




29        TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


                                EB Frond concept

                                                                                       Surging device
                                                                                       Retracts in bad weather
                                                                                       Seabed reacting
                                                                                       Point absorber – tuning important




30
     Resonant oscillation
         TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved     7 January 2004
         Ocean Energy
         Developments


                 Installation of generators

     !    Installation is a major factor for every technology
     !    Important for long term success and economic viability
     !    Timing is important – summer better than winter
     !    Will effect operation and maintenance
     !    Must consider decommissioning as well


     Installation of demonstration machines


     !   Will need frequent intervention for maintenance and upgrade
     !   Need to deploy and recover easily and quickly
     !   Stingray allows for easy recovery and deployment

31        TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


     Deployment of Demonstrators




                                   5 knot current




32    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


     EB Frond demonstrator installation




     Major Issues:
     ! Safe and easy deployment and recovery
     ! Easy repair, development and maintenance
33    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
         Ocean Energy
         Developments


         Connecting the power station

     !    Cable installation must aim to be:
           –    Efficient
           –    Reliable
           –    Low risk
           –    Minimum weather down time
           –    Low cost
     !    Must consider repair and replacement strategy
     !    Two tasks:
           –    Connecting generators together
                   !    Do cables need to be buried – wave sites?, tidal sites?
           –    Connecting the power station to land
34        TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
          Ocean Energy
27 August 2003   Landing the 1st (round 1) cable at North Hoyle
          Developments
                                           EB Sea Stallion 4 cable plough




180t peak pull
Up to 3m trench
100m water depth
Robust skids
No exposed hydraulics




                                                                           Effective installation = low maintenance
35         TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
         Ocean Energy
         Developments


          North Hoyle cable installation



                                                Plough




     Weather can seriously delay operations
36         TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


      WavemattTM localised becalming




37    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


                    Initial Wavematt Trials




38    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


     Wavematt performance – first trial

                          80




                          60




                          40



                                                                                                                  Before WaveMatt
                          20                                                                                      After WaveMatt
       Wave Height (mm)




                                                                                                              60mm to
                           0
                                                                                                              30mm,

                                                                                                              50% reduction
                          -20
                                                                                                              in wave height

                                                                                                              70% reduction
                          -40                                                                                 in wave power



                          -60




                          -80

39    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved                         7 January 2004
                                Ocean Energy
                                Developments


                                West Gabbard - wind turbines

                                100




                                 80
     Available working time %




                                 60
                                                                                        West Gabbard
                                                                                        Vessel can operate in 1.0m waves

                                                                                        Without WaveMatt
                                 40                                                     60% availability
                                                                                        219 days a year

                                                                                        With WaveMatt
                                 20                                                     92% availability
                                                                                        337 days a year



                                  0
                                      0                0.5                 1                  1.5                 2                 2.5       3   3.5
                                                                                      Maximum allowable wave height /m



40                                    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved             7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


       Offshore wind turbine installation

                                                                                                               Merlin
                                                                                                          Vestas Wind Systems
                                                                                                        As a non-investing partner




                                                                                                     Low cost
     5MW turbine, 120m mast, 650 tonnes                                                              Less weather dependent

41     TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved                7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


                    Crown Estate Round 1 & 2

                                                                                Round 1: 450 turbines, 1.5GW
                                                                                Round 2: 2400 turbines, 7.1GW




42    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved    7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


             CE R2 - Turbines per day

       Assume: 3MW turbines, 150 operating days per year, build
       2006-2010 (5 years)

        Wash                                            1202 turbines                                   1.6/day

        Thames                                          621 turbines                                    0.8/day

        North West                                      567 turbines                                    0.8/day

        Total                                           2390 turbines                                   3.2/day




43    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved       7 January 2004
         Ocean Energy
         Developments


                                     Feasibility study

     "    1st Phase – 35% of project costs
           –     Technical investigation
                  – Barge stability and wave induced motions
                  – Marine Operations
                  – Lifting system design – Forces into turbine tower and barge
                  – Foundation design – clamping vs grouting
                  – Turbine modifications
           –     Outline design
                  – Equipment rough order magnitude cost evaluation
                  – Operational cost comparison vs limited scenario
           –     Review with DTI




44        TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
         Ocean Energy
         Developments


                   Phase 2 feasibility study

     "    2nd Phase – 65% of project costs
           –     Mathematical modelling
                  – Increased scope mathematical model for barge motions
                  – FEA for turbine tower interface to lifting system
                  – FEA analysis of clamping system at foundation
           –     Economic modelling
                  – “Virtual Project” cost analysis for live project
           –     Business Plan for Merlin development




45        TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
      Ocean Energy
      Developments


         Merlin™ Turbine Installation System




     2MW turbine, 70m Hub Height, 488 tonnes (Horns Rev, Vestas V80)
46      TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
         Ocean Energy
         Developments


                 Wind Turbine Foundation

     !   Basic Strength / Load Cases
     !   Stiffness and Fatigue Strength
     !   Setting time for full strength connection
     !   Jacking stability
     !   Clamping options




47         TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


         Merlin™ system - Opportunities

     !   Lower capital cost

     !   Lower day rate – ROM £20,000 / day

     !   Lower weather downtime risk

     !   Possibility to undertake periodic major maintenance without crane barge

     !   Decommissioning is the same as installation

     !   Reduced seabed disruption in the area of the foundation pile

     !   System can work in almost any water depth and currents

     !   Allows assembly using land based teams and “Normal” low height mobile cranes

     !   Installation operations could be conducted at higher wind speeds

     !   Barges and support vessels are readily available


48       TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
         Ocean Energy
         Developments


         Other benefits of Merlin™ system

     !   Turbine Design Benefits

          !   Removal of tower bolted connections – Site welds? – Cheaper / less fatigue?

     !   Installation Benefits

          !   Quicker foundation full strength connection?

          !   Less weather dependent cable pull in

     !   Commissioning Benefits

          !   Possibility to undertake some testing on land prior to offshore installation?




49        TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


                                WaterBridge concept




50    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


       19 December - WaterBridge-Lite




51    TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


                2 Jan 2004 - WindBridge-Lite




     Personnel transfer




52      TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
     Ocean Energy
     Developments


                  Politics in ocean energy

     !   Aspirational industry

         –     Enthusiastic amateurs

         –     Passionate professionals

         –     Cautious realists                                                              EB
         –     Professional doubters

         –     Cynics

53       TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004
         Ocean Energy
         Developments


                        Politics in Renewables

     !    Government has been enthusiastic and supportive
     !    Renewables are a fashionable ‘honey-pot’ at the moment
           –     Consultants industry is booming
           –     Every RDA wants a renewables sector
           –     Rapid growth in test and research centres
           –     Far too many conferences

     !    The greatest need is for medium/long term stability
           –     Long term funding (Stingray had 5 break points in 30 months)
           –     Build up long term teams with real excellence

     !    DTI has provided strong support
     !    EB has provided a good return to government
54         TP04 01 Offshore Engineering Society ADT – Copyright The Engineering Business Ltd All rights reserved   7 January 2004

				
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