Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards

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					  Emerging Networking
Technologies and Standards

            Presented by
         Khaled Amer

    e-mail: amer@amernet.net
      URL: www.amernet.net




          IEEE OC ComSig
  Agenda
 • Introductions and announcements
 • New Network technologies and standards
    – IEEE 802 standards
 • Other networking standards
    – IEEE 1394
    – IETF/ITU standards
    – Broadband Mobile Systems
 • Discussions

Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     2
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
   Introductions

 Speaker: Khaled Amer:
    President and founder of AmerNet
         Focus on architecture analysis and performance modeling for
          communications and networking chips and systems
    Currently chairman of the IEEE 802.17 performance committee
    Active voting member of several IEEE 802 committees
    Several publications and papers on network architecture and
     performance related topics in networks and communication
     systems

 Khaled Amer                        ComTech 2001                        3
 September 2001     Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  Announcement:
  IEEE - OC Workshop

                  EMERGING NETWORK
                    TECHNOLOGIES

  • One Day Two-Track Workshop
  • Saturday, March 2nd, 2001
  • Place: TBD




Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     4
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  Announcement:
  IEEE - OC Workshop
 Presented By

  THE INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND
       ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS

       Orange County Joint Chapter of the
        Communications Society & Signal
          Processing Society (ComSig)


Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     5
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  Announcement:
  IEEE - OC Workshop
• Seven information-packed sessions
  presented by world leaders in Network
  technologies

• Topics will include:
    – Two Keynote Speakers
        • Network Technologies: Speed Bumps and
          Opportunities by Colin Mick
        • New Trends in Network Technologies and Markets
          by Michael Pietrobono

Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     6
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
   Announcement:
   IEEE - OC Workshop
   – In Depth Sessions On:
        •   Configurable DSP Technology
        •   Network Processors
        •   LAN/WAN Convergence with 10 Gigabit Ethernet
        •   Resilient Packet Rings for Metropolitan Area Networks
        •   Next Generation Broadband-to-Home Gateway
            Processors


For additional details and registration information
website: http://www.comsoc.org/comsig
 Khaled Amer                        ComTech 2001                     7
 September 2001     Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  Agenda
 • Introductions and announcements
 • New Network technologies and standards
    – IEEE 802 standards
 • Other networking standards
    – IEEE 1394
    – IETF/ITU standards
    – Broadband Mobile Systems
 • Discussions

Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     8
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  Examples of
  New Network Technologies ...
  • High speed LANs
      – 1Gbps, 10 Gbps ...
  • Wireless LANs
      – 11 Gbps, 55 Mpbs coming soon ...
  • Wireless PANs
      – Bluetooth, Bluetooth 2 ...
  • High speed MANs (Fiber Rings)
  • Many more ...
Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     9
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  Why Network Standards?
   • Ensure proper interoperability
   • Open specification leads to more
     competition and lower cost to the end-user
   • Enables mixing and matching between
     vendor equipment and not being locked up
     with one vendor


Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     10
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  Examples of Network
  Standard Organizations
  • IEEE 802 standards
     – For LANs and MANs
  • IEEE 1394
     – For transporting video and data
  • IETF
     – For the Internet and TCP/IP protocols
  • ITU
     – For WANs
  • Others
Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     11
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  IEEE Standards
 • Over 40 active IEEE standards working
   groups covering multiple areas as:
      – Information technology
      – Power and Energy
      – Instrumentation and measurements
      – Power Electronics
      – Electromagnetics
      – Others
      (All listed at http://grouper.ieee.org/)
Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     12
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  IEEE Stds Board
  • Encourages and coordinates the
    development of IEEE standards
  • Approves initiation of new IEEE
  • standards projects
  • Reviews IEEE standards for consensus,
    process, openness and balance
  • Gives final approval for IEEE standards

Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     13
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
IEEE 802 Local and Metropolitan
Area Network Standards Committee


• Accredited by ANSI, Sponsored by IEEE Computer
  Society
• Part of the Information Technology working group
  area in the IEEE Standards covering standards like:
   – Ethernet, Token Ring, Wireless LANs, Bluetooth,
     Bridging, VLAN, Security




Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
IEEE 802 LAN/MAN
 Standards Committee (cont.)


• Meets three times per year
   – March, July, November
   – Participants: about 800 - 1000 individuals
• IEEE 802 web site at:
   – http://www.ieee802.org
• Current Chair:
   – Jim Carlo (jcarlo@ti.com)


Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  IEEE 802 Standards Principals

     • Process
          – Rules and Procedures
     • Consensus
          – Near unanimity
     • Openness
          – Everyone has Access to Process
          – Individuals, World-wide
     • Balance
          – Balloting group must include developers and users
     • Right to Appeal
          – Both procedural and technical anytime during the process

Khaled Amer                        ComTech 2001
September 2001     Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
    IEEE 802 ORGANIZATION
                                    LMSC SPONSOR
                                               CHAIR
                                             Jim Carlo

   ACTIVE WORKING GROUPS
          and CHAIRS                                             EXECUTIVE OFFICERS


    802.1              802.3            802.11                  VICE CHAIR      RECORDING SEC
BRIDGING/ARCH        CSMA/CD         WIRELESS                   Paul Nikolich    Howard Frazier
 Tony Jeffries    Geoff Thompson     Stuart Kerry



                                                               EXECUTIVE SEC      TREASURER
    802.15           802.16            802.17                   Buzz Rigsbee
    WPAN                                RPR                                        Bob Grow
                      BWA
   Bob Heile       Roger Marks     Mike Takefman




 Khaled Amer                            ComTech 2001                                     17
 September 2001         Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
 IEEE 802 Active Working
 Groups (WG)

  •   802.1      LAN protocols infrastructure
  •   802.3      Ethernet
  •   802.11     Wireless LANs
  •   802.15     Wireless Personal Area Networks
  •   802.16     Wireless Broadband Access
  •   802.17     Resilient Packet Rings

Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     18
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  IEEE 802 Working Groups in
  Hibernation

  •   802.2                 LLC
  •   802.4                 TOKEN BUS
  •   802.5                 TOKEN RING
  •   802.6                 DQDB MAN
  •   802.7                 BROADBAND
  •   802.10                SECURITY
  •   802.12                DEMAND PRIORITY




Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     19
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  IEEE 802 Disbanded
  Working Groups

  • 802.8                   FIBER TAG
  • 802.14                  CABLE-TV




Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     20
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  Let’s Get started!

                 Technical Overview
                         of
                 IEEE 802 standards



Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     21
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet)

  • 802.3 (10 BASE-T)
       – runs over 2 pairs of Cat-3 UTP copper cabling
  • 802.3u (Fast Ethernet or 100 BASE-T)
       – runs over 2 pairs of Cat-5 UTP copper cabling
  • 802.3z (Gigabit Ethernet or 1000 BASE-X)
       – runs on fiber


Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     22
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) ...

  • 802.3ab (1000 BASE-T)
       – Gigabit Ethernet over 4 pairs of Cat-5 UTP
         copper cabling
       – Standard approved and published (July 99)
  • 802.3ad (Link Aggregation)
       – Standard approved and published
         in March 2000

Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     23
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  802.3ae (10 G Ethernet)

  • Intense „discussions‟ to select speed:
       – 9.58464 Gbps
       – 10.00000 Gbps




Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     24
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  802.3ae (cont.)
     Compromise Decision:
        Extend the 802.3 protocol to an operating speed
         of 10 Gb/s and to expand the Ethernet
         application space to include WAN links. This is
         to be accomplished by having:
        One common MAC
        Two PHYs:
             A PHY for LANs at 10 Gbps
             A PHY for WANs at 9.58464 Gbps
              (compatible with SONET OC-192)
Khaled Amer                       ComTech 2001                     25
September 2001    Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  802.3ae (cont.)
        Started with17 proposals for PHYs!
        Distances:
             100 m over installed MMF
             300 m over MMF
             2 km over SMF
             10 km over SMF
             40 km over SMF
        Target completion date of 10G standard:
         March 2002

Khaled Amer                       ComTech 2001                     26
September 2001    Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  802.3ae (cont.)
    10 G Ethernet for the WAN is a VERY
    significant development:
     Ethernet becomes available in LAN/MAN/WAN
     Ethernet tries to achieve what ATM failed
          Unifying the LAN and WAN environment
     Opens the door for Ethernet Rings in MANs and
      WANs along with SONET Rings
          IEEE 802.17


Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     27
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  802.3ah
  (Ethernet in the First Mile)
  • PAR approved July 2001 to augment the
    MAC and PHY specifications of IEEE
    802.3 (Ethernet) to expand the application
    of Ethernet to include subscriber access
    networks
  • This will provide a significant increase in
    the performance while minimizing
    equipment, operation and maintenance costs

Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     28
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  802.11 (WLAN)
  Overview
  • Common MAC
  • Multiple PHYs:
       – 2.4 GHz frequency hopping spread spectrum
            • 1 Mbps, 2 Mbps
       – 2.4 GHz direct sequence spread spectrum
            • 1 Mbps, 2 Mbps
       – Infra-red
            • 1 Mbps, 2 Mbps


Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     29
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  802.11 Overview (cont.)
   – Higher data rate extension at 2.4 GHz (802.11b)
        • 11 Mbps (currently available)
        • 5.5 Mbps fall back rate, as well as 2 & 1 Mbps
   – Higher data rate extension at 5 GHz (802.11a)
        •   9-54 Mbps
        •   Current draft approved
        •   Should be available soon
        •   Interoperability and conflicts issues between
            802.11a, HIPERLANB2/MMAC

Khaled Amer                         ComTech 2001                     30
September 2001      Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
      802.11 Overview (cont.)
•     Data rates higher than 20 Mbps
•     Interoperable with 802.11b
•     Investigate other performance improvements
•     Selection process to continue at the Jan 2001 interim
      meeting




    Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     31
    September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
   802.11 Market
• Available data rates: 1, 2, 11 Mbps
• Available for ISA, PCI and PCMCIA cards
• Used in laptops, hand held devices, PDAs and
  desktops
• Currently mostly used in vertical markets
• Expected to move into more
  horizontal markets soon



 Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     32
 September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  Future Enhancements
  to 802.11
  • QoS features
       – Enable streaming for multimedia apps
  • More security
       – Encryption
       – Authentication
  • Better interoperability
  • Coexistance with other wireless
    technologies
Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     33
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  802.15
  (Bluetooth for WPAN)
   Objective to integrate Bluetooth
    technology into 802 LAN environments
   Designed to network devices within a
    Personal Operating Space (POS) like PCs,
    cell phones, pagers, PDAs, printers, fax
    machines, digital cameras, speakers
    and others …
   Target completion date: Dec 2001
Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     34
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  802.15
  Bluetooth Technology
• Wireless link connecting personal devices
• Low-cost, short range (0 - 10 meters)
  personal area networks (PAN)
• Initiated by Nokia, Toshiba, Ericsson, Intel
  and IBM
• Currently supported by over 2000
  companies
• Faces some challenges
Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     35
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  802.15
  Bluetooth Technology (cont.)

  • Intended to have lower cost, smaller size
    and less power than 802.11 devices
  • Effective power management reduces
    power consumption to 20 mW or less
  • Uses frequency hopping spread spectrum
       – 1600 hops/sec
  • Operates at 2.4 GHz

Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     36
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  802.15
  Bluetooth Technology (cont.)

  • Gross data rate 19.2 - 100 Kbps
  • Can support up to 1 Mbps
  • Supports asynchronous transmission
    as well as up to three simultaneous
    synchronous voice channels
  • Security features
       – Encryption and authentication
Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     37
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
   Proposed High Rate 802.15
• Suggestions for BW to be at least 20 Mbps to
  satisfy some of the MM requirements
• PHY adopted in Nov 2000 operating at 2.4 GHz
• Significant interest in having PHY at 5 GHz
   – An option to be further investigated
• Objective to complete standard early in 2002


 Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     38
 September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  Proposed High Rate 802.15 ...
• Discussions to provide location awareness:
         Purpose is to improve usability of portable devices
         Ability to identify relative location of one transceiver
          with respect to another
         Would help to locate, identify, and discriminate among
          users in crowded environments
         Provisions must be made to propagate location
          information to higher layers of the stack



Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     39
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
Suggestions for Low Rate 802.15

• PAR approved by WG in Nov 2000
• Intended for monitoring devices that send
  signals periodically (e.g.. every second)




Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     40
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  802.16 Overview
  PHY and MAC of single-point-to-multipoint
   broadband wireless access system
  Enables transport of data, video and voice
  Applies to systems operating in the
   vicinity of 30 GHz
  Also broadly applicable to systems
   operating between 10 and 66 GHz

Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     41
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  802.16 market
   Wireless technology that offers services similar to
    wired broadband access technologies like:
             DSL
             Digital cable TV
             ISDN
             Aggregated telephony-oriented connections (e.g..
              T1, E1, ISDN, etc.)
   Not meant to focus on low throughput voice-based
    access systems such as cellular or digital mobile
    telephone systems
Khaled Amer                       ComTech 2001                     42
September 2001    Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  Wireless Network
  Positioning
                 Mobility


             Vehicle
                                                 WWAN
  Outdoors
              Walk

              Fixed                                         WMAN

             Premise         WPAN
   Indoors                                            WLAN
             Office

                                  0.5            2                20    155 Mb/s


Khaled Amer                            ComTech 2001                           43
September 2001         Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  802.17 Overview

• New 802 Project approved by IEEE Standards Board
  Dec. 2000 as IEEE 802.17 Resilient Packet Ring WG
• Packet Ring Access Protocol for use in Local,
  Metropolitan and Wide Area Networks
• Transfer of packets at rates scalable to many gigabits per
  second.
• Will use existing Physical Layer specifications and may
  develop new PHYs where appropriate.


Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     44
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
802.17 Overview (cont.)
  •   For LANs, MANs and WANs
  •   Dual counter rotating rings
  •   Very high speed (10G and maybe higher)
  •   Fault tolerant (resiliency feature)
  •   Allows data, video, multimedia … etc.
  •   Tentative target completion date: YE 2002



Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     45
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
Resilient Packet Rings (RPR)



                                     RPR
                                     Ring




Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     46
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
   What is an RPR
 • Dual Counter Rotating Rings
      – Both rings carry traffic all of the time
 • Media Independence
      – Scalable in bit-rate, # nodes, span distance
      – OC-48c & OC-192c SONET/SDH
      – 1Gb/s & 10 Gb/s Ethernet
 • Destination Stripping of variable length uni-cast
   packets
      – Spatial re-use increases BW efficiency of ring

Khaled Amer                       ComTech 2001                     47
September 2001    Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
   What is an RPR (cont.)

  • Distributed Bandwidth Management & Congestion
    Control
  • Protection Mechanism
       – Achieve sub 50 ms. Protection
  • Class Of Service capability
  • Plug and Play
  • Support of large MTU (9216 Bytes) is being
    investigated

Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     48
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
                     Overview
                   of some other
                 Network Standards



Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     49
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  What is IEEE 1394?
 • A feature-rich serial interface capable of
   high data transfer rates
 • Being positioned to become the
   convergence connection.
 • A universal interconnect, capable of
   connecting computer peripherals and
   consumer A/V devices
 • Sometimes referred to as Firewire
Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     50
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  Goals of IEEE 1394

  • Low cost, high performance peripheral bus
  • Capable of transferring:
       – Asynchronous streams (for data)
       – Isochronous streams (for audio/video)
  • Support computer and consumer electronics
    systems


Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     51
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  1394 Today

  • 1394 Trade Association has over 100
    members representing S/W, silicon,
    peripherals, systems, CE.
  • 1394 products available now:
       – Consumer Electronics (CE):
            • camcorders, digital VCRs, monitor-top cameras
       – Computing
            • Host adapters, capture cards, digital video cards
Khaled Amer                        ComTech 2001                     52
September 2001     Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  1394 Applications
  •   Video editing and presentation
  •   Digital Video applications
  •   Desktop publishing
  •   Document imaging
  •   Games and home multimedia
  •   High speed interconnect for digital devices
  •   Isochronous connection for computer,
      consumer and peripheral applications
Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     53
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  IEEE 1394 Solution
                                                                                      DVD/CD ROM
                                                                                                         HDD
                                      DVCR                             Camcorder
                              REC   REW   FF   STOP
                                                      VHS




      DVD Movie                                                                                                 Printer
      REC   REW   FF   STOP
                                               VHS

                                                                                            Computer
                                                              Set-top box




                                                                                                               Scanner
                       DTV                                                       Service


                                                             Stereo                                            Camera




Khaled Amer                                                                 ComTech 2001                                  54
September 2001                                              Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
Isochronous vs. Asynchronous
  Isochronous                              Asynchronous
  – Occurs on regular                      – Occurs on a “First come, first
    boundaries (125us)                       served” basis
  – Are unacknowledged                     – Are acknowledged
  – Occur “just in time”                   – Occurs “as fast as possible”
  – Broadcast to all channels              – Are addressed explicitly
  – Have BW reserved                       – Use available BW
  – Guaranteed timing                      – Guaranteed delivery
  – Never retry Late data is               – Reliability of data transfer
    useless                                      (Retries are OK)

Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                        55
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  IETF Standards

  • IETF - Internet Engineering Task Force
  • Establish standards for the Internet
  • Lots of Enhancements to TCP/IP to
    accommodate the Internet explosion
  • Activities grouped into working areas, each
    having several working groups
  • Info available at www.ietf.org
Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     56
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  IETF Standards ...

  • Examples of IETF Working Areas:
       –   Internet area
       –   Applications area
       –   Transport area
       –   Security area
       –   Operations and Management area
       –   Routing area

Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     57
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  IETF Standards ...

  • Examples of working groups in an area like
    the Transport area:
       –   Diff Serv
       –   IP telephony
       –   Audio/Video transport
       –   Integrated services
       –   RSVP
       –   Others
Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     58
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  ITU Standards

  • Audiovisual services on various networks
       – H.32x family
  • Video Codecs for audiovisual services
       – H.261 (video coding for higher bit rates
       – H.263 (video coding for low bit rates)
  • Frame structure for video across networks
       – H.221

Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     59
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  H.32x Family of specifications

  • Operate truly as a family
  • Each recognizes the other members
  • Designed to inter-operate together and
    provide similar functionality




Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     60
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  H.32x (cont.)

  • H.320
       – Audio/video on ISDN
  • H.321
       – Audio/video on private ATM networks
  • H.322
       – Audio/video on LANs which provide a
         guaranteed QoS (e.g.. ISO-Ethernet aka. 802.9)

Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     61
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  H.32x (cont.)

  • H.323
       – Audiovisual on LANs with no guaranteed QoS
       – Designed to work with several protocols from
         the IETF
            • Uses UDP for audio and video
            • Uses TCP for data conferencing, conference control
              and signaling



Khaled Amer                       ComTech 2001                     62
September 2001    Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  Other Technologies and
  Standards

  •   DSL
  •   Cable Modem
  •   Broadband Mobile Systems
  •   Other wireless broadband technologies
  •   Fibre Channel
  •   SAN and NAS (network attached storage)

Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     63
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
    CDMA Technologies

•   Example of a Broadband Mobile system
•   CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access
•   Uses Spread Spectrum technology at 1.25 MHz
•   Data rates from 144 Kbps to 2 Mbps
•   Higher voice quality and support for QoS



Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     64
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  So … What’s ahead?


          In the next few years
           we‟ll be laughing at
           the dark ages of the
             20th century!!!



Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     65
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
      Some Informative
      Web Sites
•   http://www.ieee802.org
•   http://www.wirelessethernet.com
•   http://www.bluetooth.com
•   http://www.ietf.org
•   http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/index.html
•   http://www.1394ta.org/
•   http://www.zayante.com/html/IEEEinfo/IEEEcom.html
    (For IEEE 1394 standard)
• http://www.ansi.org/
    Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     66
    September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  Discussions




Khaled Amer                      ComTech 2001                     67
September 2001   Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards
  For More Information
                  Contact AmerNet
                 • Phone Number
                    (949) 552-1114

                 • Web site:
                    www.amernet.net
                 • E-mail address
                     amer@amernet.net

Khaled Amer                       ComTech 2001                     68
September 2001    Emerging Networking Technologies and Standards