Chapter 6 Networking Protocols by ecj13059


									                          Chapter 6: Networking Protocols

Chapter Outline

   1. On the Test
         2.3: Differentiate between the following network protocols in terms of
         routing, addressing schemes, interoperability, and naming conventions:
         TCP/IP; IPX/SPX; NetBEUI; AppleTalk.

   2. TCP/IP
         a. TCP/IP is a suite of protocols that allows nodes to communicate with each
             other in a network environment without regard to the type of machine or
             operating system on that machine.
         b. The TCP/IP suite contains two core protocols, IP and TCP.
         c. IP is a connectionless protocol used for transport at the Network layer of
             the OSI Model. IP manages logical addressing and routing functions for
             packet delivery.
         d. TCP is a connection-oriented Transport layer protocol that manages
             reliable delivery of packets. Error checking, sequencing, and
             retransmission of lost or corrupt packets are functions of TCP.
         e. The original developers of TCP/IP were the military and academic
         f. Logical addressing in TCP/IP is necessary to route packets between
             networks or internetworks.
         g. IP provides fragmentation services, packet timeout services, and many
             options for transporting packets.
         h. The two most important fields in the IP header are the source and
             destination address fields.
         i. An IP packet header and the data cannot exceed 65,535 bytes.
         j. When a node sends an IP packet, it compares the destination address to its
             own address, determines the network identifier, and either forwards the
             packet to the router interface or attempts to deliver it on its own segment.
         k. Two protocols are used to support routing services: RIP and OSPF.
         l. RIP is a distance vector routing protocol, meaning that routing decisions
             are based only on the number of hops in the path.
         m. OSPF is a link state protocol, meaning that routing decisions are made on
             a number of criteria, including hop count, congestion, and speed of
         n. Friendly names are supported for nodes running TCP/IP. DNS supports
             friendly names to IP address resolution services on the network.
   3. IPX/SPX
         a. IPX/SPX is a Novell proprietary protocol used with all versions of
             Novell’s NetWare products.
         b. IPX/SPX was designed to support a client-server architecture, using
             remote procedure calls to request service and respond with service. It can
             also be used as a peer-to-peer network protocol.
       c. Like TCP/IP, IPX/SPX supports two core protocols: IPX and SPX.
       d. IPX is a connectionless protocol responsible for the routing of packets,
           efficient delivery of datagrams, and logical addressing.
       e. SPX is a connection-oriented protocol that manages a session between
           nodes, including error control and retransmission of missing or corrupt
           packets, providing reliable delivery of data.
       f. SAP notifies the network when a service is available. This is actually a
           broadcast, and when the network is busy, SAP broadcasts can congest
           bandwidth. It may be necessary to filter SAP announcements at routers.
       g. NCP handles requests for services between the client (workstation) and the
           server. It is a very reliable service protocol, but can create large amounts
           of traffic.
       h. To form a logical address when using IPX/SPX, the administrator must
           add a network identifier in hexadecimal format. The network identifier is 8
           bits long.
       i. Once the network identifier is available, the node will combine the
           network identifier and its own MAC address to form a unique node
       j. IPX/SPX uses socket numbers to uniquely identify APIs and client
           requests to those APIs. Often sockets are assigned on the fly, but some
           socket numbers are reserved by the NetWare operating system.
       k. Like TCP/IP, the two most important fields in the IPX header are the
           source and destination node addresses. IPX also includes individual fields
           for source and destination network, and source and destination socket.
       l. An IPX header will contain approximately 28 bytes of information plus
           the payload.
       m. IPX routing employs two protocols: RIP for IPX and NLSP.
       n. RIP is a distance vector protocol, making routing decisions solely on the
           number of hops to the destination network.
       o. NLSP is a link state protocol, more efficient, and capable of making
           routing decisions on hop count combined with bandwidth utilization,
           speed of network, and other criteria.
       p. IPX/SPX does not require any specific naming conventions for
           workstations (clients), but does require that the servers have names that
           can use alphanumeric characters, but cannot exceed 64 characters in
           length (old NetWare versions are limited to 47 characters).
4.   AppleTalk
       a. AppleTalk is the protocol of Macintosh computers, originally designed for
           peer-to-peer networks.
       b. Although a later version of AppleTalk supports the internetwork and
           routing, it remains best suited for smaller networks.
       c. Logical addresses in AppleTalk are formed when the node attaches to the
           network. It is an 8-bit or 16-bit number, and will be stored and used again.
       d. AppleTalk also uses network numbers to identify segments.
       e. AppleTalk zones divide the network into logical groupings for file
           sharing, printing, and other services.
       f. RTMP supports routing services.
       g. Nodes using AppleTalk will broadcast their friendly name when attaching
          to the network. NBP will cache the name, and supply this name to any
          node requesting a service.
5. NetBEUI
       a. NetBEUI is an efficient, nonroutable protocol useful for small networks
          where Internet connectivity is not needed.
       b. No configuration is needed for NetBEUI.
       c. All nodes using NetBEUI must have a name.
       d. NetBIOS supports friendly names for NetBEUI.
       e. No Network layer services are a part of the NetBEUI/NetBIOS
          environment, so most often they are paired with other routable protocols
          such as TCP/IP or IPX/SPX.
6. Interoperability
       a. TCP/IP is a versatile protocol that supports global connectivity without
          regard to operating system.
       b. All major operating systems contain a TCP/IP protocol stack, including
          Microsoft operating systems, NetWare server versions 5.X and 6.X,
          Linux, and UNIX.
       c. If an organization allows Internet connectivity for users, the TCP/IP
          protocol must be implemented.
       d. IPX/SPX does not support access to Internet resources, but is a robust
          network protocol.
       e. Many operating systems include support for IPX/SPX.
       f. AppleTalk is native to only the Macintosh computer; Microsoft includes
          AppleTalk-compatible services with many of its operating systems.
       g. NetBEUI is native to the IBM LAN Manager and Microsoft Windows
       h. Because NetBEUI is nonroutable, it is only suitable to very small peer
       i. Macintosh has no provision for NetBEUI.

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