Chapter 6: Networking Protocols Chapter Outline 1. On the Test 2.3: Differentiate between the following network protocols in terms of routing, addressing schemes, interoperability, and naming conventions: TCP/IP; IPX/SPX; NetBEUI; AppleTalk. 2. TCP/IP a. TCP/IP is a suite of protocols that allows nodes to communicate with each other in a network environment without regard to the type of machine or operating system on that machine. b. The TCP/IP suite contains two core protocols, IP and TCP. c. IP is a connectionless protocol used for transport at the Network layer of the OSI Model. IP manages logical addressing and routing functions for packet delivery. d. TCP is a connection-oriented Transport layer protocol that manages reliable delivery of packets. Error checking, sequencing, and retransmission of lost or corrupt packets are functions of TCP. e. The original developers of TCP/IP were the military and academic institutions. f. Logical addressing in TCP/IP is necessary to route packets between networks or internetworks. g. IP provides fragmentation services, packet timeout services, and many options for transporting packets. h. The two most important fields in the IP header are the source and destination address fields. i. An IP packet header and the data cannot exceed 65,535 bytes. j. When a node sends an IP packet, it compares the destination address to its own address, determines the network identifier, and either forwards the packet to the router interface or attempts to deliver it on its own segment. k. Two protocols are used to support routing services: RIP and OSPF. l. RIP is a distance vector routing protocol, meaning that routing decisions are based only on the number of hops in the path. m. OSPF is a link state protocol, meaning that routing decisions are made on a number of criteria, including hop count, congestion, and speed of network. n. Friendly names are supported for nodes running TCP/IP. DNS supports friendly names to IP address resolution services on the network. 3. IPX/SPX a. IPX/SPX is a Novell proprietary protocol used with all versions of Novell’s NetWare products. b. IPX/SPX was designed to support a client-server architecture, using remote procedure calls to request service and respond with service. It can also be used as a peer-to-peer network protocol. c. Like TCP/IP, IPX/SPX supports two core protocols: IPX and SPX. d. IPX is a connectionless protocol responsible for the routing of packets, efficient delivery of datagrams, and logical addressing. e. SPX is a connection-oriented protocol that manages a session between nodes, including error control and retransmission of missing or corrupt packets, providing reliable delivery of data. f. SAP notifies the network when a service is available. This is actually a broadcast, and when the network is busy, SAP broadcasts can congest bandwidth. It may be necessary to filter SAP announcements at routers. g. NCP handles requests for services between the client (workstation) and the server. It is a very reliable service protocol, but can create large amounts of traffic. h. To form a logical address when using IPX/SPX, the administrator must add a network identifier in hexadecimal format. The network identifier is 8 bits long. i. Once the network identifier is available, the node will combine the network identifier and its own MAC address to form a unique node address. j. IPX/SPX uses socket numbers to uniquely identify APIs and client requests to those APIs. Often sockets are assigned on the fly, but some socket numbers are reserved by the NetWare operating system. k. Like TCP/IP, the two most important fields in the IPX header are the source and destination node addresses. IPX also includes individual fields for source and destination network, and source and destination socket. l. An IPX header will contain approximately 28 bytes of information plus the payload. m. IPX routing employs two protocols: RIP for IPX and NLSP. n. RIP is a distance vector protocol, making routing decisions solely on the number of hops to the destination network. o. NLSP is a link state protocol, more efficient, and capable of making routing decisions on hop count combined with bandwidth utilization, speed of network, and other criteria. p. IPX/SPX does not require any specific naming conventions for workstations (clients), but does require that the servers have names that can use alphanumeric characters, but cannot exceed 64 characters in length (old NetWare versions are limited to 47 characters). 4. AppleTalk a. AppleTalk is the protocol of Macintosh computers, originally designed for peer-to-peer networks. b. Although a later version of AppleTalk supports the internetwork and routing, it remains best suited for smaller networks. c. Logical addresses in AppleTalk are formed when the node attaches to the network. It is an 8-bit or 16-bit number, and will be stored and used again. d. AppleTalk also uses network numbers to identify segments. e. AppleTalk zones divide the network into logical groupings for file sharing, printing, and other services. f. RTMP supports routing services. g. Nodes using AppleTalk will broadcast their friendly name when attaching to the network. NBP will cache the name, and supply this name to any node requesting a service. 5. NetBEUI a. NetBEUI is an efficient, nonroutable protocol useful for small networks where Internet connectivity is not needed. b. No configuration is needed for NetBEUI. c. All nodes using NetBEUI must have a name. d. NetBIOS supports friendly names for NetBEUI. e. No Network layer services are a part of the NetBEUI/NetBIOS environment, so most often they are paired with other routable protocols such as TCP/IP or IPX/SPX. 6. Interoperability a. TCP/IP is a versatile protocol that supports global connectivity without regard to operating system. b. All major operating systems contain a TCP/IP protocol stack, including Microsoft operating systems, NetWare server versions 5.X and 6.X, Linux, and UNIX. c. If an organization allows Internet connectivity for users, the TCP/IP protocol must be implemented. d. IPX/SPX does not support access to Internet resources, but is a robust network protocol. e. Many operating systems include support for IPX/SPX. f. AppleTalk is native to only the Macintosh computer; Microsoft includes AppleTalk-compatible services with many of its operating systems. g. NetBEUI is native to the IBM LAN Manager and Microsoft Windows products. h. Because NetBEUI is nonroutable, it is only suitable to very small peer networks. i. Macintosh has no provision for NetBEUI.
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