Docstoc

Local area carbon emissions reduction report

Document Sample
Local area carbon emissions reduction report Powered By Docstoc
					Luton Borough Council


Local area carbon
emissions reduction
report




Prepared by the Energy Saving Trust

August 2009
2


Table of contents
1.0 Executive summary ................................................................................................................... 3
  1.1    Overview of council.............................................................................................................. 3
  1.2    Progress so far..................................................................................................................... 5
  1.3    Key recommendations ......................................................................................................... 7
2.0 Introduction.............................................................................................................................. 10
  2.1    About this report................................................................................................................. 10
  2.2    Background information..................................................................................................... 10
    2.2.1 General information........................................................................................................ 10
    2.2.2 Carbon emissions .......................................................................................................... 13
  2.3    The national context .......................................................................................................... 13
  2.4    Ongoing support ................................................................................................................ 15
3.0 Results and Recommendations .............................................................................................. 16
  3.1    Summary............................................................................................................................ 16
  3.2    Strategy.............................................................................................................................. 17
    3.2.1 Overview ........................................................................................................................ 17
    3.2.2 Strategic approach ......................................................................................................... 17
    3.2.3 Resources – internal ...................................................................................................... 25
    3.2.4 Political/corporate support.............................................................................................. 26
    3.2.5 Staff training and engagement....................................................................................... 28
  3.3    Services ............................................................................................................................. 31
    3.3.1 Overview ........................................................................................................................ 31
    3.3.2 Regeneration.................................................................................................................. 31
    3.3.3 Housing .......................................................................................................................... 35
      3.3.3.1 Social housing – own stock including ALMO .............................................................. 42
      3.3.3.2 Social housing – other stock ....................................................................................... 48
      3.3.3.3 Private sector housing – rented and owner occupied................................................. 53
    3.3.4 Energy advice................................................................................................................. 60
    3.3.5 Resources – levering in external funding....................................................................... 64
    3.3.6 Signposting residents to external grant schemes .......................................................... 65
    3.3.7 Planning policy ............................................................................................................... 68
    3.3.8 Building Regulations enforcement ................................................................................. 75
    3.3.9 Education ....................................................................................................................... 76
    3.3.10 Social care...................................................................................................................... 78
  3.4    Community leadership ....................................................................................................... 80
    3.4.1 Overview ........................................................................................................................ 80
    3.4.2 Community planning ...................................................................................................... 80
    3.4.3 Engagement with regional stakeholders ........................................................................ 82
    3.4.4 Engagement/awareness raising with wider community ................................................. 83
    3.4.6 Transport in the community............................................................................................ 90
  3.5    Own estate......................................................................................................................... 96
4.0 Next steps ............................................................................................................................... 97
5.0 Recommendations table ......................................................................................................... 98
Appendix 1 - Guidance on prioritising recommendations                                                                                             i
Appendix 2 - Summary of savings for energy efficiency measures                                                                                   iii
Appendix 3 - Further resources                                                                                                                   vi
Appendix 4 - The benchmarking matrix                                                                                                            vii
3



1.0 Executive summary
This report for Luton Borough Council provides guidance about actions the council can take to
tackle climate change through their role as community leader and provider of local services. It has
been produced following analysis of a detailed questionnaire completed by staff at Luton Borough
Council. Please note, the assessment and recommendations are based only on the information
provided within the answers to the questionnaire.

    1.1   Overview of council
Luton Borough Council is a Unitary authority delivering services to 191,800 people across 70,755
households covering an area of 43 square kilometres. (Population figure of 191,800 from Office
for National Statistics (ONS), mid-2008 Population Estimates published in August 2009. However,
Luton BC's current estimate of population for 2008 is 204,700 [Team Leader - Research &
Intelligence Team Luton]). With a population density of approximately 44.6 persons per hectare,
based on ONS figures, or 47.6/ha based on Luton estimates, it is one of the most densely
populated urban areas in England. It is located within the metropolitan Green Belt and Chilterns
Area of Natural Beauty on the southern edge of Bedfordshire, approximately 30 miles North of
London.

The following summary, found on the Audit Commission website was provided to support the 2009
direction of travel assessment of Comprehensive Performance Assessment (CPA):

“The Audit Commission’s overall judgment is that Luton Borough Council is improving adequately
and we have classified Luton Borough Council as three star in its current level of performance
under the Comprehensive Performance Assessment”.

“The Council is working effectively in partnership to deliver regeneration, improve the local skills
base and reduce health inequalities.”
“Good progress is being made to implement improvement plans. Key strategic plans are in place
and there is alignment between Council and community plans and Local Area Agreement targets.
Robust plans are being delivered to improve identified poor services. Most key milestones in major
projects have been achieved. Improved capacity is helping to sustain improvement. This includes
new human resources, targeting of finances in priority areas and strengthening of scrutiny.”
“The Sustainable Community Strategy and Local Area Agreement (LAA) form the overarching
framework which brings Luton together under a common set of priorities. The Council's Corporate
Plan, currently a draft due to be finalised in November 2008, sits within this framework and sets
out the Council's role in working with partners to deliver LAA targets and Community Strategy
objectives. Ambitions are clearly set out and agreed by its partners, and priorities reflect local
needs in a diverse community with relatively high numbers of younger people.”

Regarding activity around climate change, the Council has an Energy Policy (Energy and water
management in Luton Borough Council non-domestic buildings) that was agreed in 2009. The
Energy Policy sets out statements of commitment and actions that the Council will undertake to
reduce its energy and water use and investigate alternative sources of energy production, thus
reducing its CO2 emissions. The policy will cover non-domestic buildings that are controlled and
occupied by Luton Borough Council, and those that are owned by the Council but run
4


independently may also choose to adopt the policy. The policy will work in conjunction with the
Asset Management Plan.
Within the policy the council are committed to:
    Purchasing green energy (when available and affordable) at the most cost-effective price.
    Increasing energy and water efficiency.
    Reducing CO2 emissions.
    Investing in new technology where this meets investment criteria (including renewable
       energy sources).
    Considering life cycle energy costs when procuring new projects.
    Purchasing energy and water efficient equipment (including office equipment).

Luton also has a Sustainable Community Strategy (SCS) for 2008 – 2026. This strategy was
implemented by the Luton Forum which is a partnership of statutory and mainstream agencies, the
voluntary and community sector, and business representatives. There are four themed areas for
delivering the 2026 vision from the SCS: stronger and safer communities, health and wellbeing,
environment and economic development, and children and young people.
Within the Environment and Economic development area Key Priorities to 2014 have been
identified and include:
    Improving housing conditions for existing and new housing (The number of homes in the
        town which fail to meet the decent homes standard or those occupied by vulnerable people
        will be reduced.)
    Successfully adapting and mitigating for climate change
    Reducing consumption of water, energy, materials and minimising waste, including support
        for renewable energy generation
    Improving public transport, access and mobility and increasing travel to work by sustainable
        modes of transport e.g. public transport, walking, cycling.

Luton Borough Council has signed the Nottingham Declaration on Climate Change in November,
2006 and is meeting its recycling targets, with a challenge ahead of them to continue reducing and
recycling and adapting for climate change.
5


    1.2 Progress so far
Luton Borough Council’s approach to sustainable energy management was assessed by looking at
three key areas – its overall strategy for tackling climate change and using energy sustainably; the
council’s services such as housing and planning; and the council’s community leadership.

Note: Energy Saving Trust usually reviews a fourth area, Own Estate, but as the Council is
currently undertaking a Carbon Management Plan (developed in partnership with Carbon Trust)
this report does not intend to cover issues relating to the Council’s own estate. See the full Carbon
Management Plan when completed.


                                      Luton Borough Council
                                            Overview


         8

         7

         6                                                                         Act ual
                                                                                   Best pract ice
         5
                                                                                   Excellent
         4
                                                                                   Good
         3
                                                                                   Fair
         2                                                                         Weak
         1

         0
                                                                ip
                   gy




                                        es




                                                              sh
                 te




                                     ic




                                                            er
                                    rv
               ra




                                                         ad
                                  Se
             St




                                                       le
                                                     ity
                                                   un
                                                  m
                                                om
                                               C




This graph shows that the Council is performing fair to good across all areas of its services,
community leadership and its overall strategy for tackling climate change and the sustainable
use of energy, but has opportunity for improvement in all areas.

Highlights overview
The following represent some snapshot highlights for the three programme review areas: strategy;
services; and community leadership.
Comprehensive and extensive highlights for these categories, revealed through the formal review
and additional research by Energy Saving Trust, are found in the main body of the report under the
relevant headings and may be useful for internal reporting and campaigns, or for external
reporting, for example Comprehensive Area Assessment (CAA) communications with the Audit
Commission.
6


Under the heading of strategy, Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good’ in terms of its
strategic approach, political/corporate support and staff training and engagement. In terms of its
resources- internal the council was rated ‘fair’.
Notable highlights include:

       Luton Borough Council has an Energy Policy that was agreed in 2009.
       The Council has undertaken an Eco Footprint from Best Foot Forward for both its own
        activities and the area of Luton.
       Luton has a Sustainable Community Strategy (SCS) for 2008 – 2026 which includes key
        priorities on reducing energy consumption and adapting to climate change. The Strategy is
        supported by the Council’s Corporate Plan.
       The Local Area Agreement (LAA) for Luton includes a commitment to deliver per capita
        reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions across the Borough via National Indicator (NI)
        186.
       The Council has set targets for carbon reduction which include: Own Estate – 10% by 2014;
        NI 186 per capita reduction – 10% by 2010/11 reporting year; increasing renewable energy
        capacity - all new developments totalling more than 1,000m2 must incorporate renewable
        energy generation to provide at least 10% of the predicted energy requirements.
       The Council signed the Nottingham Declaration on Climate Change in 2006.
       Basic information on sustainability is included in the induction packs received by new
        employees including details of schemes such as office recycling, cycling facilities and
        information and energy saving tips.
       The Council has ‘Green Champions’ in some work areas.

In relation to its services, the Council showed a spread of performance. It was rated
‘good/excellent’ in terms of enforcement of Building Regulations and ‘good’ in relation to private
sector housing and activities around social care. The rating of ‘fair/good’ was given to economic
regeneration, social housing – own stock, energy advice, signposting to external grant schemes,
resources – external funding and education. The Council was rated ‘fair’ for working with social
housing providers and ‘weak/fair’ in relation to its planning policy.
Highlights from the review of services in the Council include:

     The Council have shown that they actively seek projects delivering energy efficiency
      through the Butterfield Business and Technology Park, which is a good example of where
      energy efficiency has been an integral part of the development process. The Innovation
      Centre and Business Base have achieved an ‘Excellent’ BREEAM rating.
     It is stated in the Luton Local Plan that "The Borough Council will encourage good practice
      in developments. It’s 'Designing for Sustainability' good practice guide states that all new
      dwellings should have a minimum Building Research Establishment Environmental
      Assessment method rating of 'very good' or a SAP rating of 80 or above". Within the
      ‘Design principles’ section it is also stated that developments will be granted planning
      permission provided that they utilise passive energy sources and minimise energy and
      water consumption.
     A target to increase the average SAP rating of the Council’s own social housing stock for
      2009/10 was set at 77 which has already been exceeded. The next target will be to increase
      the Average SAP rating, of the Council’s own social housing stock, to above 80 by 2012.
     There is a target to increase the Minimum SAP rating of the Council’s own social housing
      stock to 20 by 2012 in line with the Asset Management Investment Strategy.
7


       Since 2006, Warm Front has contributed funding towards Luton’s Winter Warmth Packs,
        which are aimed at vulnerable households and contain material and information in regards
        to keeping warm through the winter.
       The Council’s Affordable Warmth team proactively refer clients onto the Warm Front
        scheme.
       The Local Development Framework (Core Strategy: Preferred Options) contains strategic
        objectives, which focus on sustainable and integrated communities and minimising carbon
        footprints to combat climate change.
       At the plan assessment stage compliance with Building Regulations Part L (conservation of
        fuel and power) forms a required part of the checklist for building regulation applications and
        at the site inspection stage is, as a matter of procedure, inspected.
       The Council runs a scheme called Cosy Rosy that offers advice to residents to help heat
        their homes more efficiently.

Under the heading of community leadership, Luton Borough Council was rated ‘good’ for
community planning. For engagement with regional stakeholders and transport in the community
the Council was rated ‘fair/good’. Finally for engaging with the wider community the Council was
rated ‘fair’.
Highlights worthy of note in this summary include:

       Luton has a Sustainable Community Strategy (SCS) for 2008 – 2026, which shows a clear
        commitment to action on sustainable energy which is identified as a priority within the
        strategy.
       The Council has a target for reducing community CO2 levels, in line with NI 186, of 10%
        reduction on 2005 levels by 2011. There is also a target to reduce CO2 emissions from
        domestic housing by 20% by 2015.
       The Council works with several regional bodies on sustainable energy issues including
        Renewables East, Energy Saving Trust advice centre East of England, National Energy
        services and the Carbon Trust.
       Luton Borough Council has a programme of raising awareness of climate change and
        energy issues in the wider community through several groups which include Luton Climate
        Change Group (Nottingham Declaration based), the Local Strategic Partnership’s
        Environmental Stewardship Group, Energy from Waste initiative (BeaR project); waste
        minimisation approach and awareness for climate change and efficient energy use across
        Bedfordshire (Bedfordshire Climate Change Forum).
       The Council is working with schools on an investment programme to improve the energy
        efficiency of school buildings.
       Local transport policy, set out in the Local Transport Plan (LTP), aims to improve personal
        mobility, with improved access for goods and services, but with special emphasis on
        integrated transport solutions to encourage low carbon modes such as public transport,
        cycling and walking.
       Within the LTP, there is a policy on development location which states that proposals for
        development with a potential to have significant transport implications will not be permitted.
        This means that new developments have to consider public transport and travel plans when
        choosing a location and eliminates car dependency at any new development.
       A transport forum involving various stakeholder groups (some of which are represented on
        the Local Strategic Partnership [LSP]) is set up specifically to act as a ‘sounding board’ in
        the process for producing the LTP - the LSP also reviews reports on transport schemes.
8


    1.3 Key recommendations
Following the review of council activity to reduce carbon emissions, through which the above
highlights were revealed. The Energy Saving Trust has made a significant number of
recommendations, found in the body of this report, which are supported by deeper guidance and
appropriate case studies. The recommendations are also appended in tabular form to the rear of
this report. These should be used to inform the evolving Climate Change Strategy and other core
documents, and should be considered by leaders, service heads, and colleagues across all
identified areas of Council activity, particularly pertinent to area-wide carbon emissions reduction in
line with National Indicator 186.

It should be expected that these recommendations be taken by the Council and refined and
developed so as to be fit-for-purpose within the context of service teams, individuals and Council
methods. That said the project lead, and key support officers, should develop a working knowledge
of the full scope of this report and its recommendations in order to best place who and where in the
Council recommendations for action sit. Colleagues in specific service units need only familiarise
themselves with recommendations pertinent to their scope of work.

For convenience, some of the key recommendations in the area of strategy, services and
community leadership are highlighted here.

    Key recommendations in relation to the Council’s overall strategy include:

       Link up with the neighbouring unitary authorities to develop campaigns in partnership and
        establish a common method to track activity to report against the Local Area Agreement
        (LAA) and Comprehensive Area Assessment (CAA).
       Ensure that a cross-council system is in place for gathering data relating to sustainable
        energy and NI 186 (per capita carbon emissions across the borough). This should be
        supported by a cross-service working group focussing on the scope of NI 186 and should
        use the Energy Saving Trust TRACE tool as a focus.
       Luton Borough Council should promote its leadership role to members of the Local Strategic
        Partnership to ensure that key players are bought into delivering against NI 186.
       Ensure that the Chief Executive and cross-portfolio councillors are involved in taking action
        on climate change and robustly support an overall energy champion at a senior level.
       Ensure that a member of staff within each service area is allocated time to promote the
        integration of sustainable energy.

Key recommendations in relation to the Council’s services include:

       Ensure acknowledgement of energy efficiency as a factor in business performance and look
        at opportunities to improve business efficiency and actively encourage the development of
        sustainable energy businesses in the area.
       Luton Borough Council should develop stronger partnerships with Registered Social
        Landlords (RSLs), through a named officer lead.
       Encourage RSLs to set targets for improving their own stock and to monitor progress
        against this. This should include having a plan in place to achieve the Decent Homes
        standard.
9


       The Council should introduce a minimum Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) target of
        at least 65 for its own social housing stock.
       Luton Borough Council should introduce a policy of training and supporting front line staff in
        energy efficiency advice and signposting and ensure there is a qualified member of staff
        who delivers basic energy advice to tenants.
       The Council should develop and expand a specific programme for tackling privately rented
        housing, including energy efficiency measures and renewable energy technologies where
        possible.
       The Council should consider introducing a specific programme for promoting sustainable
        energy to minority communities and signpost residents to the Energy Saving Trust advice
        centre on 0800 512 012.
       Luton Borough Council should use the planning system to encourage improved standards in
        existing as well as new dwellings.
       Ensure Building Control officers are integrally involved in developing policies for the
        developing Local Development Framework.

To improve the Council’s rating under community leadership, key recommendations include:

       Luton Borough Council should ensure that energy/climate change remains a priority issue in
        the Sustainable Community Strategy (SCS) and is linked to the NI 186/LAA work plan.
       Engage with other local authorities classified as ‘nearest neighbours’ using Chartered
        Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy (CIPFA) modelling to exchange information
        and develop solutions.
       Ensure that local strategies refer to regional priorities and targets and should press for
        regional targets to be in line with or exceeding national targets.
       Luton Borough Council should link its community sustainable energy work to its wider work
        on education and behavioural change.
       Council officers should actively work in partnership with local community groups and key
        officers should join the Energy Saving Trust’s Green Communities initiative.
       The Council should lead their community to take action on energy by setting up community
        energy efficiency initiatives.
       Luton Borough Council should seek to reduce CO2 from cars though promoting efficient
        driving and low carbon car choice.

Further information on all the recommendations mentioned above can be found in the relevant
sections of this report.

Ongoing support in implementing these recommendations will be provided to Luton Borough
Council through its Account manager, Juliet Nicholas, and the Energy Saving Trust’s Practical help
service. How the programme will be managed from hereon is covered in section 4.0 - Next steps.
10



2.0 Introduction
This report for Luton Borough Council provides guidance about actions the council can take to
tackle climate change through their role as community leader and provider of local services. It has
been produced following analysis of the completion of a detailed questionnaire by staff at Luton
Borough Council. Please note, the assessment and recommendations are based only on the
information provided within the answers to the questionnaire. A copy of the matrix used to produce
this report can be found in Appendix 4.

     2.1 About this report
The results of the review are presented in section 3 which is broken down into three main sections
(strategy, services, and community leadership), each with an assessment of the current situation
and a list of recommendations to improve performance towards best practice. The objective of the
programme is to make recommendations which seek to improve council’s performance by one
benchmark level. Hyperlinks to further information on best practice and examples of how other
councils have implemented the recommendation are provided throughout the report. Therefore
the report can be used in the long term as a reference guide. For ease of reference, the full list of
recommendations is listed in section 5. Your Account manager will recommend that these are
used to form the basis of a sustainable energy action plan, and prioritised with a timetable for
implementation established. Additionally, guidance on prioritising the recommendations is provided
in Appendix 1.

This report is intended to give Luton Borough Council some direction in terms of the actions it
should take. However, this is not an exact science and the priorities will vary due to local
circumstances and requirements; therefore, this is intended to be a guide only.

     2.2 Background information

 2.2.1 General information
The population of Luton at the 2001 Census was 184,371 and is completely urban based, covering
19 wards.
There are, however, a number of significant discrepancies between local data sources and the
total population figure indicated by the 2001 Census. The Council’s estimate of the population of
Luton is in the region of 202,500.
There are 70,755 households in Luton, of which around 12% (8,500) are owned by the Council,
over an area of 43 square kilometres in size.

Luton is located approximately thirty miles to the north of London on the M1. It is one of the largest
towns in South East England and has many of the characteristics of a London Borough, highly
multi-cultural, experiencing high levels of homelessness, poor housing in the private sector and
high levels of deprivation.

Luton's international airport, built in 1938, is still owned by the Council and serves cities across the
UK and Europe. The M1 provides a direct link to the rest of Britain's road network and construction
has recently been completed of the East Luton Corridor to better link town, airport and motorway.
11



Luton is set in the heart of some of the richest farmland in the UK and benefits from some
nationally important, natural open spaces. These include a UK priority habitat with its chalk
grassland, with the nationally important Warden Hill, Galley Hill, and Dallow Downs. There are also
pieces of ancient woodland and nationally rare and priority species in the area.

Luton hosts the Regional Sports Centre for the East of England, and also hosts Wardown Park
and Stockwood Park including the new Stockwood Park Discovery Centre.

Luton also benefits from an international reputation, with the production of Vauxhall cars for over
90 years. Whilst car production may have come to an end the current production of vans for the
European market by General Motors has expanded and maintains part of the town’s engineering
expertise.
The former Vauxhall site is undergoing a £400million redevelopment transforming it into Napier
Park, one of the south east’s largest urban regeneration projects with high quality housing, a five
star hotel, light industry and airport car parking.

The 2001 Census data revealed that Luton had the 4th largest average household size in England
and Wales, the 29th highest proportion of overcrowded households and the 55th largest population
increase.

To summarise, the Census data reveals that Luton is a town that is densely populated and still
growing. These demographic factors present the Council with a number of challenges, particularly
in relation to housing and school places. There is evidence of a shortage of supply of housing in all
tenure groups and demand for school places is predicted to exceed available spaces within the
next two years. Above average birth rates and inward migration mean that demand for both
housing and school places will continue to rise in the foreseeable future.

Since 2001, there has been a marked change in the ethnic profile of Luton with an increase in
numbers from sub-Saharan Africa and a significant increase in the Eastern European Community,
in particular those of Polish origin. There is further evidence that these groups are starting to
further integrate into the town and wider community. Around 35% of the population is from a black
or minority ethnic background.

Luton’s younger population is higher than the regional average, with a higher percentage of under
16’s, and a much lower percentage above pension age. It is however, predicted that the number of
residents over 75 years will increase by 10 % over the period 2006- 2011.

Three of Luton’s wards (Biscot, Dallow and Northwell wards) are in the 10% most deprived wards
in the country (as defined in the Index of Multiple Deprivation). The proportion of the working
population claiming benefits is 1.4 times higher than that for the East of England and
unemployment at 3.4% remains above the regional (1.9%) and national (2.5%) averages.

There are a higher proportion of overcrowded households than the average for England and Wales
and despite some success in reducing homelessness there remain around 850 households in
temporary accommodation. There are over 13,000 households living in ‘non-decent’ homes, of
which 4,000 are considered vulnerable. The key reason for properties failing the decent homes
standard is that they have poor ’thermal comfort’ – they are difficult to keep warm.
12



Luton is identified as a growth area in the Milton Keynes South Midlands (MKSM) Strategy. Whilst
this represents an opportunity to provide new jobs and homes in the wider Luton and South
Bedfordshire area it also raises significant challenges in relation to governance and ensuring that
the benefits of growth are shared.

Regarding climate change, Luton Borough Council has signed the Nottingham Declaration on
climate change and is meeting its recycling targets, with a challenge ahead of them to continue
reducing and recycling and adapting for climate change. National Indicator 186 (per capita CO2
emissions from the authority area) is included in Luton Borough Council’s Local Area Agreement.

The next local council elections are due in 2011.

Luton Borough Council works with the Energy Saving Trust advice centre East of England and is
currently undertaking the Carbon Trust Carbon Management Programme. The Council has
previously had site visits from the Carbon Trust.
13


 2.2.2 Carbon emissions
Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) figures show that in 2006, domestic
energy use in Luton Borough Council produced 405,000 tonnes of CO2 emissions, which is
equivalent to 2.17 tonnes per head. This is lower than the average UK figure for the same year,
which was 2.5 tonnes per head (based on the 2006 ONS Mid population estimate of 186,800).
Luton Borough Council’s calculated population estimate for 2008 is 204,700 which puts this figure
closer to 1.98 tonnes per head which is significantly lower than the average UK figure for the same
year (2.5 tonnes per head).

The following graph shows total per capita carbon emissions in relation to other authorities in the
East of England, and against the national average. (See the complete DEFRA dataset by clicking
here).


                                                                Luton Borough Council
                                                          Per capita domestic CO2 emissions


                            2.6
                            2.4
                            2.2
                             2
      Per capita domestic




                            1.8
          tonnes CO2




                            1.6
                            1.4                                                                             CO2 emissions

                            1.2                                                                             UK average

                             1
                            0.8
                            0.6
                            0.4
                            0.2
                             0
                                                                                                       um
                                     n




                                                                  i re
                                                rd




                                                                                              rd
                                                                                     i re
                                   to




                                           fo




                                                                                             fo
                                                                sh




                                                                                   sh




                                                                                                     or
                                  Lu




                                                                                             at
                                            d



                                                            rd




                                                                                                      c
                                                                              rd
                                         Be




                                                                                            W



                                                                                                   Da
                                                            o




                                                                               o
                                                         df




                                                                            df
                                                      Be




                                                                         Be
                                                     id




                                                                     th
                                                 M




                                                                     u
                                                                  So
14


     2.3 The national context
Over the last five years, the issue of climate change and what the UK needs to do in order to
reduce its emissions has significantly risen in priority in the public and political arenas. The recent
report by Sir Nicholas Stern outlined the very high costs to society and the economy of not tackling
climate change as an immediate priority.

The Climate Change Act 2008 commits us to legally binding targets of green house gas emission
reductions through action in the UK and abroad of at least 80% by 2050, and reductions in CO2
emissions of at least 26% by 2020, against a 1990 baseline.

The UK Climate Change Programme 2006, which sets out the Government’s policies and priorities
for action in the UK and internationally, identifies local authorities as critical to the achievement of
the Government’s climate change objectives. Local government has long carried out activities and
projects to invest in its own estate and encourage action by its citizens. However, this will need to
gear up very significantly if local government is to take a lead in reducing our contribution to
climate change, as all the recent policies and papers propose.

This role was further emphasised in the 2006 Local Government White Paper, which proposed
significantly strengthening local government’s leadership role, including leadership in tackling
climate change. This was then reflected in the new performance assessment framework
(Comprehensive Area Assessments [CAA]) and Local Area Agreements (LAA) announced in
2008. For the first time the indicator set contains national indicators on action on climate change
which makes mitigation of climate change a key responsibility for local authorities.

        NI185   CO2 reductions from local authority operations.
        NI186   CO2 emissions reductions per head in the local authority area.
        NI187   Tackling fuel poverty.
        NI188   Adapting to climate change.

More recently in February 2009, the Heat and Energy Saving Strategy Consultation set out the
Government’s long term vision for reducing emissions of CO2 from buildings. The overall vision is
for CO2 emissions from buildings to approach zero by 2050. In the domestic sector, the strategy
aims to achieve a 30% reduction in domestic emissions by 2020 and a greater than 80% reduction
in domestic emissions by 2050 (from 2006 levels).

Further information on legislative drivers can be found in the Energy Saving Trust briefing note
Legislative drivers in England: overview for local authorities on sustainable energy.
15


     2.4 Ongoing support
Ongoing support and assistance will be provided to Luton Borough Council through your Account
manager in the short term. In the long term, the Energy Saving Trust’s free Practical help advisory
service will provide ongoing support on all areas covered in this report. As well as having a wealth
of good practice guidance documents and case studies, Practical help also offers an enquiries
answering service, with any enquiry relating to sustainable energy answered within a maximum of
three working days. Council staff can also contact the team (on 0844 84 888 30 or email
practicalhelp@est.org.uk) with any questions regarding this report, or with any subsequent
enquiries about sustainable domestic energy or sustainable road transport. Finally your local
Energy Saving Trust advice centre (0800 512 012) shares the mutual aim of reaching out to your
local community so is ideally placed to work in partnership with you.

Please note that the Energy Saving Trust mainly focuses on sustainable energy in housing and
transport. The Carbon Trust is the lead body on energy use in local government own estate, and
these resources have been signposted to where appropriate. Contact the Carbon Trust on 0800
085 2005, or see the website at: carbontrust.co.uk.
16



3.0 Results and Recommendations

     3.1 Summary

                                    Luton Borough Council
                                          Overview


        8

        7

        6                                                                         Act ual
                                                                                  Best pract ice
        5
                                                                                  Excellent
        4
                                                                                  Good
        3
                                                                                  Fair
        2                                                                         Weak
        1

        0




                                                               ip
                  gy




                                       es




                                                             sh
                te




                                    ic




                                                           er
                                   rv
              ra




                                                        ad
                                 Se
            St




                                                      le
                                                    ity
                                                  un
                                                 m
                                               om
                                              C




This graph shows that the council is performing most strongly with regard to its services followed
closely by its community leadership and strategy for tackling climate change and the
sustainable use of energy but has opportunity for improvement in all areas.
17


     3.2 Strategy

 3.2.1 Overview

                                                                Luton Borough Council
                                                                  Strategy summary
                             8
                             7
                             6                                                                                            Actual
                             5                                                                                            Best practice
                             4                                                                                            Excellent
                             3                                                                                            Good
                             2                                                                                            Fair

                             1                                                                                            Weak

                             0

                                                                l                          rt                         t
                                        ch                 na                          o                         en
                                     oa                  er                         pp                       m
                                   pr               nt                          u                          ge
                              ap                 esi                     te
                                                                            s
                                                                                                    ng
                                                                                                       a
                         g ic                  rc                   o ra                        e
                 t   e                    ou                 or
                                                                p                   nd
             tra                      R es                l/c                    ga
         S                                                                     n
                                                       ca                  ini
                                                  liti                t ra
                                               Po                 aff
                                                              St

The graph above provides an overview of Luton Borough Council’s overall strategy for tackling
climate change and the sustainable use of energy. The Council was rated ‘fair/good’ in terms of its
strategic approach, political/corporate support and staff training and engagement. In terms of its
resources- internal the council was rated ‘fair’.

 3.2.2 Strategic approach

Current situation
Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good’ in terms of its strategic approach because of the
following activities that it has undertaken in this area.

              Luton has a Sustainable Community Strategy (SCS) for 2008 – 2026 and climate change is
               included as a priority within this.

     This Strategy was implemented by the Luton Forum which is a partnership of statutory and
     mainstream agencies, the voluntary and community sector, and business representatives.
     There are four themed areas for delivering the 2026 vision from the SCS: Stronger and Safer
     Communities, Health and Wellbeing, Environment and economic development, and Children
     and young people.
18


     Each theme has a partnership of organisations which focus on delivering change. A panel of
     people representing a cross section of Luton residents spent the day with the Luton Forum
     telling them what they thought and how they wanted the town to be in 2026. Their comments,
     revealed their ideal future for Luton if anything was possible. The Thematic Partnerships have
     led to Key Priorities, to 2014, being identified for the first part of delivering Luton’s Sustainable
     Community Strategy.
     These Key Priorities to 2014 include:
              o Improving housing conditions for existing and new housing (The number of homes in
                 the town which fail to meet the decent homes standard or those occupied by
                 vulnerable people will be reduced).
              o Successfully adapting and mitigating for climate change.
              o Protecting and enhancing the natural and built environment, including rivers and
                 natural habitats within Luton’s green spaces.
              o Reducing consumption of water, energy, materials and minimising waste, including
                 support for renewable energy generation.
              o Improving public transport, access and mobility and increasing travel to work by
                 sustainable modes of transport eg public transport, walking, cycling.
              o Improving the amount and range of housing suitable for the needs of Luton’s existing
                 and future residents.

     The Council’s Corporate Plan, ‘Towards Excellence’ is in the process of being rewritten. The
     draft plan sets out how the Council will contribute towards the delivery of the Sustainable
     Community Strategy and jointly agreed targets set out in the Local Area Agreement.

        Luton Borough Council has an Energy Policy that was agreed in 2009. The Council owns
         and occupies approximately 175 non-residential buildings and in 2006-7 spent around three
         million pounds on the energy and water consumption of these buildings. The Energy Policy
         sets out actions that the Council will take to reduce this energy and water consumption and
         hence reduce its CO2 emissions within its own estate. An action plan under this policy is
         due to be developed later this year. The Corporate Energy Manager will lead this
         development including the formation of a cross departmental working group.
        The Council has undertaken an Eco Footprint from Best Foot Forward for both its own
         activities and the area of Luton.
        Luton Borough Council signed the Nottingham Declaration on Climate Change in November
         2006. As part of its commitment under the Nottingham Declaration the Council has adopted
         a statement of principles which will guide its operations and services to help reduce climate
         change. The principles relevant to energy use within the Council’s own estate include:
         minimising its energy use to a level consistent with providing services at a suitable level,
         investing in energy efficiency measures whenever the predicted payback at current energy
         prices is greater than the whole life cost and investing in energy efficient devises, including
         heating, cooling, and lighting equipment, both in existing installations and in new build.
        The Council also has an Affordable Warmth Strategy and a Housing Assistance Policy
         which cover energy.
        The Council has set targets for carbon reduction which include:
             o Own Estate – 10% by 2014 set out in the Council’s Energy Policy.
             o NI 186 Per Capita reduction – 10% reduction on 2005 levels by 2010/11 reporting
                 year.
19


            o     Increasing renewable energy capacity - All new developments totalling more than
                  1,000m2 must incorporate renewable energy generation to provide at least 10% of
                  the predicted energy requirements from March 2006.
        Luton Borough Council is currently working on an Environment Plan that will draw together
         all of the environmental aspects of the Council’s strategies, plans and policies into one
         document. A Climate Change Strategy will also be developed. Informing this strategy will be
         the two Eco footprint reports that were carried out. The outputs of the Energy Saving Trust
         One-to-one support programme will also feed into this process.

Although Luton Borough Council is working on a cross cutting Environmental Plan and a Climate
Change Strategy the Council currently has no strategic approach adopted that cuts across all
aspects of estate management, service delivery and community leadership.

Recommendations
As Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good’ with regard to its strategic approach to sustainable
energy, it is recommended that the following areas are explored to bring the council up to the
standard of ‘good/excellent’.

Note: The Energy Saving Trust has developed an online resource to help local authorities to
address National Indicator 186 - Per capita CO2 emissions in the local authority area. Reducing
carbon dioxide emissions in your local authority area - the guide – it’s main focus is on England
and meeting NI 186 targets. However there are many useful examples of good practice for local
authorities across the whole of the UK.

It aims to provide a gateway for local authorities to develop a strategic framework and focus on
actions local authorities can take to reduce per capita CO2 emissions, drawing together information
from various support bodies. It provides an entry point and introduction to Energy Saving Trust
publications, services and resources which can support performance against climate change
targets.

         Maintaining a strategic approach
         It is recommended that Luton Borough Council maintain /further develop a strategic
         approach that cuts across all aspects of estate management, service delivery and
         community leadership, with sustainable energy recognised as a priority. This would
         be best recognised by linking activity to NI185 and NI186 primarily, but also NI187 and
         NI188.
         Further guidance;
         Energy efficiency the guide has been developed by the Energy Saving Trust as a single,
         comprehensive source of information for housing management organisations across the UK.
         This publication provides all of the information needed by a local authority, housing
         association or private landlord to develop and implement an energy efficiency strategy and
         has been tailored to each country in the UK, so an organisation can obtain information that is
         specific to its needs. The best place to start is the ‘Housing energy strategies’ chapter,
         followed by the ‘Housing energy management matrix’ chapter.

         The Energy Saving Trust’s Developing a climate change strategy briefing note provides
         guidance for local authority and housing association staff who are developing a climate
         change strategy for their organisation.
20


     There is also a Sustainable energy strategies briefing note that outlines the areas of energy
     use that organisations can influence, and provides introductory guidance to forming an
     overarching sustainable energy strategy.

     You can find a list of example strategies from different local authorities across the UK by
     clicking here.

     You can also view a selection of good strategies through the following links;
              Climate change strategy – London Borough of Waltham Forest.
              Climate change strategy - Chichester District Council
              Climate change strategy – Reigate and Banstead District Council
              Climate change strategy – Suffolk Coastal District Council

     There is a wealth of information about the Sustainable Energy Beacon Councils and those
     commended for the Tackling Climate Change theme on the Improvement and Development
     Agency website. This includes case studies, action plans, strategies and learning
     summaries.

     North West Sustainable Development have published ‘A Guide to the Greatest Hits for
     Carbon Savings in your LSP’, a series of ten documents helping local authorities in the North
     West prioritise action on carbon emissions. Although designed in response to consultation in
     the North West, a lot of the information included in this document pack may be applicable to
     the whole of the UK.

     The Local Government Association (LGA) launched the ‘Small Change, Big Difference’
     campaign in June 2009, calling on all local authorities to:
         Ensure all local area agreements contain at least one target relating to climate
            change
         Sign the Nottingham Declaration or its equivalent by the end of 2008
         Reduce their carbon footprint by 1.5million tonnes
         Reduce emissions by 32million tonnes
         Have an understanding of how climate risks affect core service delivery,
            infrastructure, assets and the well-being of local communities by end 2011
     Follow this link for more information about the ‘Small Change, Big Difference’ campaign and
     further resources from the LGA.

     Set targets
     As part of maintaining a strategic approach, Luton Borough Council should continue
     to set targets and timescales for reducing energy consumption across its own estate,
     service delivery and throughout the wider community in line with national targets.
     This should be linked into baselines and targets of NI185 and 186.
     Further guidance;
     For information on how to set targets, please see the Sustainable energy strategies briefing
     note.

     The Energy Saving Trust has published guidance target setting within the following
     documents:
21


          The Comprehensive Area Assessment and Local Area Agreements: including
           national indicator NI 186 briefing note summarises how the new Comprehensive Area
           Assessment will work and how Local Area Agreements are being developed. It
           focuses on how NI 186 can be included in LAAs and explains how action to tackle
           carbon emissions can contribute to a positive outcome from the CAA process.
          The Local Area Agreements: areas of activity through which local authorities can
           influence carbon dioxide per capita briefing note summarises how the new CAA will
           work and how LAAs are being developed. This publication aims to suggest areas of
           activity through which local authorities can influence CO2 emissions per capita.

     The small Swedish city of Växjö (pronounced vek-shur) recently won the European Union's
     inaugural award for sustainable development. As well as operating a waste biomass-fuelled
     central heating plant, the city decided to become a fossil fuel free city by 2050. Following on
     from this announcement, the city has added intermediary steps, such as halving the carbon
     emission per inhabitant by 2010.

     Data and information
     Ensure that a cross-council system is in place for gathering data relating to
     sustainable energy and NI 186 (per capita carbon emissions across the borough). This
     should be supported by a cross-service working group focussing on the scope of NI
     186 and should use the Energy Saving Trust TRACE tool as a focus.
     Further guidance;
     In order to monitor performance against carbon reduction targets within own estate, service
     delivery and the wider community, it is important to establish a system to capture all activity
     across the council. Information to include as follows; the energy efficiency of public and
     private sector housing stock, renewable energy planning applications (non-domestic
     microgeneration and larger scale), combined heat and power/district heating installations,
     monitoring of travel plans (own organisation and local businesses/organisation), vehicle
     fleet, energy efficiency in local housing, local business initiatives, details of partnership
     working on schemes with local agencies such as Energy Saving Trust and carbon reduction
     measures in own estate. This database will be a useful tool to evidence actions when
     making NI186 or similar returns.

     Local authorities are not officially required to report against NI86 targets as carbon
     emissions will be monitored centrally by Defra. However local authorities should record the
     plethora of actions they are undertaking to influence area wide emissions reductions. This
     will help develop an evidence base to track activity to report to the Audit Commission for
     CAA. It is essential that a common methodology is established to enable similar authorities
     to be compared.

     The Energy Saving Trust has developed a spreadsheet based tool called TrACE (Tracking
     Action on Carbon Emissions) which allows an authority to collate and aggregate activity and
     data on NI 186. Your Account manager can support you in using this new free tool or it can
     be downloaded for free here.
22


     Delivery of National Indicator 186 – Per capita reduction in CO2 emissions in the local
     authority area
     Luton Borough Council should work with their local Energy Saving Trust advice
     centre to investigate how they can help meet the domestic and transport targets set
     out in NI 186 as part of its LAA.
     Further guidance;
     Partnership working between the Council and the Energy Saving Trust advice centre East of
     England will support a coordinated approach on delivering area-wide carbon emissions
     savings. The Energy Saving Trust is active in the East of England, in particular on
     campaigns in the domestic and transport sectors. Your Account manager will assist you in
     setting up a delivery partnership.

     The Energy Saving Trust has published five case studies showing how local authorities are
     already delivering actions against LAA targets are also available.

     In addition, Defra has published a short guide for local authorities and their partners on how
     LAAs can be used to deliver genuinely sustainable communities. The guide includes many
     practical ideas and case studies of sustainability in action, drawing on the experience of the
     first two rounds of LAAs.

     Communicating with neighbouring authorities
     The Council should link up with the neighbouring unitary authorities to develop
     campaigns in partnership and establish a common method to track activity to report
     against LAA/CAA.
     Further guidance;
     Many local authorities have begun to develop their own methods for recording activity on NI
     186. The Energy Saving Trust TrACE tool, available for free download here, is specifically
     designed to act as a repository to record such activities, across all sectors, and aims to
     secure some consistency in how councils track progress on NI 186. TRACE can be used by
     any authority to track its own particular progress against the indicator, but importantly the
     tool can be used as a focus for two-tier council partnerships, where there is a need to work
     in partnership both to delivery NI 186, but also to track activity and to report internally and to
     the Audit Commission.

     Local authorities are not officially required to report against NI86 targets as carbon
     emissions will be monitored centrally by Defra. However local authorities should record the
     plethora of actions they are undertaking to influence area wide emissions reductions. This
     will help develop an evidence base to track activity to report to the Audit Commission for
     Comprehensive Area Assessment. It is essential that a common methodology is established
     to enable data to be aggregated.

     Community leadership
     Luton Borough Council should promote its leadership role to members of the Local
     Strategic Partnership to ensure that key players are bought into delivering against NI
     186.
     Further guidance;
     Strong local leadership is going to be vital to meeting the global challenge of climate change,
23


     local authorities are in an excellent position to work with other public and private agencies,
     voluntary groups and the wider community to encourage such action.

     An initial meeting with the Council’s lead on NI 186, the Partnership Manager and the Chair
     of the LSP is a good place to start in the beginning to map out who in the partnership can do
     what to deliver area-wide carbon emission reductions. This could then be followed by a more
     formal workshop to agree activities, priorities and responsibilities. Strong link to the delivery
     of NI 186 through the LAA should be made. Other drivers, such as the Sustainable
     Community Strategy, should help secure commitment.

     The London Borough of Islington established a unique local climate change partnership with
     local businesses and organisations. Each member organisation has made a pledge to
     reduce carbon emissions by 15% by 2010.

     Nottingham Declaration
     It is recommended that Luton Borough Council makes use of the Nottingham
     Declaration action pack to meet the commitment made by signing the Nottingham
     Declaration.
     Further guidance;
     The Nottingham Declaration represents a high-level, broad statement of commitment that
     any council can make to its own community. Over 300 councils have signed the declaration
     plus seven non-local authority bodies. (The latest list of signatories can be accessed here.)
     The Nottingham Declaration action pack is a helpful resource to assist signatories in taking
     the next steps. The pack outlines the milestone activities that should be undertaken (as part
     of a strategy and action plan), together with a range of options on how to do this. To order an
     action pack call 0844 84 888 30 or email practicalhelp@est.org.uk.

     The Nottingham Declaration website is also a useful resource, with advice on a large range
     of council activities that impact on climate change. It also has sections on performance
     indicators and        developing    an   action    plan. You can access it here:
     www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/nottingham.
     Here are some examples of climate change strategies and action plans that were developed
     as a result of signing the Nottingham Declaration:
         Brighton and Hove’s climate change action plan.
         Bournemouth Council’s climate change strategy.
         Devon County Council’s climate change strategy.
         Braintree District Council’s sustainable energy strategy.

     Make a carbon neutral commitment
     Luton Borough Council should consider making a commitment to becoming a carbon
     neutral organisation by a particular date (as per the Government’s own pledge).
     Further guidance;
     A range of new government sustainability targets, including a pledge that the Government
     office estate will go carbon neutral by 2012, was announced by Environment Secretary
     David Miliband in June 2006. As part of its commitment to giving a lead on environmentally
     sustainable behaviour to business and consumers, the Government has set an aspirational
     target to reduce carbon emissions from its office based estate by 30% by 2020.
24


     The Government has already introduced carbon offsetting for official air travel.

     Aberdeenshire Council has made a commitment to becoming a carbon neutral organisation
     by the year 2020. The authority is also to begin dialogue with partner organisations to set
     plans in motion to achieve Aberdeenshire's aim of becoming a carbon neutral region by
     2030.

     Stirling Council is working in conjunction with a community-led group, Going Carbon Neutral
     Stirling, with the aim of bringing the average carbon footprint of Stirling residents down to a
     sustainable level of one tonne per year.

     The National Park Authorities have made a commitment to becoming carbon neutral by 2012
     through a policy position statement on climate change issued by the English National Park
     Authorities Association

     Consider carbon offsetting
     As part of its commitment to becoming a carbon neutral organisation, Luton Borough
     Council may want to consider carbon offsetting.
     Further guidance;
     Defra offers a quality assurance scheme for carbon offsetting. ‘Approved’ carbon offsets are
     those that meet specific criteria set by the Government’s new Quality Assurance Scheme for
     Carbon Offsetting, and can be sold with a quality mark. When you see this mark you know
     the offset provider will:
         calculate your emissions accurately.
         sell good quality carbon credits that comply with the Kyoto Protocol and have been
            verified by the United Nations or the EU’s emission trading scheme.
         cancel the credits within a year of you buying them and ensure that the same credit
            isn’t bought twice.
         have transparent prices for their credits – e.g. how much they cost per tonne of CO2.
         provide you with information about the role of offsetting in tackling climate change and
            advice on how to reduce your carbon footprint.

     Kirklees Metropolitan Council entered the UK Emissions Trading Scheme and made a
     commitment to reduce emissions from council buildings (excluding schools, sports centres
     and council housing) by 1,000 tonnes of CO2 by the end of 2006 (approximately 12.7%).

     As a result of good energy data, independent verification of the council’s commitment has
     been successful for each year of participation in the scheme. The scheme encourages
     participants to reduce emissions and (through the sale of excess allowances) it provides
     useful income. In Kirklees' case, this income is reinvested into other environmental projects.
     Further information can be found in Local authority legal powers to promote sustainable
     energy by Impetus Consulting. This report looks at examples of local authorities using the
     power of well-being to support sustainable energy activities.

     San Francisco will become one of the first US cities to offer a programme to offset the
     impact of global warming by funding local green activities. Under the programme city officials
     calculate the carbon cost of their travels and contribute to one of several city programs
     aimed at reducing climate changing gas emissions, or forego the travel altogether.
25


         Activities funded include converting restaurant waste oil into biofuel, installing solar energy
         devices or investing in energy efficiency measures. In addition, a proposed second phase of
         the programme would also allow San Francisco residents to buy offsets.


 3.2.3 Resources – internal

Current situation
Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair’ in terms of its internal resources because of the following
activities that it has undertaken in this area.

        Two full time staff are employed by the Council to work on energy consumption, billing and
         management.
         A budget of £200,000 per annum has been set aside for energy efficiency improvements to
         school buildings (outside of the Building Schools for the Future programme) and £150,000
         per annum for all other non-domestic Council buildings.
        The Council also has a dedicated climate change team and an affordable warmth team who
         promote the sustainable use of energy externally.

Luton Borough Council aims to set up a cross service group as part of the development of their
Energy Policy which will cover own estate, private housing and public housing.
However the Council do not currently have a member of staff within each service area allocated
time to promote the integration of sustainable energy and do not have a commitment to invest
money saved as a result of energy efficiency investments into further energy action.

Recommendations
As Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair’ with regard to its internal resources, it is recommended
that the following areas are explored to bring the council up to the standard of ‘good’.

         Cross service climate change group
         Luton Borough Council should establish a cross-service energy/climate change
         group with significant resources and clear corporate support for action. This group
         should meet regularly, include senior representatives and have a work plan against
         which progress is monitored. There should also be a system for ensuring that
         information is cascaded down to the relevant officers.
         Further guidance;
         Establishing effective cross-departmental partnerships for tackling climate change is an
         introduction for senior level staff of local authorities and housing associations as to how
         cross-departmental working, through the formation of internal partnerships, can help the
         organisation to effectively tackle the climate change agenda.

         In addition the new Energy Saving Trust online guide for NI 186 deals with opportunities and
         challenges of setting up cross service delivery. The guide can be found by clicking here.

         Case studies:
            Internal partnerships – Nottinghamshire County Council’s working group on energy.
            Internal partnerships – Uttlesford District Council.
26


         In addition, the Energy Saving Trust briefing note Resourcing sustainable energy schemes
         highlights some of the main sources of resources that local authorities and housing
         associations can tap into.

         Human resources
         Luton Borough Council should ensure that a member of staff within each service area
         is allocated time to promote the integration of sustainable energy, with performance
         reviewed through the council’s appraisal system or equivalent.

         Reinvest savings from energy efficiency investments into further energy action
         Luton Borough Council should ensure that any savings made from investing in
         energy efficiency are reinvested in sustainable energy.
         Further guidance;
         Two of the authorities that have produced carbon management action plans under the
         Carbon Trust’s local authority carbon management programme have looked at including
         schemes that involve reinvesting the savings from energy efficiency investments. These are:
            Bristol City Council developed a plan that encompasses a 15% CO2 emissions
               reduction target by 2010.
            Neath Port Talbot County Borough Council signed up to a 6% carbon emissions
               reduction target within its Community Plan. Its action plan includes details of the
               council’s ‘payback’ schemes which involve reinvesting savings.


 3.2.4 Political/corporate support

Current situation
Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good in terms of political or corporate support because of
the following activities that it has undertaken in this area.

        Councillor Don Wolding has energy on his portfolio.
        The Chief Executive is briefed on energy issues.
        Energy issues are raised via the Council’s quarterly report to Scrutiny Committee however
         energy is not something that would be discussed regularly by the cabinet unless outcomes
         were required for the Carbon Reduction Commitment etc.
        The Chief Executive is champion for the Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) and the
         director for Environment and Regeneration will chair the ‘sustainability board’ as part of the
         Carbon Trust’s Local Authority Carbon Management programme.

Although the Chief Executive is champion for the CRC, an overall energy champion has not been
appointed at a senior level. There is also currently no leadership from the Chief Executive on
energy issues and a scrutiny review of energy has not been conducted.

Recommendations
As Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good’ with regard to its political or corporate support, it is
recommended that the following areas are explored to bring the council up to the standard of
‘good/excellent’.
27



     Establish top level commitment
     Luton Borough Council should establish tackling climate change as one of the
     council’s top five priorities, as this is critical for the allocation of resources and the
     provision of support to staff.
     Further guidance;
     IDeA has produced two case studies looking at how the London Borough of Islington and
     Kerrier District Council have provided leadership in reducing CO2 emissions. The case
     studies look at how the councils cut their own emissions and engaged with residents to
     tackle climate change.

     Decision making
     Luton Borough Council should include a climate change impact assessment for all
     major projects/decisions at committee level
     Further guidance:
     This could be implemented in a simple way by including a scoring system in the cover paper
     for committee papers. The author would be asked to provide a judgement on the potential
     climate change impact by using a simple traffic light system (red, amber, green) This could
     be a mechanism to raise climate change issues to councillors when climate change is not on
     the agenda.

     Senior level energy champions
     Luton Borough Council should robustly support an overall energy champion at a
     senior level.
     Further guidance;
     The individual does not have to be an environmental specialist, or have environmental
     qualifications, just someone who is a good networker, enthusiastic, tenacious and well
     supported. This individual should take the lead in developing partnerships and could also
     lead an internal steering group on energy.
     The following resources may be useful:
         The briefing note What are energy champions and how can they benefit your
             organisation provides an overview of the potential role of an energy champion and the
             activities they can undertake to benefit the local authority.
         The value of in-house energy experts is a how-to guide produced by the local energy
             support team’ is a more detailed briefing note on how to become an in-house energy
             champion.

     Conduct a scrutiny review of energy
     Luton Borough Council should conduct a scrutiny review of energy
     Further guidance;
     The publication, Climate change – Information for scrutiny members and policy reviewers
     looks at some of the questions that may be asked by a scrutiny panel with regard to climate
     change. There is also Climate change – Information for scrutiny members - an introduction.

     Involve the chief executive and councillors
     Luton Borough Council should ensure that the chief executive and councillors are
     involved in taking action on climate change.
28


         Further guidance;
         Councillors in Lewisham worked with the borough’s energy manager and housing staff to
         initiate Lewisham’s Affordable Warmth scheme. A case study on Lewisham's Housing
         Energy Programme provides details.

 3.2.5 Staff training and engagement

Current situation
Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good’ in terms of staff training and engagement because of
the following activities that it has undertaken in this area.

        Basic information on sustainability is included in the induction packs received by new
         employees including details of schemes such as office recycling, cycling facilities and
         information and energy saving tips.
        Training on fuel poverty is available to staff, however it does not extend to sustainable
         energy.
        Since 2004 nearly 300 staff have received basic energy awareness training with emphasis
         on fuel poverty. This included staff from social services, community development,
         regeneration, housing and representatives from Primary Care Trust and housing
         associations.
        Two officers from the affordable warmth team and one from the climate change team have
         recently (May 09) completed the City & Guilds energy awareness course.
        There are four planned briefings on energy awareness each year and work is currently
         under way by the Council to develop a more holistic approach to energy awareness
         briefings
        The Council has ‘green champions’ in some work areas. These are mainly concerned with
         waste paper reduction and recycling; however the Council are currently investigating how
         they can get staff more involved in energy reduction. Within Luton Borough Council’s
         Energy Policy (2009) one of their short-term objectives, in the corporate policy statement, is
         to “Nominate employees to act as departmental energy champions” and also to “Increase
         staff awareness”.
        “Establishing ownership of energy and water costs at departmental level by devolving
         budgets to individual departments” is one of the action plan points to be incorporated into
         the Energy Policy (2009) action plan.

Although the Council is investigating energy champions and assigning energy costs to each
department through zone metering they do not currently provide detailed training for all staff with
regular refresher courses and departments within the Council are not aware of the need to meet
energy reduction targets.


Recommendations
Well informed staff can play a key role in promoting sustainable energy throughout the borough. It
is recommended that the following areas are explored to bring the council up to the standard of
‘good/excellent’.
29


     Train staff
          Introduce energy training to staff in areas of council operation deemed to have
             most significant impact on energy use.
          Introduce more detailed training for staff in housing, planning and building
             control.
          Ensure that frontline staff who visit tenants are aware of issues associated with
             poor energy efficiency and are either able to provide advice there and then, or
             refer the tenants to the Energy Saving Trust advice centre.
          Introduce detailed training for all staff with regular refresher courses and follow
             up with email bulletins.
     Further guidance;
     Further information can be found in the ‘Energy efficiency training for staff’ chapter of Energy
     efficiency the guide. A full course in providing energy efficiency advice is awarded jointly by
     City and Guilds and NEA.

     Regarding raising awareness of energy efficiency within the council’s own operations, the
     Carbon Trust has some useful top tips and can also provide starter packs and posters to
     raise awareness. The Carbon Trust has more information on its website. It also provides
     some case studies demonstrating what other organisations have done to save energy.

     Staff awareness campaign with departmental targets for reduction
     Luton Borough Council should embark upon a staff awareness campaign. The
     Council can assign energy costs to each department and set targets for reduction.
     This could be linked to a personal climate change pledging system at work and home.
     Further guidance;
     This recommendation aims to help inform and support the objectives and aims that have
     been highlighted within the Council’s energy policy (see current situation above).

     The MY Energy feasibility study looked at engaging with Gloucester City Council and
     Gloucestershire County Council staff to promote sustainable energy use both at home and at
     work. The project included conducting focus group sessions with staff representatives,
     developing a detailed online staff energy questionnaire, undertaking follow-up telephone
     surveys and holding several energy advice stands in the workplace.

     The Carbon Account is a useful tool for staff to use to monitor their personal energy use and
     to calculate their own carbon footprint. A group can also be set up on this website so that
     staff can compare their footprint to colleagues.

     Work with Energy Saving Trust
     Luton Borough Council should promote Energy Saving Trust’s free domestic and
     travel advice to staff. As part of this the Council should sign up to the Energy Saving
     Trust’s employee engagement service.
     Further guidance;
     Energy Saving Trust advice centres provide free sustainable energy and travel advice.
     Behavioural change messages apply in both the home and travel to the workplace. The
     service can be accessed via 0800 512 012 or online. The council can promote Energy
     Saving Trust Home Energy Check forms with payslips to encourage sustainable behaviour
30


     or provide a link on your intranet.

     Energy Saving Trust advice centres also provide a free bespoke service to help your staff
     adopt a greener lifestyle at home, and reduce their fuel bills by up to £340 a year. Our
     current campaign is called ‘Home Green Home’ and free collateral is available from your
     contact.

     Work with Energy Saving Trust
     Luton Borough Council should sign up for smarter driving training for council
     employees.
     Further guidance;

     The Energy Saving Trust has developed a one-to-one training course to teach company
     employees to drive more efficiently, reduce fuel consumption and save money by
     implementing smarter driving techniques.

           On average you can reduce fuel consumption by up to 15%.
           For a typical car you can make annual savings of £200 - £250.
           It encourages a safer driving style and reduces wear and tear on the vehicle.

     The Riverside Group has benefited from the service already. The Energy Saving Trust can
     provide support materials and guidance to help with internal communications. We will also
     organise the training and bring our instructors to your site! To find out more call 0845 602
     1425.

     Appoint energy champions in each department or building
     Luton Borough Council should develop the ‘Green Champion’ role to cover energy
     and ensure that a champion is present in each department or building. The
     champions should ensure they are responsible for keeping staff informed of energy
     saving tips and can keep an eye on simple things such as lights and monitors being
     left on.
     Further guidance:
     The briefing note What are energy champions and how can they benefit your organisation
     provides an overview of the potential role of an energy champion and the activities they can
     undertake to benefit the local authority.
31



     Services

 3.2.6 Overview
The graph below shows an overview of Luton Borough Council’s overall services. The Council
was rated ‘good/excellent’ in terms of building regulation enforcement, ‘good’ in terms of
private sector housing and social care. In terms of regeneration, social housing – own stock,
energy advice, resources – external funding, signposting to external grant schemes and
education the Council was rated ‘fair/good’. However the Council was only rated ‘fair’ in relation to
social housing - other and ‘fair/weak’ in terms of planning policy.

                                      Luton Borough Council
                                             Se rv ices

             8
             7
                                                                                        Actual
             6
                                                                                        Best practice
             5
                                                                                        Excellent
             4
                                                                                        Good
             3
                                                                                        Fair
             2
                                                                                        Weak
             1
             0
                                            ng


                                            es




                                              t
                                             k




                                             g
                                             r




                               na vice




                                fo licy

                                          en
                                ow ion




                                          he




                                           n

                                           e
                                          oc




                                          in




                                       em
                                         di




                                         io

                                        ar
                                      em
                                      us
                                       st


                                       ot




                                     po
                            ng rat




                                     un




                                      at

                                     lc
                                    ad




                                   ch
                                   ho
                                    n




                                  uc
                                    g




                                   rc
                                    e




                                  lf




                                  ia
                                  g
                                 in
                     ou en




                      - e rgy




                                ts


                                in




                              Ed


                               oc
                               or
                              us




                             nn

                             en
                            an
                             eg




                             S
                             ct




                            er
                 es ne
                           ho




                          la
                         se
                          R




                         gr
                          xt




                        gs
                         si




                         E




                        P
                       al




                     to




                     re
                      e
                    ci

                   at
                  lh




                   g
                 So




                  g
                 iv




               tin




                in
               ia




              rc
              Pr




            ild
            os
            oc




           ou




         Bu
         np
          S




        es

      ig
      R

     S




 3.2.7 Regeneration

Current situation
Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good’ in terms of regeneration (economic development)
because of the following activities that it has undertaken in this area.

        The Council have shown that they actively seek projects delivering energy efficiency
         through the Butterfield Business & Technology Park, which is a good example of where
         energy efficiency has been an integral part of the development process. The Innovation
         Centre and Business Base have achieved an ‘Excellent’ BREEAM rating.
        Within the Luton Local Plan, "Renewable energy generation within new buildings" states
         that all buildings over 1000m² must incorporate renewable power generation equipment to
         provide at least 10% of predicted energy requirements.
32


        It is also stated in the Luton Local Plan that "The Borough Council will encourage good
         practice in developments. Its 'Designing for Sustainability' good practice guide states that
         all new dwellings should have a minimum Building Research Establishment Environmental
         Assessment method rating of 'very good' or a SAP rating of 80 or above". Within the
         ‘design principles’ section it is also stated that developments will be granted planning
         permission provided that they utilise passive energy sources and minimise energy and
         water consumption.
        Luton Borough Council have organised energy efficiency programmes that have distributed
         leaflets and information to local businesses, however, this needs to be developed.
        The Regeneration Service has a small budget for 2009/10 to reduce the carbon footprint of
         local business, particularly in the older business parks in the town.
        External grants are available through the Government's Local Area Business Growth
         Initiative (LABGI). One element was through the 'fit for market business space' initiative,
         which included improvements to older business estates, particularly in relation to reducing
         their carbon footprint. However this initiative received little response from the business
         community. This was largely due to the difficulty of making contact with landlords through
         networks of agents. This is likely to be a problem across the country, not one which is
         unique to Luton.

The following summary, found on the Audit Commission website was provided to support the 2009
direction of travel assessment of Comprehensive Performance Assessment (CPA):
“Key milestones in major projects are being achieved. Funding has been secured for a number of
large infrastructure projects including the East Luton Corridor (dualling the route from the
motorway to the Airport) which is nearing completion, the guided bus way between Dunstable and
Luton town centres, the airport and the motorway at junction 10a and the station gateway
redevelopment scheme. Good project management has resulted in the procurement phase of
Luton’s ‘Building Schools for Future’ programme, a rebuilding programme for all of Luton’s
secondary schools, being ahead of target.”

Although some local companies are already involved in sustainable processes eg recycling of
cooking oil for fuel and low energy technology the Council would like to focus more on encouraging
this sector. The Council do not currently give enough emphasis to opportunities to improve
business efficiency.

Also although the Council has one target with regard to renewables the Council does not currently
set any other specific energy efficiency targets within renewal or regeneration schemes.

Recommendations
As Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good’ with regard to regeneration, it is recommended
that the following areas are explored to bring the council up to the standard of ‘good/excellent’.


         Integrate sustainable energy in renewal/regeneration schemes
             The council should ensure the regeneration team continues to recognise the
               value of energy efficiency improvements as part of regeneration.
             The council should continue to ensure renewal/regeneration schemes actively
               seek projects delivering energy efficiency advice and improvements, with
               specific targets.
33


         Ensure a core focus of economic development activity is to secure high
           sustainable energy standards in projects and businesses targets.
     Further guidance;
     The Energy Saving Trust has developed a case study on the Ebbw Vale development in
     Wales. This looks at the sustainable energy strategy for the redevelopment of the former
     steelworks and describes how the Welsh Assembly Government and Blaenau Gwent County
     Borough Council intend to meet the ambitious carbon reduction targets set in the strategy.

     Beacon Housing Estate in Falmouth, once a severely disadvantaged area of Cornwall, has
     been transformed through a programme of housing improvements. A ‘community action for
     energy’ case study provides an overview of the energy-related elements of a major
     community-wide regeneration project.

     After the village of Boscastle was devastated by floods in 2004, its residents decided to
     address environmental issues when it was rebuilt. It now has one of the highest
     concentrations of green businesses in the UK, including five businesses that have gained a
     gold award under the Green Tourism Business Scheme.

     The London Borough of Southwark is redeveloping the Elephant and Castle area in a
     comprehensive project that will upgrade over 30 hectares of land. The work will include
     major improvements to infrastructure and a new mixed-use urban centre, with 5,300 new
     homes. The project as ambitious carbon reduction water minimisation targets and aims to
     achieve these by establishing a Multi-Utility Services Company. You can read more about
     the development here and about the Multi-Utility Services Company here.

     Encourage businesses to be energy efficient
     Luton Borough Council should ensure acknowledgement of energy efficiency as a
     factor in business performance and look at opportunities to improve business
     efficiency.
     Further guidance;
     Setting up green business awards can be an effective way of encouraging sustainable
     businesses. A number of local authorities have successfully done this, including:
         Chichester District Council.
         City of London.

     Any award schemes, and broader leadership work in the business area by the council, can
     be run through the local strategic partnership and with involvement or endorsement by the
     Chamber of Commerce.

     The European Energy Trophy is an EU-wide competition for companies and public
     administrations to recognise energy saving in office buildings. The aim is to award the
     Energy Trophy to participants who saved the most energy in a single office building using
     only cost-free measures.

     The Association of Town Centre Management runs the Business Climate Champions
     project which aims to inform and inspire companies, providing them with all the information
     and support they need to save energy and tackle climate change. Ensuring that Luton
     Borough Council’s town centre managers are informed of this project could help engage
34


     businesses in this area.

     The energy agency of Frankfurt organised an energy benchmark for commercial buildings.
     Users, owners and investors of buildings are invited to analyse and compare the energy use
     of their buildings in small groups of ten participants. The results are published anonymously
     with the aim to increase energy efficiency through competition.

     In Sweden, the Energy Gain programme is working to increase awareness of energy issues
     in small and medium-sized enterprises, by combining education with a voluntary agreement
     to take action. The Municipality of Lidköping is offering tailored seminars for a number of
     different industries, as well as helping the companies to audit their energy use.

     Upper Austria has provided comprehensive information, advice and financial support to
     develop a third party financing market for energy improvements. The annual energy savings
     are used to cover the investment costs. Energiesparverband managed to establish a well
     functioning third party finance market in Upper Austria with more than 100 successful
     projects already carried out.

     The Carbon Reduction Commitment, scheduled to begin operation in 2010, is a mandatory
     emissions trading scheme that will cover around 5,000 public and private organisations,
     including supermarkets, banks and local authorities. It is hoped that the scheme will save at
     least four million tonnes of CO2 per year by 2020 - the equivalent of taking more than a
     million cars off the road.

     Relevant regeneration or business support staff should promote the advice programmes
     available to businesses in their area. There are several nationwide programmes such as
     those of the Carbon Trust and Envirowise and Business Link. There may also be local
     programmes on offer, funded by European government, regional government, charities and
     your own business support activities. Relevant staff should have a good overview of these
     services and promote them to businesses as appropriate.

     Encourage the development of sustainable energy businesses
      The council should actively encourage the development of sustainable energy
     businesses in the area.
     Further guidance;
     The Shell Springboard awards celebrate businesses that have developed innovative and
     commercially viable products or services that mitigate climate change.

     Creating Green Jobs: Developing local low-carbon economies is an LGA report calling on
     the government to give councils powers to unlock the job-creating potential in tackling
     climate change. The report emphasises the economic and environmental case for taking
     action and equipping the country to come through the recession in a better position to
     combat climate change.
     The London Energy Partnership conducted research into the skills gap in London to meet
     national and regional energy policy objectives. The research report, Skills for a Low Carbon
     London, made a number of recommendations including extending training for planning
     officers and mainstreaming energy efficiency into every day working practices.
35


      Officers may find it useful to look at the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham energy
      strategy. This council is undergoing considerable regeneration at present and the strategy
      includes details of how the council will look to prioritise sustainable energy within its
      regeneration schemes.

      The Energy Saving Trust publication Sustainable energy and job creation looks at what type
      of job opportunities are created through sustainable energy projects.

      The council should promote support programmes available for sustainable business start
      ups, such as the Carbon Trust’s Incubator scheme. The European Regional Development
      fund for 2007 – 2013 has a focus on developing sustainable business so check for
      programmes available in your area. These will be managed by your Government Office.



 3.2.8 Housing
At the time of writing, the total number of households in Luton was 75,512, all of which are covered
by the gas network. However, only 92.3% (957,299) of private sector properties actually use gas
with 7.6% (4708) using electricity and 0.1% (80) using oil.

The housing stock in Luton is a mix of early 20th Century terraced housing, post war low rise
estates, 1960 and 70s estates (consisting of terraced, semi-detached and high rise) and modern
private and Registered Social Landlord (RSL) estates. The majority of housing is semi detached
properties (41% against a national average of 33%).

The Council owns just under 11% of Luton’s housing stock which is similar to the proportion held
by many authorities. RSLs own less than 5%, which is low compared to the national average of
9%.

The Housing stock modelling in 2009 found that generally Luton’s private sector stock is well
above average condition for all of the measured criteria (dwellings that would fail the Decent
Homes Standard, vulnerable households in decent homes, dwellings with a category 1 Health and
Housing Safety Rating System Hazard [HHSRS]). One result of particular interest is the 18%
predicted for dwellings with a Category 1 Housing Health and Safety Rating System hazard which
is notably lower than the national average of 24%. As the principle national cause for Category 1
hazards is excess cold, it may be that stock in Luton is more energy efficient than the norm. For
the vulnerable households in decent homes indicator, the predicted result for Luton in 2006 was
75% of vulnerable households living in decent homes. This means that Luton should have already
exceeded the 2010 target for vulnerable households living in decent homes. This figure is backed
up by the 2006 local house condition survey results, which show a figure of 71%. The models
show that Luton has half the proportion of households in fuel poverty compared to England, and
half the proportion of dwellings with a SAP of less than 35. The percentage of non decent homes
at 32% is below the average in England of 36%. National fuel poverty figures for 2006 indicate that
12% of households in the private stock are fuel poor. This is a good result for Luton and backs up
the suggestion that the private stock has a high level of energy efficiency.
36


Luton Borough Council has for many years operated a successful Affordable Warmth referral
scheme and in conjunction with wider partnership with the Government’s Warm Front initiative,
secured over £1.5 million of inward investment to Luton for heating and insulation in private sector
housing last year. Luton consistently rates as attracting one, if not the, highest number of
measures within the Eastern region in Warm Front reports.

A Stock Condition Survey was last carried out in 2004. No dedicated database exists for all
housing stock. The Council does not currently use the Energy Saving Trust Home Energy
Efficiency Database (HEED).


Housing stock breakdown

Tenure

Private Sector                              63,740
RSL                                           3555
Local Authority Rented                       8217
Total                                       75,512

Type

Detached                                          9718
Semi detached                                    29125
Terraced                                         20422
Flat purpose built                               10250
Flat conversion                                   1911
Flat communal                                       670
Temporary structure                                 162
Grand Total                                     70,347
Source: Property breakdown for Luton from 2001 Census. It is noted that these figures are
internally inconsistent. This is due to differing time periods and collection methodologies.

Age

Figures from Luton Private Sector Stock Survey 2006:
Pre-1919                                   7,476
1919-1944                                 17,048
1945-1964                                 14,894
1965-1980                                 11,478
Post-1980                                 11,191
Total                                     62,087
37


Figures for Luton Borough Council own stock:
Pre-1945 Small Terraced Houses                                             19
Pre-1945 Small Semi-detached house                                         74
All other Pre-1945 houses                                                 328
1945-64 Large terrace/semi detached houses                               1283
1965 – 74 Houses                                                          240
Post 1974 Houses 628                                                      628
Non – traditional Dwellings All Houses                                   1115
Pre-1945 Low rise (1-2 storeys flats)                                      24
Post-1945 Low rise (1-2 storeys flats)                                   1793
Medium Rise (3-5 Storeys) flats                                          1357
High Rise (6 or more Storeys) flats                                      1173
Bungalows                                                                 183
Total All Dwellings                                                      8217

Graphical comparisons of housing tenure and type in Luton compared to national averages are
shown below;


                                                        Luton Borough Council
                                                           housing tenure


                  100.0


                   80.0
     Percentage




                   60.0
                                                                                        Luton Borough Council %
                                                                                        UK %
                   40.0


                   20.0


                    0.0
                          Private sector    Rented from      Rented from        Other
                                           local authority     housing
                                                             association
38


                                                   Luton Borough Council
                                                       household type


                  50



                  40
     Percentage




                  30
                                                                                             England
                                                                                             Luton borough council
                  20



                  10



                  0
                       Detached    Semi-     Terrace     Flat /      Caravan /   Other
                                  detached             maisonette     mobile


Source: Property breakdown for Luton from 2001 Census. It is noted that these figures are
internally inconsistent this is due to differing time periods and collection methodologies.


Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) ratings
The average SAP rating of private sector housing in the area is 58. An estimated 2.5% of
dwellings have a SAP of below 30.

The average SAP rating of social landlord housing in the area is 79 (SAP 2001) with a minimum
SAP rating of 16.
The un-weighted average SAP rating of all housing stock in the area is 68 and the minimum is
unknown.

According to the English House Condition Survey1, the average SAP figures (using Standard
Assessment Procedure 2005 methodology) for English housing in 2005 were:
   50 (overall).
   58 (social sector).
   48 (private sector; rented and owned scored similar amounts).

The figures above for the area of Luton show that Luton is above average compared to the
average SAP figures for English housing in 2005.




1
    www.communities.gov.uk/housing/housingresearch/housingsurveys/englishhousecondition/ehcsreports/.
39


Domestic energy efficiency installations and HEED

The Energy Saving Trust’s Home Energy Efficiency Database (HEED) contains relevant
information on properties gathered through various means including energy suppliers, government
scheme managing agents, local authorities and other landlords.

Therefore, as total housing stock is not yet entered into HEED, the HEED analysis below currently
contains information on 18,400 properties in Luton Borough.

Note that use of HEED is included in the recommendations for action regarding Luton’s housing
stock and the use of HEED will be facilitated by your Account manager.

The summary of data extracted from HEED for Luton is shown below (this can be discussed in
more detail with your Account manager):
40
41


The following table, also extracted from HEED, shows the potential for targeting insulation
campaigns and ranks potential for insulation by ward:
42


3.3.3.1 Social housing – own stock including Arms Length Management Organisation
(ALMO)

Current situation
Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good’ in terms of its own social housing stock because of
the following:

Luton Borough Council owns 8291 properties (2008). The average SAP of Local Authority
dwellings is 79.0 (2008) with only 6 properties having a SAP rating of less than 30. Over 30% of
the overall stock is of non-traditional construction and over 50% of the overall stock is flats or
maisonettes.

The total breakdown of construction types in April 2009 was as follows:
   Houses = 3692
   Bungalows = 182
   High Rise Flats = 1156
   Low Rise Flats = 2881
   Maisonettes = 161
   Bed sits = 145

Average age of dwellings by type:
   Houses = 1957 (52yrs)
   Bungalows = 1977 (32yrs)
   High Rise Flats = 1969 (40yrs)
   Low Rise Flats = 1972 (37yrs)
   Maisonettes = 1967 (42yrs)
   Bedsits = 1977 (32yrs)

Wall type:
Solid Wall           139
Cavity              8152

The 2008 energy analysis of Local authority stock showed that the Council has shown
improvement in its own housing stock since 1996 with average SAP rising from 59 to 79 (July
2008), a 34% increase. Properties with a SAP rating below 50 have been reduced from 27% of the
stock to just 1%. The analysis also found that 311 properties have no record of wall insulation
added since being built and therefore may be suitable for cavity wall insulation. It was
recommended in the analysis that the Council identify which of these are suitable for cavity wall
insulation.

The Council’s Energy Analysis of Local Authority housing stock up to March 2008 has
recommended raising the SAP of the 72 properties with a SAP of under 50.

The Council has completed work in the majority of its stock to increase energy efficiency including:
The installation of full gas central heating, the use of efficient condensing boilers (SEDBUK A/B),
the installation of double glazing and cavity wall insulation and proper insulation of hot water
cylinders and pipe work will also be incorporated into the work.
43


In addition Luton Borough Council encourages the use of low energy light fittings and provides
residents with energy saving ideas in newsletters, on its web-site and through other information
sources.

Cavity wall insulation has been installed in all properties, where possible. A rolling cavity wall
insulation programme was delivered in previous years, where the only properties deemed not
possible included properties where the construction type and/or structure did not permit us to do
so, ie no cavity or non-traditional steel framed (Trusteel) properties cannot be cavity filled as per
Buildings Research Establishment (BRE) advice. Some properties may have also refused the
works/access at the time of the programme. The average level of loft insulation across the stock is
184mm. Flat roofed properties are re-roofed and insulated as part of planned maintenance works.

Further highlighted activities include:

        In the Asset Management Investment Strategy a target to increase the average SAP rating
         of Council properties for (2009/10) was set at 77 which has already been exceeded. The
         next target will be to increase the Average SAP rating to above 80 by 2012.
        There is a target to increase the Minimum SAP rating to 20 by 2012 in line with the Asset
         Management Investment Strategy.
        Within the Luton Asset management strategy action plan there are key actions to meet the
         Decent Homes Standard (DHS) by 2010 and update the Decent Homes+ standard.
        The Council are on target to meet the DHS by 2010 with the current average SAP already
         exceeding the requirements of the DHS.
        Annual maintenance programmes such as front/rear door replacement (Glass reinforced
         plastic composite with double glazing), window replacement (double glazing + low E), cavity
         and loft insulation and boiler replacement are carried out.
        Opportunistic energy work is included in repair and maintenance programmes and void
         repairs.
        When allocating properties fuel poverty is considered. Energy Performance Certificates are
         issued to tenants at time of viewing, showing estimated energy usage costs for the property
         in question. Allocations also only allocate properties of an appropriate size to the applicant’s
         needs, encouraging best use of stock.
        There is a district heating scheme located in the Park Town area of the borough and many
         blocks of flats are also run on communal heating systems.
        The last National Home Energy Rating (NHER) SAP 2001 stock profiling was carried out on
         1 April 2008. Rolling stock condition surveys are carried out annually collecting stock data
         for DHS and HHSRS. Also more recently (for December 2008 surveys) Reduced Data SAP
         data (Energy Performance Certificates [EPCs]) was collected for each property surveyed.
        Ongoing stock condition surveys are carried out by FPD Savills. This is an overall stock
         survey with specialist energy appraisal which has helped plan future insulation
         programmes.
        The Council have implemented the use of the ECMK Asset Management and Energy
         Profiling software, which has been populated with full SAP 2001 data but also allows for use
         of SAP 2005 and production/storage of RDSAP data (EPCs).
        The database is updated quarterly with works carried out affecting the SAP rating of the
         property, including boiler types/efficiency (Seasonal Efficiency of Domestic Boilers in the UK
         - SEDBUK), doors/windows (glazing) and any other energy works carried out.
44


        An annual update of the ECMK Asset Management and Energy Profiling software is carried
         out and a standalone energy database is also updated with new survey and inspection data.
        New tenants are shown how to use the boiler when they move into one of the Council’s
         properties.
        The Council seeks grants to supplement programmes of work and energy efficiency
         initiatives whenever possible.
        Luton Borough Council is committed to resident involvement from day to day operations
         through to various groups including the Tenants Consultative Committee and a number of
         theme panels.

The Council does not currently have a minimum SAP target of at least 65 set and does not have a
plan backed by a clear timetable and investment funds have not been identified. Although the
Council does not have any plans to build any new homes itself and is only developing new homes
through RSLs it does not indicate code for sustainable homes level 4 as a minimum.

Recommendations
As Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good’ with regard to its own social housing stock, it is
recommended that the following areas are explored to bring the council up to the standard of
‘good/excellent’.

         Set minimum SAP target and tackle hard to treat homes
         The council should introduce minimum SAP targets of at least 65. To achieve the
         minimum target, the council should continue to use a programme of improving
         hard to treat properties. This may include using renewable energy technologies.
         Further guidance;
         As part of this, the council should ensure that all cavities are insulated and all lofts
         insulated with at least 270mm of insulation.

         Further information can be found in the ‘Hard to treat homes’ chapter of Energy efficiency
         the guide and the Energy Saving Trust’s 'Hard to treat’ toolkit.

         The Energy Saving Trust’s publication ‘Roadmap to 60 per cent: eco-refurbishment of
         1960’s flats’ presents research into the real life costs of implementing the measures.
         There are a number of useful resources from the Energy Saving Trust’s housing
         programme. The programme offers outreach consultancy support for enhancing the
         energy performance of refurbishment projects. Strategic and technical support from
         Energy Saving Trust vetted consultants can be provided to support with strategic design
         decisions to achieve higher energy performance standards (in line with Code for
         Sustainable Homes levels if applicable). The Energy Saving Trust may also help with
         dissemination of the refurbishment project through generating a case study. To apply for
         this support please contact your Account manager who will put you in touch with the
         relevant person at Energy Saving Trust to discuss the support you would most benefit
         from.

         The housing programme also has a wealth of technical publications on a variety of topics,
         such as different insulation types, lighting, renewable technologies and many others. You
         can view the range of publications in this useful guide, and then search for the one you
         require here, by typing the reference number in the keyword search box.
45


     The reference number is the number that starts with CE or GP.

     In addition, the Best Practice house provides information on refurbishing houses and
     building new homes to the Energy Saving Trust’s ‘Best Practice’ and ‘Advanced Practice’
     standards.

     Fit For the Future - The Green Homes Retrofit Manual is a Housing Corporation
     publication for social landlords that puts together essential information for any retrofit work
     to households being conducted in the UK.

     City-owned housing in New York is set to become more energy efficient with retro-fitted
     insulation and other measures. The Clinton Climate Initiative is teaming up with the
     mayor's office and the New York City Housing Authority to work with energy companies,
     banks and green building organisations to speed up a planned energy efficiency
     programme.

     The London Borough of Camden carried out a green refurbishment of a council-owned
     Victorian house, cutting its carbon emissions by 80%. U-values on the property are now
     20% lower than current Building Regulations.

     The Flagship Home project addressed the issues surrounding the improvement of energy
     performance of older properties in conservation areas.

     The following are examples of how renewable technologies have been used to improve
     hard to treat homes and/or reduce the incidence of fuel poverty.
        Kielder Community Enterprises Ltd manages a wood-fired district heating scheme
            for new build housing and various community buildings in the village.
        Powys County Council runs a rural biomass project demonstrating the potential of
            biomass as an energy source for community heating in a rural setting.
        National Energy Action has been working on a number of projects involving the
            installation of renewable technologies to reduce fuel poverty.
        Three of Hammersmith and Fulham Council’s tower blocks are set to become a
            showcase of green retrofitting. Planned installations include insulating cladding,
            integrated wind turbines and solar thermal and solar PV technologies.
        Servite Housing Association arranged for air source heat pumps to be installed as
            part of a programme of electric heating upgrades in 53 properties in Scotland.

     Through SunCities, a European Commission project, Kirklees Council has installed 4.9%
     of the total solar electricity installed in the UK, making it the largest domestic solar project
     in the UK.

     The Energy Saving Trust has conducted a field trial of renewable heating for the Scottish
     Government, focussing on air and ground source heat pumps and wood pellet systems,
     with the large majority of installations being heat pumps. The report focuses on the
     operation perspective and the lessons learnt from the pilot, providing a wealth of
     information on every stage of the installation process.
46



     Integrate opportunistic energy improvements into existing works.
     Luton Borough Council should continue to use and improve integrated packages of
     improvement measures where possible and ensure opportunistic energy work is
     included in repair and maintenance programmes and void repairs.
     Further guidance;
     There are a number of publications on whole house refurbishment. These include:
         Energy efficient refurbishment of existing housing.
         Energy efficient refurbishment of existing housing – case studies.
         Refurbishing dwellings – a summary of best practice.

     In addition, PassivHaus construction standards typically achieve energy savings of 90%
     compared to existing housing. The Promotion of European Passive Houses project aims
     to disseminate the experience gained by the people who are building to the PassivHaus
     standard.

     T-Zero is a free, web-based tool designed to help those refurbishing homes to find the
     best low-carbon solutions. T-Zero helps to establish a home’s fuel bill and carbon
     footprint. It then identifies the best insulation, heating and renewable energy options,
     taking account of budgets, available grants and site-related constraints. It advises on
     suppliers and installers and provides sources of further help.

     Own use of energy performance certificates (EPCs)
     Luton Borough Council should continue to implement the EU Energy Performance
     of Buildings Directive by ensuring an EPC is issued each time a dwelling changes
     tenancy.
     Further guidance;
     EPCs have been a requirement in social housing stock since 1 October 2008. The Energy
     Saving Trust has produced a briefing note on the Implementation of the EU Energy
     Performance of Buildings Directive in England and Wales and its implications for local
     authorities.

     CLG has produced a landlord’s guide to Energy Performance Certificates. A guide to
     generating Energy Performance Certificates for similar dwellings owned by the same
     landlord is also available.

     Funding for sustainable energy improvements
     Luton Borough Council should introduce a proactive programme to secure
     external funding to improve sustainability in the council’s own stock.
     Further guidance:
     The Energy Saving Trust maintains a funding database which contains information on a
     number of grant opportunities for both energy efficiency and renewables projects. This
     also includes information on grants for reducing carbon emissions in own buildings.
     Further information available here

     Regional Development Agencies and the Regional Efficiency Improvement Programme
     provide funding for local authorities to tackle climate change.
47


     Luton Borough Council has clearly been successful in accessing European Funding in the
     past. A number of funding streams are now directed towards carbon reduction.
     Colleagues in the Partnership and Funding Team may already have good links with the
     East of England Development Agency (EEDA).

     The main domestic energy efficiency funding source is the Carbon Emissions Reduction
     Target (CERT), which can also be used to fund renewables and innovative schemes. The
     Energy Saving Trust has written a briefing note on CERT which can be accessed from
     here

     The Carbon Reduction One Stop Shop (CROSS) provides a means for smaller authorities
     to manage large scale home improvement schemes. CROSS manage the engagement,
     via an auction process, and performance of suppliers. Further details of the scheme are
     available here.

     The Council could explore working with community groups, especially using the thermal
     survey as a filter, to access funding from energy suppliers. For example EoN offer
     community groups up to £20K for energy efficiency and sustainable energy schemes
     (details here). British Gas fund a competitive scheme, Green Streets, which allows
     communities to access a £2M funding stream with a £100K prize for the community which
     has made the greatest carbon savings. (Details here). Scottish Power’s Green Energy
     Trust also offers £25K to community groups for sustainable energy schemes (details
     here).

     Building good links with the local university can sometimes help to secure additional
     resources and joint funding bids. For example, Coventry City Council supported a PhD
     student to access know-how on sustainable urban drainage and green roofing and was
     able to make joint approaches to the Regional Development Agency for funding
     regeneration schemes that including carbon reduction studies.
     The International Projects Officer at the University of Bedfordshire can be contacted on )
     1582 743168

     The Energy Saving Trust’s Practical Help team are available to support funding
     applications if required – in terms of suggesting potential schemes, commenting on
     feasibility and estimating the potential carbon savings of measures implemented. The
     team can be contacted at: 0844 84 888 30.

     Train local authority staff to provide advice for tenants
     Luton Borough Council should introduce a policy of training and supporting front
     line staff in energy efficiency advice and signposting and ensure there is a qualified
     member of staff who delivers basic energy advice to tenants. This service should
     be publicised and there should be a procedure for recording as well as tracking the
     effectiveness of advice provision.
     Further guidance;
     The council should use an existing tenant group, or establish a group of tenants to
     provide advice to others regarding energy efficiency. The council should link to the work of
     the Energy Saving Trust advice centre and other local energy advice agencies.
48


       It is vital for tenants to have access to good quality, tailored energy efficiency advice if
       they are to use their homes in the most energy efficient way possible.
       The Energy Saving Trust and Housing Corporation’s tenant empowerment toolkit aims to
       help develop the capacity and skills of social housing residents to tackle energy efficiency
       issues concerning their homes and mobilise fellow residents to do the same. The toolkit
       includes material such as slide presentations, trainer’s notes, hand-outs, fun exercises
       and information sheets. To obtain a copy of the toolkit, please contact the Energy Saving
       Trust’s Practical help advisory service.

       Information on training and advice can also be found in the ‘Energy training for staff’ and
       ‘Energy advice for tenants’ chapters of Energy efficiency the guide.

       Consumer and resident advice for people in your area can be provided for free by your
       local Energy Saving Trust advice centre. The following number should be used in all
       promotions and advice 0800 512 012 (also the Department of Environment and Rural
       Affairs Act on Co2 advice line).

       Continue to tackle fuel poverty amongst own tenants
       The Council should continue to ensure that fuel poverty is considered when
       allocating properties to tenants.
       Further guidance;
       Information on tackling fuel poverty can be found in the Energy Saving Trust publication
       Affordable warmth - an introduction and the ‘Delivering affordable warmth’ chapter of
       Energy efficiency the guide.

       In addition, there is a case study on Lewisham’s Housing Energy Programme plan to
       eradicate fuel poverty amongst its own tenants.

       Establish an affinity deal with an energy supplier
       Luton Borough Council should consider establishing an affinity deal with an energy
       supplier to cover void council properties and ensuring that any revenue (via
       commission payments) obtained through this is ring fenced for other energy
       efficiency improvements. Once established, this deal could also be offered to
       private sector householders, thus generating more revenue.
       Further guidance;
       Several councils have established such affinity deals; information is available in the
       Energy Saving Trust’s Affinity deal toolkit.


3.3.3.2 Social housing – other stock

Current situation
Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair’ in terms of its other social housing stock because of the
following.

There are 17 stock holding Registered Social Landlords (RSLs) operating in the Borough currently.
The largest two own nearly 700 units each and the smallest only 12 homes. In April 2008, there
was a total of 3555 RSL units in Luton. .
49


It is estimated that just under half of dwellings are flats (48.2%) – mainly purpose-built flats. In
addition around a third of dwellings (33.1%) are terraced houses. There are very few detached
houses or bungalows (3.7% of all RSL dwellings). In the RSL sector it is estimated that 83.7% of
dwellings have cavity walls and that of these some 67.4% are insulated.

     RSLs are asked to monitor and report on increases in energy efficiency of local stock
      annually for the HECA report.
    The Council is not aware of a target to improve the average SAP rating of RSL stock,
      however, this is an area of work the Policy and Strategy Manager says needs to be focused
      on. The Council do ask each RSL to provide average SAP ratings annually.
    It is believed by the Council that RSLs integrate opportunistic energy work in repair and
      maintenance programmes and void repairs however they have no evidence of this.
Although the Council works with RSLs it does not currently have an active partnership with RSLs
on energy, looking at working together on accessing funding, advising tenants and running
programmes.

Recommendations
As Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair’ with regard to other social housing stock, it is
recommended that the following areas are explored to bring the council up to the standard of
‘good’.
        Working in partnership with registered social landlords (RSLs)
        It would be advisable for Luton Borough Council to strengthen its partnership with
        RSLs with a named officer lead. This would enable the council to continue to obtain
        energy ratings and data for Home Energy Conservation Act (HECA)/NI186 returns,
        and would give the council a better overall picture of the social housing stock.
        It may be possible to set up joint energy efficiency schemes to help achieve
        minimum standards across all social housing or link up on advice and awareness
        campaigns to tenants.
        Further guidance;
        The Energy Saving Trust case study Sustainable energy in practice - Cosy Homes
        describes how the Cosy Homes scheme provided financial support, advice and
        encouragement to improve the energy efficiency of homes owned by housing
        associations in Northern Ireland.

         Severn Wye Energy Agency worked to raise awareness of the benefits of sustainable
         energy use among residents and social housing providers through its SHARE
         programme. SHARE - Social Housing Action to Reduce Energy Consumption – created a
         social housing forum to exchange information between partners, as well as training
         sessions and an awareness campaign.

         The following case study may also be relevant:
            The Home Health project, a fuel poverty referral network in West Cornwall.

         The Housing Health and Safety Rating System (HHSRS) gives local authorities the
         opportunity to reduce levels of fuel poverty while potentially also reducing carbon
         emissions. In addition, this can be carried out at very little cost to the taxpayer, since
         landlords can be required to pay for the measures to remove hazards from their
         properties.
50


     However recent research by the Energy Efficiency Partnership for Homes suggests it is
     not being applied nearly as widely or as effectively as it could be. Further information,
     including a copy of the report and guidance for environmental health professionals, can be
     downloaded from the Partnership’s website.


     Encourage RSLs to raise the mean SAP rating
     Encourage RSLs to develop a work plan to raise the average SAP of housing by
     several points, prioritising the poorest performing housing, and ensuring that all
     cavities are insulated and all lofts insulated with at least 270mm of insulation.
     Further information can be found in the ‘Housing stock assessment’ and ‘Housing energy
     management matrix’ chapters of Energy efficiency the guide.

     The Energy Saving Trust’s publication ‘Roadmap to 60%: eco-refurbishment of 1960’s
     flats’ presents research into the real life costs of implementing the measures.

     The case study Nottingham EcoHome provides an example of how much can be done to
     transform the energy performance of an ordinary Victorian semi-detached house with
     reasoning behind design choices and the details of how the work was done.

     The London Borough of Lewisham has for the past 10 years been implementing a
     ‘Housing Energy Programme’, which is aimed at eradicating fuel poverty among its own
     tenants.

     The Best Practice house provides information on refurbishing houses and building new
     homes to the Energy Saving Trust’s ‘Best Practice’ and ‘Advanced Practice’ standards.

     Fit For the Future - The Green Homes Retrofit Manual is a Housing Corporation
     publication for social landlords that puts together essential information for any retrofit work
     to households being conducted in the UK.

     City-owned housing in New York is set to become more energy efficient with retro-fitted
     insulation and other measures. The Clinton Climate Initiative is teaming up with the
     mayor's office and the New York City Housing Authority to work with energy companies,
     banks and green building organisations to speed up a planned energy efficiency
     programme.

     Encourage RSLs to set minimum Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) target
     and tackle hard to treat homes
     The council should encourage RSLs to introduce minimum targets of 65. To
     achieve the minimum target, RSLs should introduce a programme of improving
     hard to treat properties. This may include using renewable energy technologies.
     Further information can be found in the ‘Hard to treat homes’ chapter of Energy efficiency
     the guide and the Energy Saving Trust’s 'Hard to treat’ toolkit.

     The London Borough of Camden carried out a green refurbishment of a council-owned
     Victorian house, cutting its carbon emissions by 80%. U-values on the property are now
     20% lower than current Building Regulations.
51


     The Flagship Home project addressed the issues surrounding the improvement of energy
     performance of older properties in conservation areas.

     The following are examples of how renewable technologies have been used to improve
     hard to treat homes and/or reduce the incidence of fuel poverty.
        Kielder Community Enterprises Ltd manages a wood-fired district heating scheme
            for new build housing and various community buildings in the village.
        Powys County Council runs a rural biomass project demonstrating the potential of
            biomass as an energy source for community heating in a rural setting.
        National Energy Action has been working on a number of projects involving the
            installation of renewable technologies to reduce fuel poverty.
        Three of Hammersmith and Fulham Council’s tower blocks are set to become a
            showcase of green retrofitting. Planned installations include insulating cladding,
            integrated wind turbines and solar thermal and solar PV technologies.
        Through SunCities, a European Commission project, Kirklees Council has installed
            4.9% of the total solar electricity installed in the UK, making it the largest domestic
            solar project in the UK.

     Encourage RSLs to integrate opportunistic energy improvements into existing
     works.
     Luton Borough Council should encourage RSLs to specify integrated packages of
     improvement measures where possible and ensure opportunistic energy work is
     included in repair and maintenance programmes and void repairs.
     Further guidance;
     There are a number of publications on whole house refurbishment. These include:
         Energy efficient refurbishment of existing housing.
         Energy efficient refurbishment of existing housing – case studies.
         Refurbishing dwellings – a summary of best practice.

     In addition, PassivHaus construction standards typically achieve energy savings of 90%
     compared to existing housing. The Promotion of European Passive Houses project aims
     to disseminate the experience gained by the people who are building to the PassivHaus
     standard.

     Encourage RSLs to set targets and monitor progress
     Luton Borough Council should encourage RSLs to set targets for improving their
     own stock and to monitor progress against this. This should include having a plan
     in place to achieve the Decent Homes standard.
     As part of this, the council should establish a dedicated database of public sector
     domestic properties with energy ratings. Ensure this is updated continuously (eg
     using surveys and inspections) and annually with improvements to heating and
     insulation standards.
     Further guidance;
     The ‘Housing energy management matrix’ chapter of Energy efficiency the guide is a
     practical tool to help you assess the current energy efficiency levels of your stock, set
     targets and monitor progress.
52


     The Homes Energy Efficiency Database has being developed by the Energy Saving Trust
     to register the uptake of sustainable energy measures and related survey data throughout
     the UK housing stock.
     The database registers these installations on a property-by-property basis with data from
     a wide variety of sources including energy suppliers, government scheme managing
     agents, local authorities and other landlords, Energy Saving Trust advice centre home
     energy checks as well as other Energy Saving Trust programmes. The database stores
     property details such as building type and full address, as well as details of the installed
     energy efficiency measures, but not personal details of occupants. It will also store
     property survey data so that a picture of the remaining potential for measures can be built
     up.

     RSLs and energy performance certificates (EPCs)
     Luton Borough Council should ensure RSLs understand the requirement to
     implement the EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive by ensuring EPCs are
     issued each time a dwelling changes tenancy.
     Further guidance;
     EPCs are a requirement in social housing stock. Energy Saving Trust has produced a
     briefing note on the Implementation of the EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive
     in England and Wales.

     CLG has produced a landlord’s guide to Energy Performance Certificates. A guide to
     generating Energy Performance Certificates for similar dwellings owned by the same
     landlord is also available.

     Work with RSLs to secure funding for sustainable energy improvements
     Luton Borough Council should work with RSLs to introduce a proactive programme
     to secure external funding to improve sustainability in social housing in the area.
     Further guidance;
     The Energy Saving Trust maintains a funding database which contains information on a
     number of grant opportunities for both energy efficiency and renewables projects. Further
     information on funding can be found in section 3.3.5 below.

     Encourage RSLs to train staff to provide advice for tenants
     Luton Borough Council should encourage RSLs to ensure that adequate energy
     efficiency advice and signposting to Energy Saving Trust advice centre is provided
     for their tenants.
     Further guidance;
     It is vital for tenants to have access to good quality, tailored energy efficiency advice if
     they are to use their homes in the most energy efficient way possible.

     Energy saving advice for people living in your area is available from your local Energy
     Saving Trust advice centre. The following number should be used in all promotions and
     advice – 0800 512 012

     The Energy Saving Trust and Housing Corporation’s tenant empowerment toolkit aims to
     help develop the capacity and skills of social housing residents to tackle energy efficiency
53


       issues concerning their homes and mobilise fellow residents to do the same. The toolkit
       includes material such as slide presentations, trainer’s notes, hand-outs, fun exercises
       and information sheets. To obtain a copy of the toolkit, please contact the Energy Saving
       Trust’s Practical help advisory service.

       Information on training and advice can also be found in the ‘Energy training for staff’ and
       ‘Energy advice for tenants’ chapters of Energy efficiency the guide.

       Encourage RSLs to tackle fuel poverty amongst own tenants
       The council should encourage RSLs to ensure that fuel poverty is considered when
       allocating properties to tenants.
       The following information is provided as a guide to fuel poverty which can be used by the
       Council to help RSLs understand the causes of fuel poverty and what can be done to
       prevent it;

       Information on tackling fuel poverty can be found in the Energy Saving Trust publication
       Affordable warmth - an introduction and the ‘Delivering affordable warmth’ chapter of
       Energy efficiency the guide.

       National Energy Action is the national fuel poverty charity and provides various resources
       that may be useful to RSLs.

       Encourage RSLs to establish an affinity deal with an energy supplier
       Luton Borough Council should encourage RSLs to consider establishing an affinity
       deal with an energy supplier to cover void properties and ensuring that any
       revenue (via commission payments) obtained through this is ring fenced for other
       energy efficiency improvements.
       Further guidance;
       Several councils have established such affinity deals; information is available in the
       Energy Saving Trust’s Affinity deal toolkit.



3.3.3.3 Private sector housing – rented and owner occupied

Current situation
The Council is clearly placed to play a real leadership role in facilitating the reduction of carbon
emissions from the private domestic sector. Luton Borough Council was rated ‘good’ in terms of its
private sector housing because of the following;

There are 60,000 private sector properties throughout the Borough of Luton. 17% of these have
inadequate thermal comfort and 7% have a SAP rating of less than 35 (figures from Private Sector
Stock Condition Survey Update 2009).
It is estimated that some 83.0% of the private-sector housing stock is owner-occupied and another
17.0% is privately rented. The most common type of dwelling is semi-detached houses, comprising
38.5% of the stock. Flats account for only 11.3% of the stock. The average SAP rating for the
private sector in Luton is 58.
54


Age of dwellings in Luton
Dwelling age Luton
Pre-1919     12.0%
1919-1944 27.5%
1945-1964 24.0%
1965-1980 18.5%
Post-1980 18.0%

Type of dwellings in Luton
Building type            Luton
Terraced house     30.7%
Semi-detached house      38.5%
Detached house     11.9%
Bungalow           7.7%
Converted flat           3.7%
Purpose-built flat 7.6%

It is estimated that 67.4% of private sector dwellings in Luton have cavity walls and of these a total
of 61.8% have no cavity insulation (around 26,000 dwellings). The data therefore suggests that
there is considerable scope for improving energy efficiency through the insulation of unfilled
cavities. The table below shows this information by age of dwelling. It is clear that pre-1919
dwellings are least likely to have cavity walls, with just 2.3% doing so, whilst almost all of dwellings
built since 1945 have cavity walls.

Cavity walls and insulation by dwelling age
Age of dwelling           Number of         Number with                % with           % of these with
                          dwellings         cavity walls               cavity walls       insulation

Pre-1919                    7,476                 169                   2.3%                 94.6%
1919-1944                   17,048              6,102                  35.8%                 34.8%
1945-1964                   14,894             13,393                  89.9%                 40.2%
1965-1980                   11,478             11,455                  99.8%                 31.2%
Post-1980                   11,191             10,740                  96.0%                 44.4%
Total                       62,087             41,860                  67.4%                 38.2%
Source: - 7.3 of Luton Private Sector Stock Survey 2006

It is estimated that 87.4% of dwellings have loft insulation (8.4% have no loft). A great many
dwellings with insulation (74.6%) have 100mm or more of insulation whilst only 7.2% were
estimated to have over 200mm.

The results from the private sector stock survey 2006 suggested that 22.4% of dwellings in the
private sector failed the Decent Homes Standard. This figure compares with a national estimate
(for private sector dwellings) of 30.3%. The main reason for failure was thermal comfort, 59.4% of
non-decent homes failed under this heading, which is the main reason nationally.

The most recent decent homes guidance suggests that a SAP of less than 35 can be considered
as a proxy for failure under the Housing Health and Safety Rating System (HHSRS) for excessive
cold.
55


In total it is estimated that around 1,900 dwellings have a SAP in excess of 35 but have been
assessed by surveyors to have a Category 1 hazard of excessive cold. The overall SAP rating of
dwellings failing the HHSRS under excess cold is estimated to be 37.

Luton Borough Council has made good progress with home energy efficiency improvements, with
a 25.3% annual improvement reported in 2008 since 1996. (The average improvement in the East
of England region was 20.75%1). However it should be noted that not all local authorities use a
common methodology for HECA monitoring so progress on HECA is not always directly
comparable.

Further highlighted activities include:

          Activities which the Council are currently involved in with respect to improving domestic
           energy efficiency in the privately owned sector include Private Sector Enforcement of
           HHSRS standards; provision of ‘decent homes assistance’; provision of ‘cosy homes’ grants
           and ‘healthy heating’ grants.
          A Private Sector Renewal Strategy is currently under development.
          There is no specific programme of work to tackle hard to treat homes. However, decent
           homes assistance is commonly given to hard to treat homes to eliminate Category 1
           HHSRS hazards.
          The Council uses HHSRS to improve the energy efficiency of the private rented sector.
          The Council currently uses trading standards to ensure EPCs and HIPs are carried out.
          The Council’s 2007-2008 Home Energy Conservation Act report states that a record of all
           grant funded work is kept with costed detail of activities which contribute to energy savings.
          All officers working on disabled facilities grants and improvement grants are trained in
           energy awareness and contribute to the affordable warmth referral scheme.
          Designated officers monitor all affordable warmth referrals through statistical data and
           evaluations. They also input data on the healthy heating scheme and produce statistical and
           detailed reports when required. Detail of number and types of installations is recorded.
          A successful solid wall insulation pilot scheme has been mainstreamed.

Luton Borough Council does not currently have a strategic approach to reducing carbon emissions
from private sector households, which should include clear targets for improvement, partnerships
for advice and delivery, and monitoring.

Recommendations
More than a quarter of the UK’s carbon emissions come from energy use in the domestic sector,
so this is a vital area to focus on. The Council should assimilate the following recommendations
into its specific programme for tackling privately owned housing, including energy efficiency
measures and renewable energy technologies where possible.
It is recommended that the following areas are explored to bring the council up to the standard of
‘excellent’.

            Allocate officer time
            Luton Borough Council should allocate adequate officer time to improving private
            sector housing.

1
    Please note, this figure is calculated from data provided to Defra by individual local authorities and is unverified.
56


     Tackle the private owned sector
     Luton Borough Council should develop and expand a specific programme for
     tackling privately owned housing, including energy efficiency measures and
     renewable energy technologies where possible.
     Further guidance;
     Kirklees council has tackled all tenures of houses (with privately owned being of highest
     prevalence) through their area-based scheme Warm Zone.             Every home in Kirklees
     which is suitable for loft and cavity wall insulation will receive this work for free. £20
     million funding comes from energy suppliers, renewal funding and the council. On a
     house by house, ward by ward basis, Warm Zone will contact every householder, giving
     every Kirklees resident the opportunity to make their home warmer and more comfortable,
     contribute to reducing energy consumption and make a positive impact on the
     environment. More information on Warm Zones can be found here.

     The Energy Saving Trust can help you to develop a strategic approach to private sector
     housing. Your Account manager can help you to develop a delivery partnership with the
     Energy Saving Trust advice centre in the East of England.

     You can also find further resources in the following recommendations.

     Tackle the private rented sector
     Luton Borough Council should introduce a specific programme for tackling
     privately rented housing, including energy efficiency measures and renewable
     energy technologies where possible.
     Further guidance;
     Privately rented properties typically have lower Standard Assessment Procedure ratings
     than other properties, and correspondingly A higher number of fuel poor households.
     The Energy Saving Trust’s ‘Private rented sector guidance’ includes a short guide to the
     elements of a successful scheme to improve energy efficiency in the private rented sector,
     with links to 14 good practice case studies looking at a range of schemes. For example,
     officers at Newcastle City Council have been working to develop relationships with local
     landlords to provide support and raise housing standards. It also includes information on
     the funding that is available for landlords. To download the guidance and the associated
     case studies, visit the publications search tool and search for ‘private rented sector
     guidance’.

     Set up financial incentive schemes for householders
     Luton Borough Council should consider setting up a bulk discount, council tax
     rebate, grant or loan scheme to help persuade private sector householders to
     invest in sustainable energy.
     Further guidance;
     Various local authorities are successfully offering grants and loans to fund energy
     efficiency measures and the installation of renewable technologies through their housing
     assistance and capital budgets. These include the Credit Union ‘Green Energy Loan
     Scheme’ in Coventry, Warwick, Nuneaton and Bedworth District Councils as well as
     Chichester District Council’s interest-free loans for renewable energy systems.
57


     Below are specific examples of local authority’s grant and loan schemes
        Kirklees Council offers interest free loans to householders to install energy
           efficiency measures in properties through its Warm Zone scheme.
        Leicester City Council’s ‘hot lofts‘ project uses thermal imagery to identify homes
           for free loft and cavity wall insulation.

          The City of York Council established the independent not-for-profit organisation,
           The Energy Partnership, to negotiate and deliver bulk discounts to householders
           purchasing home insulation. The project now delivers energy efficiency grants for
           seven local authorities and discounted schemes for insulation and solar hot water
           systems.
          Blaby District Council offers loans of up to £20,000 for properties built before 1945
           with a poor energy rating. Energy efficiency works should contribute towards a
           targeted SAP rating of 65.
          Burnley Borough Council has a range of offerings including £1,000 discounts on
           solar water heating, £800 grants for insulation measures for certain owner
           occupiers/private tenants who are not eligible for Warm Front, and up to £10,000
           energy efficiency loans.
          Fareham Borough Council’s Home Heating Scheme pays for full central heating or
           replacement boilers for fuel poor households which do not qualify for Warm Front.
          Gloucestershire Warm and Well combines funding from local authorities in the
           county with CERT funding to provide energy efficiency (and occasionally
           renewable energy) measures to the private rented sector.
          The London Borough of Lambeth’s Loans for All scheme offers interest-free loans
           to meet the costs of heating, insulation and solar water heating. Grants for private
           landlords are also available.
          Manchester City Council’s Home Energy Loan Plan (HELP) offers loans to
           households with an annual income of under £35,000 for energy efficiency
           measures and heating systems. Owner occupiers and private tenants over the age
           of 60 who are not eligible for Warm Front can also apply for a £300 grant toward
           energy efficiency and heating measures.
          Sefton and Knowsley Metropolitan Borough Councils offer interest free loans of up
           to £1000 towards insulation, heating systems and solar water heating installations
           through the Home Energy Loans Project (HELP).
          South Derbyshire District Council offers residents loans of up to £4,000 towards
           renewable systems. A prerequisite is that they also apply for LCBP grants.
          South Gloucestershire Council offers grants of up to £500 and low interest loans of
           up to £3500 towards renewable energy technologies.
          South Somerset District Council offers loans of up to £15,000 to bring housing up
           to the ‘Decent Homes’ standard.
          Wyre Borough Council’s Promoting Home Energy Efficiency and Warmth (PHEEW)
           Grants are intended to assist older 60+ or above or disabled owner-occupiers of
           lower council tax band properties (Bands A to D) who are not on means tested
           benefits to improve the energy efficiency of their homes.
          64 councils in England, Wales and Scotland are working with British Gas to offer
           council tax rebates for those who install loft or cavity wall insulation – and in some
           cases, microgeneration.
58


     Various local authorities are implementing schemes to promote solar water heating
     systems. These include Lewes District Council, Leicester City Council and Kirklees
     Council. All make use of bulk discounting and are often accompanied by a small grant to
     further reduce the price, typically by a few hundred pounds. Leicester’s Solar Rental
     scheme provides flexible financing, whereby the rent charges are designed to match
     savings in hot water heating costs and householders can buy the system at any time.
     Applicants to Kirklees and Calderdale’s Simply Solar scheme need to have loft and cavity
     wall insulation installed before accessing these benefits.

     Share best practice
     Luton Borough Council should work with the regional Home Energy Conservation
     Act (HECA)/ Carbon Action Network forum to share best practice.

     Develop a database
     Luton Borough Council should set up and use a database for private sector
     dwellings with energy data to monitor progress and allocate resources effectively.
     Further guidance;
     The Homes Energy Efficiency Database (HEED) has been developed by the Energy
     Saving Trust to register the uptake of sustainable energy measures and related survey
     data throughout the UK housing stock. The database registers these installations on a
     property-by-property basis with data from a wide variety of sources including energy
     suppliers, government scheme managing agents, local authorities and other landlords,
     Energy Saving Trust advice centre home energy checks as well as other Energy Saving
     Trust programmes. The database stores property details such as building type and full
     address, as well as details of the installed energy efficiency measures, but not personal
     details of occupants. It will also store property survey data so that a picture of the
     remaining potential for measures can be built up.

     Gather data for NI186
     Luton Borough Council should use data from eg local database, HEED, energy
     suppliers and Warm Front managing agents to help prepare NI186 domestic sector
     reports and to understand the energy efficiency standards in the area.

     Tackle hard to treat homes
     The Council should consider how it can target those dwellings considered to be
     ‘hard to treat’.
     Further guidance;
     Further information can be found in the ‘Hard to treat homes’ chapter of Energy efficiency
     the guide and the Energy Saving Trust’s 'Hard to treat’ toolkit.
     South Bristol Carbon Reduction Project investigated innovative ways of reducing domestic
     carbon emissions from solid-wall Victorian properties in south Bristol. The project
     examined the issues associated with cutting carbon emissions in hard to treat homes and
     the implications on policies for both Bristol City Council and UK Government to improve
     energy efficiency and tackle fuel poverty and climate change.

     The London Borough of Camden carried out a green refurbishment of a council-owned
     Victorian house, cutting its carbon emissions by 80%.
59


     U-values on the property are now 20% lower than current Building Regulations.

     In addition, the Flagship Home property is also highlighted as a best practice case study
     in the private rented sector. As a five storey Victorian house in the Royal Borough of
     Kensington and Chelsea, the building was in a poor condition, with condensation and
     mould growth providing an unhealthy environment for tenants. South East Land and
     Estates bought the property and worked in partnership with the Royal Borough of
     Kensington and Chelsea and Westminster City Council to refurbish it as high-quality, safe
     and energy efficient accommodation.

     Guildford Borough Council offers private sector renovation grants of up to £3,000 for
     measures such as external wall insulation, heat recovery ventilation units and renewable
     energy technologies. These grants target households living in hard to treat homes.

     Market energy efficiency to the private sector
     The council should consider introducing a programme of marketing sustainable
     energy measures to private sector householders. This could include promotion of
     national grant programmes such as the Low Carbon Building Programme. The
     council should benchmark its progress in terms of referrals to these programmes.
     Further guidance;
     The Energy Saving Trust’s Practical help service has a briefing note on Marketing energy
     efficiency measures and renewable energy technologies.

     The Severn Wye Energy Agency developed Think BIG to strengthen the connection
     between home improvement, energy efficiency and increasing the market value of the
     home. This involved working with a new set of project partners in the DIY and home
     improvement industry. Think BIG complemented existing energy efficiency advice and
     grant provision by targeting the ‘able-to-pay’ sector.

     The first step was to develop a marketing campaign for carbon saving measures aimed at
     the home improvement sector. A 25% cashback grant was offered for DIY energy
     efficiency measures including loft insulation, draught proofing, solid wall insulation,
     lighting, hot water tank jackets and pipe insulation.

     Promote and provide information on Home Information Packs (HIPs)
     It is recommended that Luton Borough Council promotes HIPs to householders,
     working with estate agents where appropriate and ensuring the council is set up to
     answer any questions on this.
     Further guidance;
     Council staff should have a good understanding of all parts of the Home Information Pack
     including Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs). From the 1 October 2008 EPCs will be
     extended to rented homes and all remaining homes for sale including those on the market
     before the phased introduction of EPCs for domestic properties in 2007. Since being
     introduced the average rating for a home has been a 'D'.

     A booklet has been produced by Communities and Local Government, which gives advice
     to landlords on energy performance certificates.
60


         The Energy Saving Trust has produced a briefing note on the implementation of the EU
         Energy Performance of Buildings Directive in England and Wales.

         From 1 May 2008 it will be compulsory for Home Information Packs for all new homes to
         include ratings against the Code for Sustainable Homes. It is therefore important that
         officers are aware of the difference between Energy Performance Certificates and
         certificates for the Code for Sustainable Homes. For further information, contact the
         Energy Saving Trust’s Practical help advisory service.

         Use the fuel poverty referral network
         Luton Borough Council should continue to use the existing fuel poverty referral
         network, which can put residents in touch with a variety of networks that can assist
         them with insulation and heating grants, as well as debt counselling and income
         maximisation.
         Luton Borough Council should continue to train front line staff from local health and
         voluntary organisations, as well as council staff, on fuel poverty and which organisations
         can help their clients.



 3.2.9 Energy advice

Current situation
Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good’ in terms of energy advice because of the following
activities that it has undertaken in this area.

        The Affordable Warmth Scheme refers clients to the Energy Saving Trust advice centre for
         advice on insulation measures on a regular basis.
        All Energy advice queries are referred to the Energy Saving Trust advice centre in order to
         conform to the Code of Practice for Domestic Energy Efficiency Advice.
        The Affordable Warmth scheme trains potential referrers to ensure they can provide
         suggestions on how someone could make their home warmer (ie insulation measures in the
         home) and how to refer into the Affordable Warmth scheme. The training covers the
         following issues:
             o What is fuel poverty and its definition
             o What factors lead to fuel poverty
             o The impact of fuel poverty on health
             o How to make a house more energy efficient (low cost, no cost tips)
             o Warm Front initiative
        Once the potential referrers identify vulnerable clients suffering from fuel poverty. The
         clients are passed onto the following services provided by the Affordable Warmth scheme:
         Warm front, Money Advice, Social assistance, Fire Safety, Radiator Loan scheme,
         Emergency Heating grant.
        Energy awareness training for staff and other professionals is ongoing - four sessions in
         2007/08 training over 80 new potential referers. One session targeted at front line Social
         Care professionals.
61


        The Council has a community energy advice programme involving community talks and
         one-to-one advice, which is delivered twice a year, engaging community groups and
         members, aimed at providing energy awareness and home efficiency.
        Briefings on energy efficiency provided to tenant groups (24 people), fire service (36
         firefighters briefed), Salvation Army (50 people), senior peoples’ forum (20 older residents)
         and Partnerships for Older People Projects (POPPs) event (over 100 people in
         attendance).
        Regular press releases/editorials on energy efficiency are placed in the Council’s free local
         paper and also the local free press (both circulated to all homes) using the 'Cosy Rosy
         heating tips' logo to attract attention. Cosy Rosy bookmarks with heating tips and other
         materials are available in Libraries and community centres.
        Two days of promotional events are held in shopping centres throughout the year. A
         warmfront mail out is used to publicise emergency measures available. Hypothermia
         thermometers are issued to visiting professionals to record and check on vulnerable
         households.

Although the Affordable Warmth team at Luton Borough Council do a lot of work to promote fuel
poverty and Warm Front, there does not seem to be much work around those not in fuel poverty
and referring the public to schemes such as the Low Carbon Building Programme and CERT
Funding other than via the Energy Saving Trust advice centre.

Recommendations
As Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good’ with regard to energy advice, it is recommended
that the following areas are explored to bring the council up to the standard of ‘good/excellent’.

           Work with the Energy Saving Trust advice network
           The Council should ensure that it continues to have a good relationship with the
           local Energy Saving Trust advice centre (0800 512 012) in order to gain the
           maximum benefit by making your residents aware of this Energy Saving Trust
           funded service. Examples of joint working opportunities:
               Home Energy Check mailings and promotion.
               Delivery of sustainable energy events.
               Joint awareness raising campaign.
           Further guidance;

           The Energy Saving Trust advice centres are ideal local delivery partners for promoting
           sustainable energy to your residents. The advice centres have a long track record of
           providing home energy efficiency advice and are now developing their services to
           include advice on wider issues such as water and waste. This free service is available
           by calling 0800 512 012.
           Your Account manager can assist you to develop a partnership with the advice centre.

           The advice centres are also very knowledgeable about grant schemes and can advise
           residents on a range of national, regional and local initiatives to help them improve the
           energy efficiency of their home or install renewable energy technologies. As well as
           calling 0800 512 012, residents can access this information online, on the Grant
           Information Database.
62


     The Council can refer any domestic energy and sustainable travel enquiries to the free
     Energy Saving Trust advice line 0800 512 012 from switchboard, housing department,
     the public enquiry line, social services etc. Please ensure that public facing staff are
     briefed on the free service and have the number to hand.

     Energy Saving Trust advice centres also provide free Home Energy Checks (HEC) to
     residents. These are tailored reports to calculate the carbon footprint of each home
     together with an indicative energy performance certificate/energy rating. The HEC report
     prioritises actions against cost and carbon savings, giving householders the key
     information needed for them to take action and reduce their energy bills. On average,
     uptake of the measures recommended through the HEC process leads to lifetime carbon
     savings of 1.63 tonnes which equates to £56.93 savings per year at current energy
     prices. These can be provided online or a paper copy can be requested by calling the
     advice centre.

     The Council can work in partnership with the advice centre to do an annual mailing of
     paper copies of Home Energy Checks to residents alongside council mailings such as
     council tax summons. The council can also link their website to the URL above for
     completing HECs online, to encourage residents to take action. This type of partnership
     working can help both parties bring about carbon reductions in the residential sector.

     The Council can also promote this free service to employees, for example by including
     HECs with payslips, or promoting the online HEC.

     Energy Saving Trust advice centres also deliver local events and surgeries that the
     council could get involved with.

     The Council can provide use of their venues to hold events, and help the advice centre
     promote these events.

     The Council can also run a joint marketing campaign with the advice centre, helping
     them promote the freephone 0800 512 012 number.

     Use front-line staff as advisors
     The council should support front-line staff in energy efficiency advice and
     signpost residents to the Energy Saving Trust advice centre on 0800 512 012
     Further guidance;
     Further information on training and advice can be found in the ‘Energy training for staff’
     chapter of Energy efficiency the guide.
     The Northern Ireland Housing Executive has teamed up with nine other organisations
     across Europe to research new ways of delivering energy information and advice to
     social housing tenants in a project entitled SAVE@Work4Homes. Funded by the EU
     Intelligent Energy Europe programme, the project ultimately aims, through better use of
     IT systems, to help tenants to save energy used for heating, lighting, appliances etc in
     their homes.
63


     Promote to hard to reach groups
     The council should consider introducing a specific programme for promoting
     sustainable energy to minority communities and signpost residents to the Energy
     Saving Trust advice centre on 0800 512 012.
     Further guidance;
     The following case studies from the Energy Saving Trust’s Community action for energy
     (now part of Green Communities) website may be helpful:
         Ethnic minorities: An initiative in Nottingham that promoted energy efficiency to
            ethnic minority and non-English speaking communities that often live in the least
            efficient housing and face barriers in obtaining information and advice.
         Older Persons Energy Network (OPEN): A scheme which trains retired people as
            volunteers to provide energy efficiency advice at events, presentations and home
            visits within their community. North Somerset Council provided funding.

     Commitment to action in the wider community
     The Council should continue to run a community energy advice programme
     involving community talks and face to face advice. This could be in partnership
     with your local Energy Saving Trust advice centre.
     Further guidance;
     Although the Council runs a community programme twice a year, the Council should
     consider running this more regularly and target specific community groups in the area.

     The Energy Saving Trust’s Green Communities programme can be accessed for advice
     on setting up such a programme. Your local Energy Saving Trust advice centre runs
     Green Communities: Local Support, which you could nominate communities to be part
     of. Your Account manager can provide details of this opportunity. Other free resources
     to support communities into taking action can be found at the Green Communities
     website.

     Energy Saving Trust hotspot areas
     The Council should consider doing a mailing to residents in Energy Saving Trust
     identified hotspot areas.
     Further guidance;
     Energy Saving Trust has datasets to locate areas which have the most potential for take
     up of messages and measures. These areas are termed ‘hotspot’ areas, and your local
     Energy Saving Trust advice centre, through your Account manager, can provide the data
     to work in partnership.
64


 3.2.10         Resources – levering in external funding

Current situation
Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good’ in terms of its external resources because of the
following activities that it has undertaken in this area.

        Since 2006, Warm front have contributed funding towards Luton’s ‘Winter Warmth Packs’,
         which are aimed at vulnerable households and contain material and information in regards
         to keeping warm through the winter..
        The Council has had free surveys from the Carbon Trust on three of their own buildings.
        The Council have also successfully been recruited on the Energy Saving Trust One-to-one
         support programme and the Carbon Trust’s Carbon Management Programme.

Although the Council has secured funding from Warm Front for its Winter Warmth Packs, the
Council should consider securing funding from other sources such as the Low Carbon Buildings
Programme to install renewables and from the Carbon Emissions Reduction Target (CERT) to
install insulation in its own housing stock.

Recommendations
As Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good’ with regard to its external resources, it is
recommended that the following area is explored to bring the council up to the standard of
‘good/excellent’.

         Programme of accessing funding
         Luton Borough Council should introduce a proactive programme to secure external
         funding and access support services.
         Further guidance;
         The council should keep abreast of the Community Energy Saving Programme, a new
         £350 million programme for delivering `whole-house' refurbishments to existing dwellings
         through community based projects in defined geographical areas. CESP will be delivered
         through the major energy companies. It aims to deliver substantial carbon reductions in
         dwellings by delivering a holistic set of measures that could include sold wall insulation,
         microgeneration, fuel switching and connection to a district heating scheme. Local
         authorities are likely to be key delivery partners for the energy companies in delivering
         these schemes. Further information on the consultation can be accessed here.

         The main domestic energy efficiency funding source is the Carbon Emissions Reduction
         Target (CERT), which can also be used to fund renewables. There is a Priority Group
         Flexibility Option which encourages suppliers to fund hard to treat measures including solid
         wall insulation, ground source heat pumps and biomass boilers in off-grid properties. The
         Energy Saving Trust has written a briefing note on CERT which can be accessed here.

         The following case studies are available on how different local authorities have used
         funding from the Energy Efficiency Commitment, the predecessor to CERT:
             Daventry District Council.
             East Riding of Yorkshire.
             South Humber Energy Efficiency Partnership.
65


         Regional Development Agencies and the Regional Efficiency Improvement Programme
         provide funding for local authorities tackling climate change.

         There is also a case study on Marches Energy Agency, set up by the Shropshire Energy
         team, which obtained European funding to champion the sustainable energy agenda. It is
         one of nearly 400 similar bodies established across European Union member states, to
         encourage the rational use and production of energy.

         The Energy Saving Trust maintains a funding database which contains information on a
         number of grant opportunities for both energy efficiency and renewables projects. This also
         includes information on grants for reducing carbon emissions in own buildings.

         Some examples of funding sources for renewables are:
            The Low Carbon Buildings Programme Phase 2 funds up to 50% of the cost of
              installing approved microgeneration technologies.
            E.ON SOURCE Fund is a new resource that replaces the Powergen Green Plan
              fund. It is made up of two parts, a web resource and a fund. The SOURCE fund
              offers grants of up to £30,000 to community groups and not for profit organisations
              who wish to consider and implement sustainable energy projects in their buildings -
              from energy efficiency through to micro-generation. It may be possible for a local
              authority to access this funding if they work with a community organisation which
              must also be a lead partner, but this cannot be guaranteed.
            Scottish Power’s Green Energy Trust supports small scale community based
              environmental and educational renewable energy projects.


 3.2.11         Signposting residents to external grant schemes

Current situation
Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good’ in terms of signposting to external grant schemes
because of the following activities that it has undertaken in this area.

        The Council’s Affordable Warmth team proactively refer clients onto the Warm Front
         scheme. Around 800 people ranging from community workers to health professionals
         identify cold and vulnerable homes and refer them back to the Affordable Warmth scheme
         for a range of services.
        The Warmer Luton Partnership is the strategic arm of the Affordable Warmth Referral
         scheme. The Partnership is made up of the following agencies: Warmfront (eaga plc), Luton
         Citizen’s Advice Bureau, Luton & Bedfordshire Fire and Rescue Service, Luton Primary
         Care Trust, Vauxhall Welfare Fund, Luton Borough Council’s Social Services and Housing
         department.
        The Council has a grant called ‘healthy heating’. The healthy heating grant pays towards
         the Warm Front client contributions and supports an emergency heating fund.
         The emergency heating fund is an emergency response service aimed at helping the most
         vulnerable households who cannot wait for Warm Front intervention.
        The Council also has a Decent Homes Assistance for the purpose of renovating a property
         to the Decent Homes Standard and a Cosy Homes Grant to install loft, cavity and solid-wall
66


      insulation together with other minor insulation measures. Applicants for the decent homes
      assistance and cosy homes grant must be in receipt of an income related benefit.

Although the Affordable Warmth team at Luton Borough Council do a lot of work to promote fuel
poverty and Warm Front, there does not seem to be much work targeted around referring the
public to schemes such as the Low Carbon Building Programme and CERT Funding other then
through to the Energy Saving Trust advice centre.

Recommendations
As Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good’ with regard to signposting external grant schemes,
it is recommended that the following areas are explored to bring the council up to the standard of
‘good/excellent’.

        Promote existing grants in partnership with Energy Saving Trust advice centre
        Luton Borough Council should set up a partnership with the Energy Saving Trust
        advice centre to maximise the take up of available grants and schemes. The
        Energy Saving Trust advice centre offers a free one stop shop service to signpost
        residents and make referrals to grant schemes. This should involve proactively
        promoting Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform’s Low
        Carbon Buildings Programme, Carbon Emissions Reduction Target (CERT),
        Landlords Energy Saving Allowance and benchmark referrals.
        Information on external grant schemes can be obtained from the Energy Saving Trust’s
        funding database.
        Energy Saving Trust advice centres provide free sustainable energy and travel advice.
        Behavioural change messages apply in both the home and travel to the workplace. The
        service can be accessed via 0800 512 012 or online

        The following case study is also relevant:
           Daventry Area Safer Housing, which involves training a network of volunteers
               across the district who can act as a front-line for the dissemination of information
               and promote the delivery and uptake of services.

        Set up your own grant schemes
        Luton Borough Council should set up and promote its own grant schemes to fill
        gaps in national grant funding for sustainable energy.
        Further guidance;
        Various local authorities are successfully offering grants and loans to fund energy
        efficiency measures and the installation of renewable technologies through their housing
        assistance and capital budgets. These include the Credit Union ‘Green Energy Loan
        Scheme’ in Coventry, Warwick, Nuneaton and Bedworth District Councils as well as
        Chichester District Council’s interest-free loans for renewable energy systems.

        Below are specific examples of local authority’s grant and loan schemes
           Kirklees Council offers interest free loans to householders to install energy
              efficiency measures in properties through its Warm Zone scheme.
           Leicester City Council’s ‘hot lofts‘ project uses thermal imagery to identify homes
              for free loft and cavity wall insulation.
67


          The City of York Council established the independent not-for-profit organisation,
           The Energy Partnership, to negotiate and deliver bulk discounts to householders
           purchasing home insulation. The project now delivers energy efficiency grants for
           seven local authorities and discounted schemes for insulation and solar hot water
           systems.
          Blaby District Council offers loans of up to £20,000 for properties built before
           1945 with a poor energy rating. Energy efficiency works should contribute towards
           a targeted SAP rating of 65.
          Burnley Borough Council has a range of offerings including £1,000 discounts on
           solar water heating, £800 grants for insulation measures for certain owner
           occupiers/private tenants who are not eligible for Warm Front, and up to £10,000
           energy efficiency loans.
          Fareham Borough Council’s Home Heating Scheme pays for full central heating
           or replacement boilers for fuel poor households which do not qualify for Warm
           Front.
          Gloucestershire Warm and Well combines funding from local authorities in the
           county with CERT funding to provide energy efficiency (and occasionally
           renewable energy) measures to the private rented sector.
          The London Borough of Lambeth’s Loans for All scheme offers interest-free loans
           to meet the costs of heating, insulation and solar water heating. Grants for private
           landlords are also available.
          Manchester City Council’s Home Energy Loan Plan (HELP) offers loans to
           households with an annual income of under £35,000 for energy efficiency
           measures and heating systems. Owner occupiers and private tenants over the
           age of 60 who are not eligible for Warm Front can also apply for a £300 grant
           toward energy efficiency and heating measures.
          Sefton and Knowsley Metropolitan Borough Councils offer interest free loans of
           up to £1000 towards insulation, heating systems and solar water heating
           installations through the Home Energy Loans Project (HELP).
          South Derbyshire District Council offers residents loans of up to £4,000 towards
           renewable systems. A prerequisite is that they also apply for LCBP grants.
          South Gloucestershire Council offers grants of up to £500 and low interest loans
           of up to £3500 towards renewable energy technologies.
          South Somerset District Council offers loans of up to £15,000 to bring housing up
           to the ‘Decent Homes’ standard.
          Wyre Borough Council’s Promoting Home Energy Efficiency and Warmth
           (PHEEW) Grants are intended to assist older 60+ or above or disabled owner-
           occupiers of lower council tax band properties (Bands A to D) who are not on
           means tested benefits to improve the energy efficiency of their homes.
          64 councils in England, Wales and Scotland are working with British Gas to offer
           council tax rebates for those who install loft or cavity wall insulation – and in some
           cases, microgeneration.

     Various local authorities are implementing schemes to promote solar water heating
     systems. These include Lewes District Council, Leicester City Council and Kirklees
     Council. All make use of bulk discounting and are often accompanied by a small grant to
     further reduce the price, typically by a few hundred pounds. Leicester’s Solar Rental
     scheme provides flexible financing, whereby the rent charges are designed to match
68


           savings in hot water heating costs and householders can buy the system at any time.
           Applicants to Kirklees and Calderdale’s Simply Solar scheme need to have loft and
           cavity wall insulation installed before accessing these benefits.



 3.2.12        Planning policy

Current situation
Luton Borough Council was rated ‘weak/fair’ in terms of planning policy because of the following
activities that it has undertaken in this area.

Public consultation on the Issues and Options document for Local Development Framework Core
Strategy took place in summer/autumn 2007. Results were reported to the Joint Committee in
February 2008. Informal public consultation on the preferred Core Strategy is taking place this
spring. The formal consultation will take place in late 2009/early 2010.

The Local Development Framework (LDF) is at the Preferred Option stage of the Joint Core
Strategy for the growth area and was published on the 17 April 2009 for 8 weeks public
consultation until 12 June 2009.

        The LDF (Core Strategy: Preferred Options) contains strategic objectives, which focus on
         sustainable and integrated communities and minimising carbon footprints to combat climate
         change.
        The Council currently enforces level 3 of the code for Sustainable Homes for new domestic
         developments. This is enforced through the minimum standards in the Building Regulations
         Part L (conservation of fuel and power).
        Local planning policy in the Luton Local Plan and a Supplementary Planning Guidance
         (Designing for Sustainability – A Summary of Good Practice) also improves the quality of
         homes however this guide is in need of updating.
        The Council require that CO2 emissions in non-domestic developments (council estate) be
         reduced by 10% over 5 years (Luton Borough Council Energy Policy).
        The Local plan policies influence energy consumption through energy efficient measures
         and technologies to be incorporated into the design and layout of new development.
        The Council do not have a cross departmental working group for planners and building
         control, however planning and building control work in partnership. They are in adjacent
         offices and situated within the same department and officers from both divisions regularly
         discuss operational matters. Also weekly meetings take place at management team level.
        The Planning Committee is trained up on sustainable energy issues through an annual
         training programme.
        The Council use the transport strategy and location policy for new development’s to reduce
         car dependency. Reduction in car dependency is also achieved by implementing Local
         Transport Plan Major Schemes, transport initiatives and proposals such as National Cycle
         Network, Guided Bus Way, Park and Ride – Butterfield, Luton Town Centre Transport
         Scheme.
69


However the Council do not currently set targets for renewables to be included in new builds less
than 1000² metres in size and the Local Development Framework does not currently encourage
energy efficiency standards beyond Building Regulations, Code for Sustainable Homes level 3 for
all new developments.

Councils can use planning policy to promote sustainable development which will impact positively
on carbon reduction targets.

Recommendations
As Luton Borough Council was rated ‘weak/fair’ with regard to its planning policy, it is
recommended that the following areas are explored to bring the council up to the standard of
‘fair/good.

       Specify a minimum level of the code for sustainable homes within the LDF
       Within the LDF, Luton Borough Council should specify a minimum level of the
       Code for Sustainable Homes which encourages energy efficiency standards
       beyond building regulations across all new development as follows;

          Code level 4 (44% reduction in CO2) from 2010-2013,
          Code level 5 (100% reduction in CO2) from 2013-2016 and
          Code level 6 (zero carbon standard) from 2016 onwards

       Further guidance;
       Energy Saving Trust recommends that planning policies go beyond the proposed
       timetable for the national Building Regulations, to ensure that CO2 emissions from new
       development in your area are minimised. We recommend that local planning authorities
       determine the feasibility of implementing a policy that requires new development to
       meet:
        Code level 4 (44% reduction in CO2) from 2010-2013,
        Code level 5 (100% reduction in CO2) from 2013-2016 and
        Code level 6 (zero carbon standard) from 2016 onwards


       Planning policies that specify a level of the Code should be set out in Development Plan
       Documents (DPDs) such as the Core Strategy. This ensures that the policies undergo
       the necessary level of scrutiny from the planning inspectorate and ensures that the
       policies will be robust against appeal from developers. Planning authorities should not
       rely on Supplementary Planning Documents to set out policies that require a level of the
       Code for Sustainable Homes for new development as these will not be robust against
       appeal from developers

       An Energy Saving Trust briefing note on the Code for Sustainable Homes provides an
       overview to the Code and explains the relevance to the Building Regulations and the
       planning system. The Energy Saving Trust’s housing programme have also developed
       technical guidance on designing and building new homes that meet the energy
       requirements of the Code for Sustainable Homes. These guides address energy
       efficiency measures to meet, and in some instances, exceed minimum measures set
       down in code levels 3, 4, 5 and 6 of the Code for Sustainable Homes.
70


          Energy efficiency and the Code for Sustainable Homes Level 3.
          Energy efficiency and the Code for Sustainable Homes Level 4.
          Energy efficiency and the Code for Sustainable Homes Levels 5 and 6.

     Energy saving trust runs a free new build outreach programme for supporting developers
     and house builders who wish to build new homes to the higher code levels. There are
     three areas of support provided:
         Energy Saving Trust approved consultants can provide strategic and technical
            support during the design process to help achieve higher energy performance
            standards such as Code for Sustainable Homes levels.
         Support with the assessment of the energy performance of new homes at design,
            build and post-occupancy stages and monitoring and evaluating the performance
            for dissemination.
         Facilitating supply chain and product development, both at dwelling and site wide
            scale, to support the delivery of higher energy performance standards for new
            homes.
     Your account manger can put you in touch.

     The Code for Sustainable Homes: Case studies sets out a number of detailed case
     studies on homes that have been built based on the Code for Sustainable Homes. The
     case studies show the different ways of achieving various levels of the code and
     highlight potential pitfalls for developers.

     Additional case studies;

          Ashford Borough Council is one of only 29 local authorities to have had its core
           strategy approved. It includes a challenging sustainable energy policy seeking
           level 4 of the Code for Sustainable Homes on major new greenfield development,
           requirement for 20 per cent of energy demand to be met by renewables and
           carbon off-setting as part of the package to deliver carbon neutral developments.
          Milton Keynes’ planning policy aims for zero carbon growth by achieving carbon
           neutrality on new development sites. Milton Keynes’ policy now also incorporates
           the Code for Sustainable Homes.
          The first Code Level 6 apartments in the UK will be built in Manchester. They will
           feature onsite microgeneration technologies, rainwater harvesting, green roofs
           and large windows to harness natural daylight.
          The Planning Advisory Service and the Beacon Scheme have produced a
           document with case studies of the four sustainable planning Beacon councils
           called Letting the light shine in. This highlights how Ashford Borough Council
           used innovative consultation processes to create consensus around plans to
           double the town’s population. It describes how Basingstoke has involved
           communities in the planning process and thus improved regeneration schemes. It
           also shows how Hambleton District Council has integrated its local development
           framework with other corporate strategies and how Woking Borough Council has
           encouraged planners to think laterally about addressing housing shortages and
           environmental issues.
71



     Develop a renewable energy evidence base within the Local Development
     Framework
     To inform the LDF development Luton Borough Council should develop an
     evidence base to identify the potential for renewable energy in new developments.
     Further guidance;
     PPS 1 Supplement on Planning and Climate Change makes it clear that local authorities
     should develop an evidence base for the potential for renewable energy technologies in
     their area. This evidence base should examine the strategic potential and technical
     feasibility for different renewable technologies, according to the specific circumstances
     of your area. It should be the key document that underpins local planning authority’s
     conditions to provide renewable energy on the site of new development.
     Guidance on implementing local and regional policies can be found in the Practice
     Guidance to support PPS1.

     A non-ringfenced area based grant of £22,500 is available to councils to help implement
     the supplement to PPS1 on climate change.

     Communities and Local Government has also commissioned Cyril Sweett Ltd to update
     its original report on the cost of meeting zero carbon housing, Costs and Benefits of
     Alternative Definitions of Zero Carbon Homes. The new report takes into account
     predicted changes to the Standard Assessment Procedure and the Government’s
     consultation on the definition of zero carbon housing. This document will form a useful
     part of the evidence base for planning policies.

     Specify sites for renewable energy.
     Luton Borough Council should include a policy in their LDF to require a 10% CO2
     emissions reduction in new developments. (This should be additional to the
     percentage carbon dioxide reduction required by the code for sustainable homes)
     In certain developments, where a greater potential for renewable energy has been
     identified, the local authority should require a higher percentage on a site by site
     basis.
     Further guidance;

     The London Borough of Merton was the first local authority to include renewable energy
     targets in its adopted Unitary Development Plan, setting the target for all new major
     developments in the borough to generate 10 per cent of their energy through onsite
     renewable energy technologies. This became known as the ‘Merton Rule’. Planning
     Policy Statement 22 and the government then encouraged other local planning
     authorities to adopt similar policies.

     The London Borough of Merton has now updated its Local Development Framework
     specifying that the renewable energy section within the planning policy will now
     encompass all new developments, both new build and conversions. The planning policy
     also states that onsite renewables must reduce carbon dioxide emissions by at least 10
     per cent. The change from generating 10 per cent of a development’s energy to reducing
     the development’s emissions by 10 per cent ensures that developers avoid installing
72


     carbon intensive heating systems, such as electric heating.
     Planning Policy Statement 1 (PPS1) supplement on planning and climate change
     (December 2007) specifically requires that local and regional planners ensure local
     plans have strong carbon ambitions and targets; including speeding up the shift to
     renewable and low carbon energy.

     Based on the findings of your renewable energy evidence base, there may be areas,
     developments or individual dwellings where there is high potential for low and zero
     carbon energy. In these cases, an additional condition to install renewable energy could
     be required on top of the requirement to meet a level of the Code for Sustainable
     Homes.

     It is important that where a minimum renewable energy requirement is specified in
     addition to the Code for Sustainable Homes, it should be specified over and above the
     minimum percentage reduction required by the Code. Therefore, specifying Code level 4
     plus 20% renewable energy would require a 64% reduction in emissions (44% + 20%).
     This ensures that the energy efficiency of the thermal fabric of the dwelling is addressed
     as well as the need for renewable energy.

     If the requirement for renewable energy is set as part of the minimum CO2 requirement
     under the Code for Sustainable Homes, the energy efficiency of the thermal fabric of the
     dwelling would not be addressed to a sufficient degree.

     The London Borough of Croydon requires that developments meet Code for Sustainable
     Homes level 4 and a 10 per cent embedded renewables requirement covers all housing
     developments above ten units as well as commercial developments.

     CHP
     Luton Borough Council should encourage (where feasible) Combined Heat and
     Power (CHP) and District Heating to provide heat and electricity to new and exiting
     buildings.
     Further guidance;
     PPS 1 Supplement on Planning and Climate Change encourages Local Planning
     Authorities to identify opportunities for CHP and District Heating in their area. The
     Energy Saving Trust recommends that planning policies actively encourage the use of
     CHP. There is good potential for CHP and District Heating to connect to the existing
     housing stock. This should be encouraged within planning policies.

     Heat mapping is encouraged to determine feasibility ie mapping the demand, existing
     heat infrastructure and identifying target areas suitable for decentralised energy.

     Energy Saving Trust provides free consultancy to explore opportunities for developing
     energy services companies which is a useful mechanism to set up CHP schemes.
73


     Use the planning system to encourage improved standards in existing dwellings
     Luton Borough Council should use the planning system to encourage improved
     standards in existing as well as new dwellings.
     Further guidance;
     The land use planning system is one of the most powerful tools available for supporting
     a move towards sustainable energy. The Planning for climate change – refurbishment
     briefing note explains what planners can do to reduce carbon emissions from existing
     housing.

     Uttlesford District Council has produced Supplementary Planning Guidance specifically
     targeting energy efficiency in existing properties. It applies to all householders applying
     for planning permission for home extensions; a condition of being granted planning
     permission is that cost effective energy efficiency measures are installed throughout the
     home. The council has also produced information for planning applicants explaining how
     they can meet the energy efficiency requirements of the Extensions Supplementary
     Planning Guidance.

     The Energy Saving Trust’s housing programme has set energy efficiency standards for
     the housing industry that go beyond current Building Regulations for both refurbishment
     and new build. Further information on these standards can be found here.

     Provide incentives for exemplar developments
     Luton Borough Council should encourage and introduce incentives for
     exemplar/zero energy developments.
     Further guidance;
     Milton Keynes Council uses an innovative planning policy to encourage developers to
     build carbon neutral. If developers cannot meet a carbon neutral standard they are
     required to pay into a local carbon offset fund which is used locally to invigorate Milton
     Keynes standard of life.

     The Energy Saving Trust has published a leaflet on the avoided costs of low-carbon
     development. These include the fact that there comes a point when houses are so well-
     insulated that they no longer need a central heating system, saving around £3,000.

     Cross departmental working
     Luton Borough Council should ensure that planners, building control officers and
     developers continue to all work in partnership eg by setting up a cross
     departmental working group (linked to a wider group on NI 186).

     Training for Councillors
     Luton Borough Council should ensure the planning committee is trained on
     sustainable energy issues/ low carbon energy.
     Further guidance;
     The Energy Saving Trust’s Practical help service can deliver presentations on climate
     change and planning, building regulations (Part L) and the Code for Sustainable Homes.
     These presentations can incorporate subjects such as renewables and energy efficiency
     in new build or refurbishment.
74


     Training for planners
     Luton Borough Council should continue to train planners annually and encourage
     them to proactively promote sustainable energy to everyone applying for planning
     permission.
     Further guidance;
     The Energy Saving Trust has published a planner’s support pack, which includes
     recommendations for planners, information on the Code for Sustainable Homes and
     other legislative drivers and a number of case studies of local authorities tackling climate
     change through the planning system.

     Information on training planners is available in the London Renewables toolkit. (Although
     this is London specific, it is applicable to other urban areas and will also have some
     useful information for non-urban areas). The South East England Development Agency
     and the Building Research Establishment have unveiled the Sustainability checklist for
     developments in the South East, a practical toolkit targeted at the construction industry,
     in particular developers, architects and planners. It aims to ensure that new and planned
     developments in the South East incorporate as many facets of sustainability as possible.

     Sustainable transport
     Luton Borough Council should continue to use the planning system to reduce car
     dependency.
     Further guidance;
     The council can use the planning system to promote cycling lanes, safe walking routes
     and locating buildings close to public transport. Warwickshire County Council has a Land
     Use and Transportation Strategy, which aims to reduce the need to travel, reduce
     reliance on the car and direct new development into existing settlements or transport
     corridors.

     The Beacons Low Emissions Strategies Group, which includes the four air quality
     beacon authorities, has issued draft good practice guidance on using the planning
     system to reduce transport emissions. It gives a number of examples of where planning
     conditions have been successfully applied to reduce the transport impacts of
     development.

     In August 2008, the Government published new core output indicators for local planning
     authorities. The indicator for housing design quality required by PPS3 is the performance
     of the development against 20 Building for Life criteria, one of which is access to public
     transport.

     Disseminate sustainable energy information
     Luton Borough Council should ensure that planning officers are disseminating
     information on energy efficiency and renewable energy to people making
     enquiries or full planning applications.
     Further guidance;
     The Energy Saving Trust’s Housing programme have a variety of leaflets that can be
     disseminated.
75


 3.2.13        Building Regulations enforcement

Current situation
Luton Borough Council was rated ‘good/excellent’ in terms of Building Regulations because of the
following activities that it has undertaken in this area.

        At the plan assessment stage compliance with Part L (conservation of fuel and power)
         forms a required part of the checklist for building regulation applications and at the site
         inspection stage is, as a matter of procedure, inspected.
        All building control officers are trained in the most recent amendments to Part L, as
         required.
        Building control surveyors undergo suitable training courses in respect of the relevant
         energy efficiency aspects of Part L. Each surveyor is also supervised over a number of
         inspections in order to ensure that enforcement is consistent. In addition to this relevant
         product seminars are arranged at the town hall for surveying staff.
        Training in microgeneration and renewables is also pursued but office knowledge is not
         generally at the same level as energy efficiency.
        Building control officers offer advice and encouragement to all householders applying for
         building control approval to consider installing energy efficiency or renewable energy
         measures. This advice is provided through telephone enquiries, reception calls and when
         attending sites, but whilst surveyors will accept a higher standard than the Part L minimum,
         where proposed by the applicant, they are discouraged from requiring applicants to do this.
         This is on a proactive basis.

Recommendations
It is recommended that the following areas are explored to bring the Council up to the standard of
‘excellent/best practice’.

           Ensure Part L is a priority with all building control officers trained on this
           Luton Borough Council should continue to ensure that Part L is a priority focus of
           enforcement activity.
           Further guidance;
           Training and guidance is offered by the Building Research Establishment.

           In addition, building control officers have the opportunity to promote the economic and
           environmental benefits of energy efficiency to householders and builders and to provide
           the necessary information to encourage investment in the rest of the property in their
           day-to-day activities. They can also refer householders to existing grants and offers.

           Involve building control officers in Local Development Framework development
           Luton Borough Council should ensure Building control officers are integrally
           involved in developing policies for the developing Local Development Framework.

           Ensure building control officers promote sustainable energy
           Luton Borough Council should continue to ensure that building control officers
           are trained and encouraged to promote sustainable energy to all those applying
           for building control approval.
76


 3.2.14       Education

Current situation
Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good’ in terms of education because of the following
activities that it has undertaken in this area.

     There is an Eco Schools initiative within Luton which aims to help schools reduce their
      negative environmental impacts and educate children on reducing energy usage.
   This initiative if mainly reactive at the moment however the Council is currently having a
      special Environment Bus built that will be used to promote environmental messages
      including those on energy to the public and to Schools.
However the Council do not currently have an authority-wide programme for schools energy
education with resources available.

Recommendations
It is recommended that the following area is explored to bring the council up to the standard of
‘good/excellent’.

          Set up educational initiatives to encourage sustainable energy in schools
          Luton Borough Council should signpost to resources for schools to engage with
          energy education.
          Further guidance;
          The Department for Children, Schools and Families is committed to embedding
          sustainable development in schools, the curriculum and the community and is working
          with partners and other Government departments to ensure that this happens. As part of
          this, it has set out a National Framework for Sustainable Schools, which introduces eight
          ‘doorways’ through which schools may choose to initiate or extend their sustainable
          school activity. The Sustainable Schools area of the teachernet website contains
          resources to support schools on their journey to sustainability. Guidance on Planning a
          sustainable school is also available. It contains thirteen participatory activities that will
          help schools to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate progress towards becoming a
          sustainable school.

          Ofsted has published a report which presents the findings of inspectors who visited a
          selection of primary and secondary schools to assess teaching about sustainability. The
          report concludes that higher priority should be given to sustainable schools, with further
          funding and support given to central and local initiatives including staff training and
          development.

          There are a number of resources for schools with an interest in sustainability and
          sustainable energy, including:
             The Department for Children, Schools and Families Carbon Detectives Kit.
             Sustainable Learning, a programme providing a structured, task based approach
                 to the way energy and water is used in schools. Schools working through this
                 programme have realised average energy reductions of 10%.
             Resources from CREATE, a registered charity with over 20 years experience of
                 working with public and private sector operators to change people's attitudes and
77


           behaviour regarding their use of energy.
          The British Gas Think Energy website provides resources for primary and
           secondary schools in the UK (England, Scotland and Wales) about energy
           efficiency and energy-related issues.
          The Carbon Trust offers fact sheets, checklists and a resource pack on energy
           saving opportunities for schools.

     The following case studies may be useful:
        A project to install one of the UK's first wind turbines in a school - Nidderdale High
            School & Community College, near Harrogate (in a designated Area of
            Outstanding Natural Beauty). The turbine meets part of the school's energy needs
            and also provides an educational resource both for pupils and the wider
            community.
        An Energy Saving Trust case study on Kingsmead School in Cheshire describes
            how energy efficient sustainable construction and renewable technologies were
            incorporated into the development of the school.
     A project in Hampshire challenged teams from primary schools across the region to
     design and construct model solar powered cars that are entered into a country-wide
     championship race to raise awareness of solar power.

     Develop relationships across energy teams, education teams and schools
     Develop relationships between energy teams, education teams and schools to
     monitor energy use for reporting against National Indicator 185 (Carbon reduction
     from local authority operations).
     Further guidance;
     Education and energy teams within local authorities should meet in person and gain an
     understanding of what each other’s priorities are and how they can help each other.
     Sustainable energy is best delivered through a whole school approach, and the support
     they receive from their local authority must be similarly joined-up.

     It is therefore imperative that Luton Borough Council’s energy team establishes and
     further develops excellent relations with their schools in order to collect the data needed
     to fulfil reporting against National Indicator 185 (CO2 reduction from local authority
     operations). The council should make sure that energy audits are undertaken at all of its
     schools, and then make sure that the school understand the implications of the
     recommendations made. The council should also assist schools with onsite energy
     monitoring and help identify ways in which the data can be utilised in teaching.

     Luton Borough Council should also set up and lead local networks to encourage peer-to-
     peer support between schools and to provide exposure for external agencies working in
     the field. Such networks would also be an opportunity for local authorities to profile the
     support they are able to offer. Local networks work well as an online community or
     database, with links to and from the Sustainable Schools website.

     Build capacity on sustainable energy in local authority education teams
     Training on sustainable energy should be provided to curriculum advisors so they
     can promote the subject to schools.
78


           Further guidance;
           Training should be offered to curriculum advisors to help them to understand the
           importance of sustainable energy across the curriculum, campus and community and
           how this should be embedded into schools learning.

           Once curriculum advisors properly understand the importance of sustainable energy
           they can help to promote the subject to secondary schools and signpost to relevant
           resources.


 3.2.15         Social care

Current situation
Luton Borough Council was rated ‘good’ in terms of social care because of the following activities
that it has undertaken in this area.

        The Council does not routinely provide social care clients with advice to help take them out
         of fuel poverty. However some targeted help occurs on occasions.
        In April 2009 a letter was sent out to all vulnerable people in Luton about ‘making homes
         more energy efficient’. These were targeted at homes that showed high heat loss on the
         thermal imaging survey carried out by Luton Borough Council. The letter gave information
         about insulation and the Government's Warm Front scheme and referred them to the
         Affordable Warmth team at the council. It is intended that a follow up letter will be sent out in
         the future that will be written in a different style to the one above.
        Luton Borough Council runs a scheme called Cosy Rosy that offers advice to residents to
         help heat their homes more efficiently.
        There are also free bookmarks available in all Luton libraries and community centres, which
         are distributed ad hoc to social care clients. These bookmarks have lots of useful contact
         numbers including the Government's Warm Front scheme.

However the Council does not currently set aside part of its social care budget for energy advice
and does not involve health partners in the above work except for the Cosy Rosy referral scheme.

Recommendations
It is recommended that the following areas are explored to bring the council up to the standard of
‘excellent’.

          Provide advice
          Luton Borough Council should continue to provide advice on fuel poverty to social
          care clients including on how to cut heating bills, gain personalised energy advice
          and obtain grants.

          Set up a partnership with health professionals
          Luton Borough Council should set up a proactive partnership with health
          professionals and establish a referral network so that referrals can be made by
          social care to energy agencies.
          Further guidance;
79


     Npower’s Health Through Warmth project trained around 11,000 community workers in
     England and Wales to identify and refer clients.

     The Warmer Houses Healthier Homes website aims to assist cross-sector working to
     tackle cold homes and inform front-line health or social care workers on how to get help
     for a person living in a cold home.

     Resources
     Luton Borough Council should set aside part of the social care budget for energy
     advice.
80



     3.3 Community leadership

 3.3.1 Overview
The graph below shows that Luton Borough Council was rated ‘good’ in terms of community
planning, fair/good in its engagement with regional stakeholders and transport in the community
and ‘fair’ in relation to engagement with the wider community.


                                               Luton Borough Council
                                               Community leadership

                8
                7                                                                        Actual
                6                                                                        Best practice
                5
                                                                                         Excellent
                4
                3                                                                        Good
                2                                                                        Fair
                1                                                                        Weak
                0                                                                  ity
                                                                 ity
                         ng




                                               s
                                             er




                                                                                un
                                                              un
                      ni




                                          ld
                    an




                                                                               m
                                                             m
                                         o




                                                                              m
                                      eh




                                                             m
                pl




                                                                           co
                                                          co
                                     ak
              ity




                                                                          e
                                 st
           un




                                                     er




                                                                       th
                                                      d
                                 g
          m




                                                   wi
                              re




                                                                       n
         om




                                                                     ti
                            th




                                                th




                                                                   or
     C




                         wi




                                             wi




                                                                 sp
                     g




                                          g




                                                              an
                    En




                                      En




                                                            Tr




 3.3.2 Community planning

Current situation
Luton Borough Council was rated ‘good’ in terms of community planning because of the following
activities that it has undertaken in this area.

         Luton has a Sustainable Community Strategy (SCS) for 2008 – 2026, which shows a clear
          commitment to action on sustainable energy and is identified as a priority within the
          strategy.
         A panel of people representing a cross section of Luton residents spent the day with the
          Luton Forum (see strategic approach section) telling them what they thought and how they
          wanted the town to be in 2026. Their comments, revealed their ideal future for Luton if
          anything was possible.
         In the strategy Key Priorities to 2014 have been identified and include:
81


            o   Improving housing conditions for existing and new housing (The number of homes in
                the town which fail to meet the decent homes standard or those occupied by
                vulnerable people will be reduced.)
            o   Successfully adapting and mitigating for climate change
            o   Protecting and enhancing the natural and built environment, including our rivers and
                natural habitats within Luton’s green spaces
            o   Reducing consumption of water, energy, materials and minimising waste, including
                support for renewable energy generation
            o   Improving public transport, access and mobility and increasing travel to work by
                sustainable modes of transport e.g. public transport, walking, cycling
            o   Improving the amount and range of housing suitable for the needs of Luton’s existing
                and future residents.

        The Council has a target for reducing community CO2 levels in line with NI 186 which is
         10% by 2011. There is also a target to reduce CO2 emissions from domestic housing by
         20% by 2015.
        A target exists for renewable energy generation however this only covers new
         developments over 1000m². These new developments must incorporate renewable energy
         generation to provide at least 10% of the predicted energy requirements.

However Luton Borough Council has not linked the Sustainable Community Strategy to an action
plan with a commitment to achieve significant cuts in carbon emissions across the community by
an agreed date.

Recommendations
As Luton Borough Council was rated ‘good’ with regard to community planning, it is recommended
that the following areas are explored to bring the council up to the standard of ‘excellent’.

           Integrate sustainable energy in community planning
           Luton Borough Council should continue to ensure that energy/climate change is
           identified as a priority issue in the Sustainable Community Strategy (SCS) and is
           linked to a work plan eg NI186 with significant targets for carbon emission
           reduction identified.
           As part of this the Council should investigate the potential for setting targets for
           overall renewable power generation in the area.
           Further guidance;
           Addressing fuel poverty through Community Planning. A Toolkit: Developing effective
           community participation and partnerships provides guidance on community participation
           exercises and developing effective partnerships. The toolkit is illustrated throughout with
           good practice case studies.

           Additionally Coventry City Council, together with the Coventry Partnership (LSP) has
           prioritised climate change as a cross-cutting theme in the Community Plan. For more
           information see the Coventry Partnership website.
82


 3.3.3 Engagement with regional stakeholders

Current situation
Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good’ in terms of its engagement with regional stakeholders
because of the following activities that it has undertaken in this area.

        Luton Borough Council is part of the Bedfordshire Climate Change Forum, whose aim is to
         create awareness for climate change and efficient energy use across Luton and the former
         county (now Bedford and Central Bedfordshire Unitary Councils). The Forum is open to all
         individuals and organisations that are concerned about climate change and have a vision of
         a sustainable energy future. Through this Forum Luton Borough Council engage with other
         Local Authorities within Bedfordshire.
        The Council works with several regional bodies on sustainable energy issues including
         Renewables East, Energy Saving Trust advice centre East of England, National Energy
         services and the Carbon Trust.
        Regional priorities and targets are not reflected in local strategies and action plans however,
         the Luton Local Plan (2001-2011) contains a statement about energy efficiency, “local
         policies influence energy consumption through encouraging energy efficient measures to be
         incorporated into the design and layout of new developments”

However Luton Borough Councils local strategies do not refer to regional priorities and targets and
the Council does not actively press for regional targets in line with or exceeding national targets.

Recommendations
As Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good’ with regard to its engagement with regional
stakeholders, it is recommended that the following areas are explored to bring the council up to the
standard of ‘good/excellent’.

           Engage with other local authorities
           Luton Borough Council should engage with other local authorities to promote
           sustainable energy.
           The Council should continue to be a member of the Bedfordshire Climate Change Forum
           and engage with other councils within this group. The Council should also remain an
           active member of CAN-East.

           The Council should engage with other councils on the one to one programme. Your
           Local Energy Saving Trust advice centre is currently setting up a working group for
           councils on the one to one programme in the East of England, ask your Account
           Manager for more information.

           Engage with ‘nearest neighbour’ local authorities
           Luton Borough Council should engage with other local authorities classified as
           ‘nearest neighbours’ using the Chartered Institute of Public Finance and
           Accountancy (CIPFA) modelling to exchange information and develop solutions.
           Further guidance:
           Following Local Government Reorganisation on 1 April 2009, the CIPFA Nearest
           Neighbour Model is due to be updated later this summer.
83


           Details of the update, including changes to each authority’s closest fifteen comparators
           can be found on the CIPFA website (you will be required to logon).

           Developed to aid local authorities in comparative and benchmarking exercises, specific
           family groups can be generated based upon a wide range of socio-economic indicators.
           Each local authority is unique. Not only are its social and physical characteristics
           different to those of other authorities, but its traditions, organisation and practices are
           distinctive. The CIPFA Nearest Neighbours Model adopts a scientific approach to
           measuring the similarity between authorities, taking many of these issues into account.
           Used across both local and central government, the model has importantly been used in
           recent years within the Audit Commission’s value for money profiles.

           Your Account manager can help you to identify nearest neighbours.

           Set targets
           Luton Borough Council should ensure that local strategies refer to regional
           priorities and targets and should press for regional targets to be in line with or
           exceeding national targets.
           The following case studies may be useful:
               The Cornwall Sustainable Energy Partnership, instigated by the eight counties of
                  Cornwall, brought together over 80 organisations to address the social,
                  environmental and economic issues of energy supply and demand.
               Nottinghamshire County Council and High Peak Borough Council are involved in
                  various strategic partnerships at a national, regional and local level to promote the
                  take up of energy efficiency and low carbon technologies.



 3.3.4 Engagement/awareness raising with wider community

Current situation
Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair’ in terms of its engagement and awareness raising with the
wider community because of the following activities that it has undertaken in this area.

        Luton Borough Council does not have a community-wide energy strategy however the
         Luton Local Plan does include policies that address energy related issues. These include
            o Proposals for built development will be granted planning permission provided that
               they utilise passive energy sources and minimise energy and water consumption.
            o Planning permission will be granted for proposals in connection with the generation
               of renewable energy provided that: there would not be an unacceptable adverse
               impact on the amenity of nearby residents and other occupiers; and there would be
               no significant adverse environmental impacts, particularly on designated areas of
               landscape or conservation interest, or operational impacts on London Luton Airport.
            o All proposals for new buildings totalling 1,000 square metres floor space or more will
               be required to incorporate renewable power generation equipment to provide at least
               10% of the predicted energy requirements for those buildings, unless it can be
84


                 demonstrated that there are overwhelming practical reasons why this is not
                 appropriate”
        The Council consulted with the community on the Luton Local Plan.
        Luton Borough Council have a programme of raising awareness of climate change and
         energy issues in the wider community through several groups which include Luton Climate
         Change Group (Nottingham Declaration), Local Strategic Partnership’s Environmental
         Stewardship, Energy from Waste initiative (BeaR project); waste minimisation approach and
         awareness for climate change and efficient energy use across Bedfordshire (Bedfordshire
         Climate Change Forum).
        The Council is working with schools on an investment programme to improve the energy
         efficiency of school buildings. This began in 2008-9 and will be an ongoing programme.

Although Luton Borough Council is beginning to engage with the community actively and on a
more regular basis the Council have not developed a community-wide action plan and do not
currently link to wider work on education and behavioural change.

Recommendations
As Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good’ with regard to its engagement and awareness
raising with the wider community, it is recommended that the following areas are explored to bring
the Council up to the standard of ‘good/excellent’.

           Work with the Energy Saving Trust advice network
           The Council should ensure that it continues to have a good relationship with the
           local Energy Saving Trust advice centre (0800 512 012) in order to gain the
           maximum benefit by making your community aware of this Energy Saving Trust
           funded service. Examples of joint working opportunities:
               Home Energy Check mailings and promotion;
               Delivery of sustainable energy events;
               Joint awareness raising campaign;
           Refer to section 3.3.4 (Energy Advice) for further information.

           Join the Energy Saving Trust’s Green Communities programme
           Council officers should actively work in partnership with local community groups
           and key officers should join the Energy Saving Trust’s Green Communities
           initiative.
           Further guidance;
           Green Communities is a programme from the Energy Saving Trust that is designed to
           promote and facilitate local community-based energy projects. The programme provides
           information, support, advice and training to local authority energy professionals and
           members of the community.
           Membership of the network is free and by joining, officers can keep up to date with news
           on community-based energy initiatives, funding opportunities and other news from the
           network.
           Free training sessions for local authority energy professionals include;

           Making it Happen - An opportunity for energy professionals and representatives from the
           community and voluntary sector to meet potential project partners and take part in hands
           on, practical planning exercises.
85


     It aims to examine the challenges of running a community based sustainable energy
     project, learn new project planning skills and refresh existing skills.

     Planning for Success – A follow-up to ‘Making it happen’, this course is for members with
     existing community energy projects who want to make the most of their ideas and
     expertise, maximise help available and secure on-going funding.

     To join the Green Communities network or to find out more call 0844 848 0077 or visit
     online at www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/cafe.

     Identify a Green Community for your Energy Saving Trust advice centre
     The council should nominate a Green Community to your local Energy Saving
     Trust advice centre who runs this programme.
     Further guidance;
     As part of the ‘Green Communities’ programme, your local Energy Saving Trust advice
     centre will be mentoring communities to support them in lowering their carbon emissions.
     Communities can be nominated to take part in the programme. Your Account manager
     can provide details of this opportunity.

     Set up community initiatives on energy
     Luton Borough Council should lead their community to take action on energy by
     setting up community energy efficiency initiatives.
     Further guidance;
     Councils have a duty to 'inform, consult and engage' local communities in everything
     they do. The Improvement and Development Agency offers a community empowerment
     resource that shows how councils and their partners can make this happen. It covers the
     policy and the practice of involving people in local decision-making.

     There are also a number of examples of community initiatives from other councils:
        High Peak Borough Council’s initiative to improve domestic energy efficiency
           through the provision of advice and information to members of local community
           groups.
        Leicester City Council’s initiative to increase usage of biofuels/biomass. The
           initiative formed part of ProBioEnergy - a three year, European Commission
           funded project, aiming to increase the uptake of bio-energy.
        A community competition to find the most energy-conscious village in the Scottish
           Borders, involving six local authority areas.
        The ‘Energy Days’ initiative to promote energy efficiency via events in villages
           around Daventry, Northamptonshire. Residents visit a local venue to get advice
           about practical energy efficiency measures, preceded by energy efficiency
           teaching in local schools.
        Harrogate Borough Council used an energy efficiency bingo game to raise
           awareness, particularly amongst older residents. It encouraged home checks and
           pointed residents towards grants.
        Teignbridge, Plymouth and Devon councils were involved in an integrated
           community-based project in Stoke and Buckland Devon, which aims to achieve
           energy efficiency improvements in local schools (primary and secondary),
86


           households and businesses, through initiatives ranging from intensive, structured
           programmes for schoolchildren to home energy visits.
          Communities can bid for eligibility in Peterborough’s energy efficiency grant
           scheme, which targets rural areas. Successful villages are those with the highest
           numbers of residents in fuel poverty. Residents’ needs are matched to funding
           and the installation of measures is coordinated.
          The Cornwall Home Health Project uses a variety of funding sources to provide
           major energy efficiency improvements for free to communities. Initially focused on
           two areas - one urban, one rural – it uses existing community networks to ensure
           that the most difficult to reach homes are included.
          An initiative by Wealden District Council to raise awareness of energy efficiency,
           fuel poverty and energy-saving grants in the Wealden area of East Sussex.
           ‘Keeping Warm & Well in Wealden’ provides talks to community groups, training
           for community workers and uses innovative techniques to spread the word.
          The Warming Mendip project aims to improve energy efficiency by working with
           householders and voluntary and community groups in the Mendip area of
           Somerset. Targeting fuel poor areas, the scheme offers energy advice, home
           visits, presentations, grant referrals and energy awareness training.
          The Cheshire village of Ashton Hayes is aiming to become the first small
           community in England to achieve carbon neutral status.
          PROEFFICIENCY is a three year project, supported by Intelligent Energy Europe,
           which focuses on increasing the use of energy efficient lighting, fridges and
           freezers. The key aim of the project is to support and monitor a number of
           voluntary pilot projects with both retailers and consumers to promote energy
           efficient lighting and cold products in a number of regions across Europe.
          The community led energy initiative Going Carbon Neutral Stirling aims to make
           Stirling the UK's first carbon-neutral city. The ambitious project, which is also
           supported by Stirling Council, aims to work from the grassroots up to help every
           Stirlingshire resident to reduce their carbon footprint, from the current Scottish
           average of 12 tonnes a year to just a single tonne.

     Encourage microgeneration
     Luton Borough Council should encourage microgeneration on houses.
     Further guidance;
     On 6 April 2008 the Government amended the Town and Country Planning Order,
     allowing homeowners to install the following microgeneration equipment without
     planning permission (subject to size and noise level limitations): solar photovoltaics,
     solar thermal systems, ground and water source heat pumps, biomass heating and
     combined heat and power systems. The Government has made it clear that it will
     legislate further to allow the installation, without planning permission, of free-standing
     and building-mounted wind turbines, and air source heat pumps on detached properties.
     However, it has to await clearance from the European Commission, which is expected
     later this year. Information about permitted development rights can be found on the
     Energy Saving Trust website.

     Local authorities can promote renewables in a variety of ways. A number of councils
     have initiated top-up or grant schemes or interest-free loans as a way of encouraging
     microgeneration:
87


          Guildford Borough Council offers private sector renovation grants of up to £3,000
           for measures including renewable energy technologies. These grants target
           households living in hard to treat homes.
          Chichester District Council offers interest-free loans by using defunct funds
           originally from HECAction and recycling the money into a loan scheme for
           renewables. The sustainable energy initiatives are also partly funded by BERR’s
           Low Carbon Buildings Programme.
          Powys County Council uses funding from BERR’s Low Carbon Buildings
           Programme and the council’s private sector renewal fund to provide grants for
           sustainable energy. The CO2i (pronounced ‘cosy’) scheme is open to all owner-
           occupiers and any private sector renting tenant homes and provides funding for
           energy efficiency measures and renewable technologies.
          South Derbyshire District Council offers residents loans of up to £4,000 towards
           renewable systems. A prerequisite is that they also apply for LCBP grants.
          South Gloucestershire Council offers grants of up to £500 and low interest loans
           of up to £3500 towards renewable energy technologies.

     Various local authorities are implementing schemes to promote solar water heating
     systems. These include Lewes District Council, Leicester City Council and Kirklees
     Council. All make use of bulk discounting and are often accompanied by a small grant to
     further reduce the price, typically by a few hundred pounds. Leicester’s Solar Rental
     scheme provides flexible financing, whereby the rent charges are designed to match
     savings in hot water heating costs and householders can buy the system at any time.
     Applicants to Kirklees and Calderdale’s Simply Solar scheme need to have loft and
     cavity wall insulation installed before accessing these benefits.

     Further information about funding for renewable energy can be found in an Energy
     Saving Trust briefing note Funding sustainable energy.

     Set up community renewable schemes
     The Council should encourage the local community to develop community
     renewable schemes and/or energy services companies (ESCos).
     Further guidance;
     There are a number of community-owned renewable technologies. Whether this is the
     best approach for your area will depend on a number of factors, including what and how
     much renewable resources you can tap into. The following information may be of
     interest:
         Mill Energy Services, a small scale, not-for-profit Energy Service Company, was
            set up to manage the supply of electricity, heat and water to the residents and
            tenants of a recently refurbished textile mill.
         Kielder Community Enterprises Ltd manages a wood-fired district heating scheme
            for new build housing and various community buildings in the village.
         Powys County Council runs a rural biomass community heating in Llanwddyn.
            This case study demonstrates the potential of biomass as an energy source for
            community heating in a rural setting. It tracks the process from feasibility and
            funding through to implementation and, finally, the lessons learnt. It will be of
            special interest to local authorities that cover rural areas of the UK.
88


          Rare large scale example of an equal partnership between the local community
           and the private sector, which built an eight-turbine wind farm in Ferndale village in
           the Rhondda valleys of south Wales. Power Factory aims to generate clean
           electricity and long-term income to fund services for the area and create local
           jobs.
          A small farming community partially funded by the council worked together to
           install a community ground source heat pump.
          Dyfi Eco Valley Partnership, created by Powys and Gwynedd county councils and
           various local partners, is the sustainable community regeneration body for the
           area, which enables local people to carry out small-scale schemes using various
           renewable energy technologies.
          Baywind Renewable Energy Cooperative is the first UK co-operative to own wind
           turbines. The six turbines, near Ulverston and Millom in Cumbria, were built by a
           developer and then sold one by one to the community through a series of share
           offers. Members of the co-operative receive profits from the sale of electricity from
           the turbines.
          Cornwall Sustainable Energy Partnership, working towards renewable energy
           targets.
          Assistance and potential funding is available from Partnerships for Renewables, a
           Carbon Trust Enterprises Limited venture, working in partnership with public
           sector bodies to develop and manage onsite renewable energy projects.
          Gloucestershire Wood Fuels Limited has been set up as a co-operative to offer
           secure wood fuel supply contracts at competitive prices to larger scale local end
           users, typically public buildings, new housing developments, and country estates
           that manage their own woodlands. Luton Borough Council may want to consider
           this type of venture to increase uptake of renewables in its area.
          Tewkesbury Borough Council is working in partnership with Severn Wye Energy
           Agency on a project to promote the use of renewables by community buildings, as
           well as helping them increase their energy efficiency. The project runs from July
           2007 to March 2008 and the aim is to visit 10 community buildings and carry out
           detailed energy surveys. These will be followed up with a full written report,
           outlining key energy efficiency measures and the suitability of the building for one
           or more renewable technologies. The project will also offer advice on grant
           funding and provide post-visit support to the community building managers.

     Community awareness raising campaign
     Luton Borough Council should develop a communications plan to lead the
     community to take action on reducing energy usage.
     Further guidance;
     The council should develop a communications plan to raise awareness of energy issues
     and encourage community members to take action on reducing energy usage, in order
     to achieve the targets set out within the community wide action plan. You can use your
     communications strategy to tackle carbon emissions from:
         Transport: Worcestershire County Council’s Choose how you move project
            achieved a 12% decrease in car trips and a 36% increase in cycling through a
            combination of travel marketing and infrastructure improvements.
         Business: Hampshire and Isle of Wight councils offer support and advice to
            businesses to adopt more sustainable practices.
89


          Domestic sector: An initiative by Wealden District Council to raise awareness of
           energy efficiency, fuel poverty and energy-saving grants in the Wealden area of
           East Sussex. ‘Keeping Warm & Well in Wealden’ provides talks to community
           groups, training for community workers and uses innovative techniques to spread
           the word. (Enquiries from the domestic sector can be directed to your local
           Energy Saving Trust advice centre on 0800 512 012).

     Your communications strategy should initially focus on behaviour change that do not
     require significant investment, then low-cost measures with short payback periods and
     finally more expensive technologies.

     The Energy Saving Trust has published Communicating at the local level - how best to
     communicate about climate change at the local level. This showcases good practice
     examples of other organisations communicating energy saving messages.

     Smart meters
     The Council should continue to loan smart meters to residents through their
     libraries and promote smart meters to businesses as a way of helping them
     reduce energy use.
     Further guidance;
     The Energy Saving Trust has produced a publication called Clever Clocks, which
     explains the benefits of smart meters and summarises the results of trials conducted
     around the work (on page eight).

     The town of Växjö, in Sweden, was chosen as one of three sites for an EU-funded
     municipal scale trial of smart metering and reporting by equipping 20,000 households
     within the town with a smart meter and an innovative reporting system,
     ’EnergiKollen‘.www.logica.com/green

     The government has now taken the decision to mandate smart meters for all
     households, although they have yet to establish how this will be rolled out. You can read
     about this here.

     Consult with the local community.
     Luton Borough Council should consult with their community to inform the
     development of the vision and potential projects for community wide action.
     Further guidance;
     Consulting with the community is important as a means of ensuring buy-in to a project or
     strategy. London Borough of Lewisham’s climate change event was set up to consult
     residents on how to take forward the council’s new climate change policy.

     Nottingham County Council placed considerable importance on ensuring that its energy
     policy reflects local community aspirations.

     Woking Borough Council has an established role as a strong community leader, which
     sets the very highest standards in energy efficiency and tackling climate change. The
     council has sought to ‘take the community along with it’ and believes community
90


        engagement to be vital to ensure others follow its examples.

        Link to wider work on education and behavioural change
        Luton Borough Council should link its community sustainable energy work to its
        wider work on education and behavioural change.
        Further guidance;
        Berlin has offered its roofs to private investors to become solar power generators
        through its Solar Roof Initiative. This project illustrates the opportunities for renewable
        energy that Luton Borough Council could take without large investment on its part. Not
        only are investors interested but the project has helped to educate staff and the public.

        A project to install one of the UK's first wind turbines in a school - Nidderdale High
        School and Community College, near Harrogate - is in a designated Area of Outstanding
        Natural Beauty and is the hub of activity in the dale.
        The turbine meets part of the school's energy needs and also provides an educational
        resource both for pupils and the wider community.

        Work with the Carbon Trust
        Luton Borough Council should work with the Carbon Trust to promote its services
        to businesses, industry and schools.
        Further guidance;
        The following case studies may be of interest:
            A case study on how energy efficient sustainable construction and renewable
               technologies were incorporated into the development of Kingsmead School.
            A project in Hampshire challenged teams from primary schools across the region
               to design and construct model solar powered cars that are entered into a country-
               wide championship race to raise awareness of solar power.

        Carbon Trust has developed a guide Building Energy Efficiency in Schools – A guide to
        a whole school approach which has been designed to provide a step by step approach
        to managing energy use in a school. It covers details for setting up an energy team,
        producing an energy policy and associated action plan, monitoring and setting targets,
        how to use benchmarks, how to identify where energy is being used and wasted on a
        school premises and ideas for including energy activities into the curricular activities of
        the school.

 3.3.5 Transport in the community

Current situation
Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good’ in terms of transport in the community because of the
following activities that it has undertaken in this area.

Local transport policy is set out in the Local Transport Plan (LTP) for the Luton, Dunstable and
Houghton Regis conurbation. It aims to improve personal mobility, with improved access for goods
and services, and with special emphasis on integrated transport solutions to encourage public
transport, cycling and walking.
91


The LTP sets out a clear view on the relative importance of alternative modes in delivering
transportation objectives, as follows:
    public transport
    walking
    cycling
    freight access
    taxis
    powered two-wheelers
    private hire vehicles
    Cars and through traffic.

The LTP incorporates the Luton -Dunstable Transport Strategy. This local plan incorporates
policies which, when applied to development proposals, will contribute to the implementation of the
strategy. They include measures which:
    enable a higher proportion of journeys to be made by public transport, walking and cycling;
    improve public transport accessibility for every member of the community;
    improve the attractiveness, frequency and reliability of public transport services, and
       support and assist measures to improve the safety and personal security for those using
       public transport;
    identify, safeguard, improve and extend a network of pedestrian and cycle routes;
    improve integration between different modes of transport;
    promote sustainable freight distribution;
    support traffic management and calming schemes;
    conform with the maximum parking standards appropriate to the location and type of
       development (as set out in Appendix 4 of the LTP); and
    improve the environmental quality of transport corridors.

Within the LTP, there is a policy on development location which states that proposals for
development with potential to have significant transport implications will not be permitted, unless it
can be demonstrated that either:
   The site is served by public transport with sufficient capacity to meet the potential demand
      generated by the proposed development; or public transport will be provided to meet the
      anticipated demand generated by the development.
   Developers will be required to submit transport assessments and travel plans with such
      applications which: demonstrate that arrangements have been made for the implementation
      and monitoring of the travel plan; and ensure compliance by occupiers of the development

The LTP also states that the Borough Council will require new development and highway schemes
to take into account the needs of pedestrians and cyclists and the need to promote walking and
cycling.

Luton Borough Council monitors changes in bus patronage annually as part of NI 177 (local bus
and light rail passenger journeys originating in the authority area) and the Council also annually
monitors passenger use of the three railway stations in Luton and the mode of travel used to get to
the stations.
92


The Council has a cycle strategy which refers to a range of local initiatives to increase cycling
including investment in cycle tracks and cycle parking, together with initiatives such as cycle
training and loan cycles (in conjunction with Sustrans).

A transport forum involving various stakeholder groups (some of which are represented in the
LSP) is set up specifically to act as a “Sounding Board” in the process for producing the LTP and
the LSP also reviews reports on transport schemes.

Although some employers are required to develop a travel plan as part of major planning
applications, and the Council is in the process of preparing travel plan guidance. The Council
rarely pro-actively engages with employers to promote travel plan initiatives. The Council do not
currently work with bus operators to encourage lower carbon vehicles either and the LTP does not
currently include climate change measures, although it is planned to include these in the next plan.

Air quality targets are not on track to be met however this is felt to be due to issues with the M1
Motorway being out of the Council’s control.

Recommendations
As Luton Borough Council was rated ‘fair/good’ with regard to transport in the community, it is
recommended that the following areas are explored to bring the council up to the standard of
‘good/excellent’:

       Consider climate change in the next local transport plan
       Luton Borough Council should consider climate change in the next local transport
       plan.

       Modal shift
       Luton Borough Council should continue to reduce car dependency and increase
       use of public transport, cycling and walking. Targets and timescales should also be
       identified.
       Further guidance;
       The Department for Transport has produced a publication called Meeting Targets through
       Transport in collaboration with the Local Government Association, Sustrans and the
       Campaign for Better Transport. The booklet is designed to help councillors and senior
       officers to understand how well planned transport services can help councils to achieve
       wider objectives, such as stronger and safer communities, healthier children and young
       people, sustainability and better local economies.

       New research, commissioned by Cycling England, shows how local authority planners
       can apply conventional cost benefit modelling to ensure a better return on investment for
       every pound spent on cycling. The study presents for the first time a Cycling Planning
       Model that will help local planners to better assess the number of additional cyclists
       required to generate a return on investment. The model shows how a surprisingly small
       number of additional cyclists will pay for investment in new cycling infrastructure. The
       model suggests:
           an investment of £10,000 requires one additional regular cyclist.
           an investment of £100,000 requires 11 additional regular cyclists.
93


     Useful case studies include:
        Car clubs can be an effective way of reducing levels of car ownership. Launched in
            March 1999, Edinburgh CityCarClub is the largest in Britain and is operated by
            Smart Moves with the support of the City of Edinburgh Council. Smart Moves, now
            known as CityCarClub also runs car clubs in Edinburgh, London, and Brighton and
            Hove.
        ‘Velib: help-yourself cycle scheme’ is a free bike scheme in Paris that aims to
            encourage people to give up their cars for short journeys in favour of pedal power.
            It is based on a smaller initiative that has been operating in Lyon for the last two
            years called Cyclocity. Future plans are to develop this scheme in London,
            Dumfries and Dundee.

     The Environment Advisory Service website’s section on transport includes links to best
     practice, advice etc for local authorities.

     There is also information on the Department for Transport sustainable transport
     demonstration towns scheme where the council provided individual travel planning to
     residents in Worcester, Darlington, Peterborough.

     The following information may also be useful:
        A case study on Accessibility Planning for Public Transport: High Peak Borough
            Council.
        Over 50 case studies from the Department of Transport on successful
            walking/cycling plans.
        Cycling national body: Cycling England. This website also has information on one
            city and eleven demonstration towns for cycling best practice.
        Local Transport Planning Network – access to key contacts from other local
            authorities together with best practice examples etc.
        Case studies from safe routes to schools.
        Unison has produced a publication (2002) which includes case studies on different
            local authority green travel schemes (from page 13 onwards).
        The London Borough of Sutton is working with Transport for London to tackle
            behavioural change in transport.
        A project by Argyll and Bute Council, funded by the Scottish Government, sought to
            promote public transport through local media, travel guides and local transport
            action forums; fill public transport gaps with cost effective and innovative solutions;
            retain population levels within the remote Argyll and Bute areas; reduce energy use
            by increased utilisation of existing vehicles and reduction of car journeys; benefit
            tourists through increased opportunities for using public transport; and create a
            blueprint for inter-agency working. Targets also included a minimum reduction of
            500 unnecessary journeys per year.
        Haydock Industrial Estate is one of the largest employers in St Helens Metropolitan
            Borough Council. Due to the types of businesses on the estate, working hours
            were out of kilter with public transport provision. Enter the 920 bus service – a hail
            and ride service – designed to accommodate shift workers.
94


     Smarter driving
     Luton Borough Council should seek to reduce CO2 from cars though promoting
     efficient driving and low carbon car choice. Targets and timescales should be
     identified.
     Further guidance;
     Your local Energy Saving Trust advice centre provides free advice on smarter driving
     techniques and low carbon car choices. You can promote this free service to your
     residents – 0800 512 012. Smarter driving can save drivers between £200 and £250 per
     year in fuel as well as reducing CO2 emissions
     Additionally the Energy Saving Trust can organise subsidised private smarter driving
     lessons for £25 per person.

     The following case studies may also be useful
        Vehicles emitting more CO2 will have to pay higher parking fees in the London
            Borough of Richmond upon Thames.
        Bristol City Council promotes smarter driving techniques through a leaflet
            signposting residents to the website. This includes a fuel consumption calculator
            and log.
        Eco driving film on Devon County Council’s website.

     Bus operators
     Luton Borough Council should encourage local bus operators to purchase lower
     carbon vehicles
     Further guidance;
     Transport for London are actively rolling out a hybrid bus fleet with the aim of 300 hybrid
     buses to be in operation by 2011. It is expected to be the largest roll out of hybrid buses
     in Europe.

     Work with local businesses to promote travel plans
     Luton Borough Council should work with local businesses to promote travel plans.
     The following information may be useful:
        The National Business Travel Network set up by the Transport 2000 Trust is a
            national forum for employers that meet regularly to share best practice and
            promote ideas. Its aim is to be a one-stop shop for information and advice on
            Travel Plans for business.
        Lancaster City Council has an example of the advice that can be provided for
            employers on travel plans.
        The Department for Transport offers a one-stop shop providing guidance on work
            place travel plans, includes resources kit and evaluation tool.
        The Commission for Integrated Transport is an independent body advising the
            Government on integrated transport policy. It provides evidence based reports on
            Best practice amongst local authorities/delivery agencies to encourage improved
            performance and to highlight barriers to best practice.
        The Scottish Government has developed a website about promoting more
            sustainable travel choices. It includes information on walking, cycling, smarter
            working and responsible car use. The ‘tools and resources’ section has links to a
            variety of websites that can help with the development and monitoring of a travel
95


            plan.
           The City of Gothenburg is facing significant congestion. Lundby Mobility Centre
            aimed to create more sustainable freight patterns by targeting small to medium-
            sized enterprises in the area by increasing their awareness. More information on
            how the city achieved a 41% decrease in freight transport with the companies it
            targeted can be found here.

     Use the planning system to curb traffic growth
     Luton Borough Council should continue to apply planning conditions to help
     reduce traffic growth.
     Further guidance;
     The Beacons Low Emissions Strategies Group, which includes the four air quality beacon
     authorities, has issued draft good practice guidance on using the planning system to
     reduce transport emissions. It gives a number of examples of where planning conditions
     have been successfully applied to reduce the transport impacts of development.

     In August 2008, the Government published new core output indicators for local planning
     authorities. The indicator for housing design quality required by PPS3 is the performance
     of the development against 20 Building for Life criteria, one of which is access to public
     transport.

     Promote green fleet advice service
     Luton Borough Council should promote the Energy Saving Trust’s free green fleet
     review and vehicle carbon footprinting services to local businesses.
     To register for a review, the businesses can call 0845 602 1425.

     Fiscal measures
     Consider introducing fiscal measures to encourage reduced car use and cleaner
     car purchase such as congestion charging or carbon-based residents parking
     permits
     Further guidance;
     Many UK vehicle taxes including vehicle excise duty and company car tax are now based
     on vehicles’ CO2 emissions. The UK’s car environmental label is also based on cars’ CO2.
     Several local authorities are looking to continue this trend by linking the price of residents’
     car parking permits to their cars’ CO2 emissions, such as the London Borough of
     Richmond. It is hoped that this will increase drivers’ awareness of car CO2 emissions and
     will provide further incentives for drivers to choose cleaner cars.
96



     3.4 Own estate
Energy Saving Trust do not undertake a review or offer recommendations on carbon emissions
and sustainable energy management concerned with a council’s own estate if they are partners
with Carbon Trust on the Local Authority Carbon Management Programme. Luton Borough
Council is currently participating in the Carbon Trust’s Carbon Management programme and once
completed should refer to their Carbon Management Plan for guidance and detail on the agreed
approach for managing carbon emissions from Luton Borough Council’s estate and activities.

The Carbon Trust is the main agency offering help and support in terms of energy efficiency in
non-domestic buildings. In particular, it offers:
   Through the Local Authority Carbon Management Programme, the Carbon Trust provides
      councils with technical and change management support and guidance to help them realise
      carbon emissions savings specifically from their estate and operations. The primary focus of
      the work is to reduce emissions under the control of the local authority such as buildings,
      street lighting and landfill sites. Participating councils benefit from consultant support in the
      form of workshops and limited dedicated support tailored around a systematic process. This
      process guides authorities through a systematic analysis of their carbon footprint, the value
      at stake and the opportunities available to help them manage carbon emissions in a
      strategic manner. Each phase of the local authority carbon management programme kicks
      off at the beginning of April of each year. Being a true partnership, the programme on
      average requires a minimum council commitment of two days a week for the programme's
      ten-month duration.
   A free energy survey to organisations with annual energy bills of over £50,000. Consultants
      can identify energy saving opportunities and offer practical advice on how to achieve these.
   A design advice service.
   A local authority network for discussing best practice etc.
97



4.0 Next steps
This report constitutes stage three of the seven stage local authority one-to-one support process.
Your Account manager, Juliet Nicholas, will be on hand to guide you through the remaining stages.




The next stage is to develop an action plan. This will focus on developing a strategic approach to
the reduction of energy use across the local authority area – this action plan will encompass both
internal operations and importantly Luton Borough Council’s role as a community leader.

Supported by your Account manager, Luton Borough Council will take the lead on translating the
recommendations in this report into a prioritised action plan. This should include targets, timelines,
and responsibilities.

The Energy Saving Trust’s Account manager will support implementation and review of the action
plan for a period of 12 months. After this year, Luton Borough Council can use Energy Saving
Trust Practical help service and their local advice centre for further support.
 98



 5.0 Recommendations table
            Recommendation                            National    Carbon                 Full
                                                      Indicator   impact           recommendation
                                                                                       on Page
STRATEGY
Strategic   Maintain /further develop a strategic     185         Underpins              19
approach    approach that cuts across all             186         other activity
            aspects of estate management,             187
            service delivery and community
            leadership, with sustainable energy
            use recognised as a priority. This
            would be best recognised by linking
            activity to NI185 and NI186
            primarily, but also NI187 and NI188.
            Continue to set targets and               185         Potentially            20
            timescales for reducing energy            186         significant
            consumption across its own estate,        187
            service delivery and throughout the
            wider community in line with
            national targets. This should be
            linked into baselines and targets of
            NI185 and 186.
            Ensure that a cross-council system        185         Underpins              21
            is in place for gathering data relating   186         other activity
            to sustainable energy and NI 186          187
            (per capita carbon emissions across
            the borough). This should be
            supported by a cross-service
            working group focussing on the
            scope of NI 186 and should use the
            Energy Saving Trust TRACE tool as
            a focus.
            Should work with their local Energy       186         Underpins              22
            Saving Trust advice centre to                         other activity
            investigate how they can help meet
            the domestic and transport targets
            set out in National Indicator 186 as
            part of its LAA.
            Should link up with the neighbouring      185                                22
            unitary authorities to develop            186
            campaigns in partnership and              187
            establish a common method to track
            activity to report against LAA/CAA.
 99


             Should promote its leadership role    186                        22
             to members of the Local Strategic
             Partnership to ensure that key
             players are bought into delivering
             against NI 186.
             Make use of the Nottingham 186                  Underpins        23
             Declaration action pack to meet the             other activity
             commitment made by signing the
             Nottingham Declaration.
             Consider making a commitment to       185       Potentially      23
             becoming a carbon neutral                       significant
             organisation by a particular date (as
             per the Government’s own pledge).
             As part of its commitment to                                     24
             becoming a carbon neutral
             organisation, Luton Borough Council
             may want to consider carbon
             offsetting.

Resources    Establish a cross-service                 185   Underpins        25
internal     energy/climate change group with          186   other activity
             significant resources and clear           187
             corporate support for action. This
             group should meet regularly, include
             senior representatives and have a
             work plan against which progress is
             monitored. There should also be a
             system for ensuring that information
             is cascaded down to the relevant
             officers.
             Ensure that a member of staff within      185   Underpins        26
             each service area is allocated time             other activity
             to promote the integration of
             sustainable energy, with
             performance reviewed through the
             council’s appraisal system or
             equivalent.
             Ensure that any savings made from         185   Underpins        26
             investing in energy efficiency are              other activity
             reinvested in sustainable energy.


Political    Establish tackling climate change as      185   Underpins        27
/corporate   one of the council’s top five             186   other activity
support      priorities, as this is critical for the   187
             allocation of resources and the
             provision of support to staff.
 100


                  Include a climate change impact           185                    27
                  assessment for all major                  186
                  projects/decisions at committee
                  level.
                  Robustly support an overall energy        185   Potentially      27
                  champion at senior level.                 186   significant
                  Conduct a scrutiny review of energy.      185   Underpins        27
                                                            186   other activity
                  Ensure that the chief executive and       185   Underpins        27
                  councillors are involved in taking        186   other activity
                  action on climate change.
Staff training/        Introduce energy training to        185   Underpins        29
engagement               staff in areas of council          186   other activity
                         operation deemed to have           187
                         most significant impact on
                         energy use.
                       Introduce more detailed
                         training for staff in housing,
                         planning and building control.
                       Ensure that frontline staff
                         who visit tenants are aware of
                         issues associated with poor
                         energy efficiency and are
                         either able to provide advice
                         there and then, or refer the
                         tenants to the Energy Saving
                         Trust advice centre.
                       Introduce detailed training for
                         all staff with regular refresher
                         courses and follow up with
                         email bulletins.
                  Embark upon a staff awareness             185   Low/medium       29
                  campaign. The council can assign          186   (depends on
                  energy costs to each department           187   amount of
                  and set targets for reduction. This             energy used
                  could be linked to a personal climate           by council)
                  change pledging system at work
                  and home.
                  Promote Energy Saving Trust’s free        186   Medium/          29
                  domestic and travel advice to staff.            significant
                  As part of this the Council should
                  sign up to the Energy Saving Trust’s
                  employee engagement service.
                  Sign up for smarter driving training      185   Medium/          30
                  for council employees.                    186   significant
 101


               Should develop the ‘Green              185        Low/medium    30
               Champion’ role to cover energy and                (depends on
               ensure that a champion is present in              amount of
               each department or building. The                  energy used
               champions should ensure they are                  by council)
               responsible for keeping staff
               informed of energy saving tips and
               can keep an eye on simple things
               such as lights and monitors being
               left on.
SERVICES
Regeneration          The council should ensure      186        Medium        32
                       the regeneration team
                       continues to recognise the
                       value of energy efficiency
                       improvements as part of
                       regeneration.
                    Continue to ensure
                       renewal/regeneration
                       schemes actively seek
                       projects delivering energy
                       efficiency advice and
                       improvements, with specific
                       targets.
                    Ensure a core focus of
                       economic development
                       activity is to secure high
                       sustainable energy standards
                       in projects and businesses
                       targets.
               Ensure acknowledgement of energy       186        Medium        33
               efficiency as a factor in business
               performance and look at
               opportunities to improve business
               efficiency.
               Encourage the development of           186        Low           34
               sustainable energy businesses in
               the area.
Social         Introduce minimum Standard             186        Potentially   44
housing –      Assessment Procedure targets of at     domestic   significant
own stock      least 65. To achieve the minimum       187
including      target, the council should continue
ALMO           to use a programme of improving
               hard to treat properties. This may
               include using renewable energy
               technologies.
 102


            Continue to use and improve             186        Medium           45
            integrated packages of improvement      domestic
            measures where possible and             187
            ensure opportunistic energy work is
            included in repair and maintenance
            programmes and void repairs.
            Continue to implement the EU            186        Underpins        45
            Energy Performance of Buildings         domestic   other activity
            Directive by ensuring an EPC is         187
            issued each time a dwelling
            changes tenancy
            Introduce a proactive programme to      186        Required to      45
            secure external funding to improve      domestic   implement
            sustainability in the council’s own     187        other actions
            stock.
            Luton Borough Council should            186        Potentially      47
            introduce a policy of training and      domestic   significant
            supporting front line staff in energy   187
            efficiency advice and signposting
            and ensure there is a qualified
            member of staff who delivers basic
            energy advice to tenants. This
            service should be publicised and
            there should be a procedure for
            recording as well as tracking the
            effectiveness of advice provision.
            Continue to consider fuel poverty       186        Small            48
            issues when allocating properties to    domestic
            tenants.                                187
            Consider establishing an affinity       186        Small            48
            deal with an energy supplier to         domestic
            cover void council properties and       187
            ensure that any revenue (via
            commission payments) obtained
            through this is ring fenced for other
            energy efficiency improvements.
            Once established, this deal could
            also be offered to private sector
            householders, thus generating more
            revenue.
Social      Strengthen partnerships with RSLs       186        Potentially      49
housing –   with a named officer lead. This         domestic   significant
other       would enable the council to continue    187
including   to obtain energy ratings and data for
LSVT        HECA/NI 186 returns, and would
            give the council a better overall
            picture of the social housing stock.
103


      It may be possible to set up joint
      energy efficiency schemes to help
      achieve minimum standards across
      all social housing or link up on
      advice and awareness campaigns to
      tenants.
      Encourage RSLs to develop a work       186        Likely to be     50
      plan to raise average SAP by           domestic   significant
      several points, prioritising the       187
      poorest performing housing and
      ensuring that all properties with
      cavities are insulated and all lofts
      insulated with at least 270mm of
      insulation.
      Encourage RSLs to introduce a          186        Potentially      50
      minimum SAP target of 65.              domestic   significant
      Encourage RSLs to introduce a          187
      programme of improving hard to
      treat properties to achieve this
      target. This may include renewable
      energy technologies.
      Encourage RSLs to specify              186        Medium           51
      integrated packages of improvement     domestic
      measures where possible and            187
      ensure opportunistic energy work is
      included in repair and maintenance
      programmes and void repairs.
      Encourage RSLs to set targets for      186        Underpins        51
      improving sustainable energy in own    domestic   other activity
      stock and monitor progress against     187
      this. This should include a plan to
      achieve the Decent Homes
      standard.
      As part of this, the council should
      establish a dedicated database of
      public sector domestic properties
      with energy ratings. Ensure this is
      updated continuously (eg using
      surveys and inspections) and
      annually with improvements to
      heating and insulation standards.
      Ensure RSLs understand the             186        Underpins        52
      requirement to implement the EU        domestic   other activity
      Energy Performance of Buildings        187
      Directive by ensuring EPCs are
      issued each time a dwelling
      changes tenancy.
 104


                 Work with RSLs to introduce a             186        Required to     52
                 proactive programme to secure             domestic   implement
                 external funding to improve               187        other actions
                 sustainability in social housing in the
                 area.
                 Encourage RSLs to ensure that             186        Potentially     52
                 adequate energy efficiency advice         domestic   significant
                 and signposting to the Energy             187
                 Saving Trust advice centre is
                 provided for their tenants.
                 Encourage RSLs to ensure that fuel        186        Small           53
                 poverty is considered when                domestic
                 allocating properties to tenants.         187
                 Encourage RSLs to consider                186        Small           53
                 establishing an affinity deal with an     domestic
                 energy supplier to cover void             187
                 properties and ensuring that any
                 revenue (via commission payments)
                 obtained through this is ring fenced
                 for other energy efficiency
                 improvements.
Private sector   Allocate adequate officer time to         186                        55
housing –        improving private sector housing.         domestic
rented and                                                 187
owner
occupied
                 Develop and expand a specific             186                        56
                 programme for tackling privately          domestic
                 owned housing, including energy           187
                 efficiency measures and renewable
                 energy technologies where possible.
                 Introduce a specific programme for        186        Very            56
                 tackling privately rented housing,        domestic   significant
                 including energy efficiency               187
                 measures and renewable energy
                 technologies where possible.
                 Consider setting up a bulk discount,      186                        56
                 council tax rebate, grant or loan         domestic
                 scheme to help persuade private           187
                 sector householders to invest in
                 sustainable energy.
                 Work        with      the      regional   186                        58
                 HECA/Carbon Action Network forum          domestic
                 to share best practice.                   187
 105


              Set up and use a database for           186                          58
              private sector dwellings with energy    domestic
              data to monitor progress and            187
              allocate resources effectively.
              Use data from eg local database,        186         Underpins        58
              HEED, energy suppliers and Warm         domestic    other activity
              Front managing agents to help           187
              prepare NI186 domestic sector
              reports and to understand the
              energy efficiency standards in the
              area.
              The council should consider how it      186         Underpins        58
              can target those dwellings              domestic    other activity
              considered to be ‘hard to treat’.       187
              The council should consider             186         Underpins        59
              introducing a programme of              domestic    other activity
              marketing sustainable energy            187
              measures to private sector
              householders. This could include
              promotion of national grant
              programmes such as the Low
              Carbon Building Programme. The
              council should benchmark its
              progress in terms of referrals to
              these programmes.
              Promote HIPs to householders,           NI186                        59
              working with estate agents where
              appropriate and ensuring the council
              is set up to answer any questions on
              this.
              Continue to use the existing fuel       186                          60
              poverty referral network, which can     domestic
              put residents in touch with a variety   187
              of networks that can assist them
              with insulation and heating grants,
              as well as debt counselling and
              income maximisation.
Energy advice Ensure that it continues to have a      186         Potentially      61
              good relationship with the local        domestic/   significant
              Energy Saving Trust advice centre       transport
              (0800 512 012) in order to gain the
              maximum benefit by making your
              residents aware of this Energy
              Saving Trust funded service.
              Examples       of    joint    working
              opportunities:
 106


                     Home Energy Check mailings
                      and promotion.
                  Delivery of sustainable
                      energy events
                  Joint awareness raising
                      campaign.
              Support front-line staff in energy     186         Potentially     62
              efficiency advice and signpost         domestic/   significant
              residents to the Energy Saving Trust   transport
              advice centre on 0800 512 012.
              Consider introducing a specific        186         Medium          63
              programme for promoting                domestic/
              sustainable energy to minority         transport
              communities and signpost residents
              to the Energy Saving Trust advice
              centre on 0800 512 012.
              Continue to run a community energy     186         Medium          63
              advice programme involving             domestic/
              community talks and face to face       transport
              advice. This could be in partnership
              with your local Energy Saving Trust
              advice centre.
              Consider doing a mailing to            186         Potentially     63
              residents in Energy Saving Trust       domestic    significant
              identified hotspot areas.
Resources –   Introduce a proactive programme to     186         Required to     64
levering in   secure external funding and access     domestic    implement
external      support services.                                  other actions
funding
Signposting   Set up a partnership with the Energy 186           Medium          66
to external   Saving Trust advice centre to        domestic
grant         maximise the take up of available
schemes       grants and schemes. The Energy
              Saving Trust advice centre offers a
              free one stop shop service to
              signpost residents and make
              referrals to grant schemes. This
              should involve proactively promoting
              the Department of Business,
              Enterprise and Regulatory Reform’s
              Low Carbon Buildings Programme,
              CERT, Landlords Energy Saving
              Allowance and benchmark referrals.
 107


           Set up and promote own grant           186        Impact            66
           schemes to fill gaps in national grant domestic   depends on
           funding for sustainable energy.                   what is
                                                             offered and
                                                             how
                                                             effectively it
                                                             is marketed.
                                                             Could be
                                                             significant.
Planning   Within the LDF, specify a minimum      186             Impact       69
policy     level of the Code for Sustainable                   depends on
           Homes which encourages energy                        quantity of
           efficiency standards beyond building                    new
           regulations across all new                         development
           development as follows;                           in the council.
                                                                 As area
              Code level 4 (44% reduction in                  targeted for
               CO2) from 2010-2013,                           development
              Code level 5 (100% reduction in                    by the
               CO2) from 2013-2016 and                        government,
              Code level 6 (zero carbon                            this
               standard) from 2016 onwards                   recommendat
                                                                ion would
                                                                 probably
                                                                  have a
                                                                  greater
                                                                  carbon
                                                               impact than
                                                                any other
           To inform the LDF development,         186        Underpins         71
           develop an evidence base to identify              other activity
           the potential for renewable energy in
           new developments.
           Include a policy in their LDF to       186        Potentially       71
           require a 10% CO2 emissions                       high
           reduction in all new developments.
           (This should be additional to the
           percentage carbon dioxide reduction
           required by the code for sustainable
           homes) In certain developments,
           where a greater potential for
           renewable energy has been
           identified, the local authority should
           require a higher percentage on a
           site by site basis.
 108


              Encourage (where feasible)             186         Potentially      72
              Combined Heat and Power (CHP)                      high
              and District Heating to provide heat
              and electricity to new and exiting
              buildings.
              Use the planning system to drive       186         Medium           73
              higher standards in existing           domestic
              dwellings.
              Introduce incentives for               186         Medium           73
              exemplar/zero energy
              developments.
              Ensure that planners, building         186         Underpins        73
              control officers and developers                    under activity
              continue to all work in partnership
              eg by setting up a cross
              departmental working group (linked
              to a wider group on NI 186).
              Ensure the planning committee is       186         Underpins        73
              trained on sustainable energy                      under activity
              issues/ low carbon energy.
              Continue to train planners annually    186         Underpins        74
              and encourage them to proactively                  under activity
              promote sustainable energy to
              everyone applying for planning
              permission.
              Continue to use the planning system    186         High             74
              to reduce car dependency.              transport
              Ensure that planning officers are      186         Small            74
              disseminating information on energy
              efficiency and renewable energy to
              people making enquiries or full
              planning applications.
Building      Continue to ensure Part L              186         Medium           75
Regulations   assessment is a priority focus of
enforcement   enforcement activity.
              Ensure Building control officers are                                75
              integrally involved in developing
              policies for the developing Local
              Development Framework.
              Continue to ensure that building       186         Medium           75
              control officers are trained and
              encouraged to promote sustainable
              energy to all those applying for
              building control approval.
              Signpost schools to resources to       186         Medium           76
Education     engage with energy education.          185
 109


                Develop relationships between            185   Underpins        77
                energy teams, education teams and              other activity
                schools to monitor energy use for
                reporting against National Indicator
                185 (carbon reduction from local
                authority operations).
                Training on sustainable energy           186   Medium           77
                should be provided to curriculum
                advisors so they can promote the
                subject to schools
Social care     Continue to provide advice on fuel       187   More about       78
                poverty to social care clients                 increasing
                including on how to cut heating bills,         comfort than
                gain personalised energy advice                reducing
                and obtain grants.                             emissions,
                                                               but may have
                                                               some impact
                Set up proactive partnership with        187   Medium           78
                health professionals and establish a     186
                referral network so that referrals can
                be made by social care to energy
                agencies.
                Set aside part of the social care        187   Medium           79
                budget for energy advice.                186
COMMUNITY
LEADERSHIP
Community       Continue to ensure that                  186   Underpins        81
planning        energy/climate change is identified            other activity
                as a priority issue in the Sustainable
                Community Strategy (SCS) and is
                linked to a work plan eg NI186 with
                significant targets for carbon
                emission reduction identified. As
                part of this the Council should
                investigate the potential for setting
                targets for overall renewable power
                generation in the area.
Engagement      Engage with other local authorities      186   Medium           82
with regional   to promote sustainable energy.
stakeholders
                Engage with other local authorities      186   Underpins        82
                classified as ‘nearest neighbours’             other activity
                using the Chartered Institute of
                Public Finance and Accountancy
                (CIPFA) modelling to exchange
                information and develop solutions.
 110


               Ensure that local strategies refer to   186          Underpins        83
               regional priorities and targets and                  other activity
               should press for regional targets to
               be in line with or exceeding national
               targets.



Engagement/    The council should ensure that 186                   Potentially      84
awareness      continues    to   have     a     good domestic/      significant
raising with   relationship with the local Energy transport
wider          Saving Trust advice centre (0800
community      512 012) in order to gain the
               maximum benefit by making your
               community aware of this Energy
               Saving Trust funded service.
               Examples       of   joint    working
               opportunities:
                    Home Energy Check mailings
                      and promotion.
                    Delivery     of     sustainable
                      energy events.
                    Joint     awareness      raising
                      campaign.

               Council officers should actively work   186          Medium           84
               in partnership with local community     domestic
               groups and key officers should join
               the Energy Saving Trust’s Green
               Communities initiative.
               Nominate a Green Community to           186          Underpins        85
               your local Energy Saving Trust          domestic     other activity
               advice centre who runs this
               programme.
               Lead the community to take action       186          Medium           85
               on energy by setting up community       domestic
               energy efficiency initiatives
               Encourage microgeneration on            186          Medium           86
               houses.                                 domestic
               Encourage the local community to        186          Medium           87
               develop community renewable             domestic
               schemes and/or energy services
               companies (ESCos).
               Develop a communications plan to        186          Medium           88
               lead the community to take action       domestic
               on reducing energy usage.               /transport
 111


               Continue to loan smart meters to        186         Potentially   89
               residents through their libraries and   domestic/   significant
               promote smart meters to businesses      industry
               as a way of helping them reduce
               energy use.
               Consult with the community to           186         Medium        89
               inform the development of potential
               projects for community wide action.
               Link to community sustainable           186         Medium        90
               energy work to wider work on            domestic/
               education and behavioural change.       transport
               Work with the Carbon Trust to           186         Medium        90
               promote its services to businesses,     industry
               industry and schools.
Transport in   Consider climate change in the next     186         High          92
the            local transport plan.                   transport
community
               Continue to reduce car dependency       186         High          92
               and increase use of public transport,   transport
               cycling and walking. Targets and
               timescales should also be identified.
               Seek to reduce CO2 from cars            186         High          94
               though promoting efficient driving      transport
               and low carbon car choice. Targets
               and timescales should be identified.
               Encourage local bus operators to        186         High          94
               purchase lower carbon vehicles.         transport
               Work with local businesses to           186         High          94
               promote travel plans.                   transport
               Continue to apply planning              186         High          95
               conditions to help reduce traffic       transport
               growth.
               Promote the Energy Saving Trust’s       185, 186    Medium        95
               free green fleet review and vehicle     transport
               carbon footprinting services to local
               businesses. To register for a free
               review, the businesses can call
               0845 602 1425.
               Consider introducing fiscal             186         Medium        95
               measures to encourage reduced car       transport
               use and cleaner car purchase such
               as congestion charging or carbon-
               based residents parking permits.
i




Appendix 1 – Guidance on prioritising recommendations
                                                                                                   Carbon dioxide em issions from an average household
We recommend that the recommendations listed in this report and summarised above
                                                                                                                           Domestic ICT
are put into a sustainable energy action plan, with key recommendations prioritised                          Electronics      4%
and a timetable for implementation developed. When deciding how to prioritise                                    6%
recommendations, there are various things to consider:                                     Wet appliances
                                                                                                5%

1. The energy hierarchy
                                                                                              Cold
The ‘energy hierarchy’ establishes the priority for all energy-related issues and should   appliances
always be considered when deciding what action should be taken to reduce climate              6%                                             Space heating
change:                                                                                                                                          46%
                                                                                                  Lighting
                                                                                                     7%
The energy hierarchy
  1. Reduce the need for energy                                                                         Cooking
  2. Maximise energy efficiency                                                                           4%
  3. Supply energy from renewable sources
  4. Where fossil fuels need to be used, use as efficiently                                                       Water heating
                                                                                                                      22%
      as possible

2. The carbon impact of any actions
The objective of the action plan should be to reduce carbon emissions by as much as possible. In the table in section 5 of the report, we have given
an indication of the degree of impact that each action may have, based on your council’s local circumstances. For example, if there is a lot of new
build in your borough, then introducing a requirement for new build to exceed the Building Regulations and/or incorporate a proportion of on-site
renewable generation will clearly have a big impact on carbon emissions; or if car usage is particularly high in your borough, then community
ii




programmes to encourage walking, cycling and use of public transport will have a big impact. Further advice on this can be provided by the
Practical help team.

Linked to this, for initiatives targeting household energy use, you should bear in mind how energy is used within the house, as indicated by the
graph to the right. Information on the energy saving potential of different domestic measures is provided in Appendix 2.

3. Local circumstances and priorities
Finally, you should of course consider local circumstances and priorities that will have a bearing on which recommendations are most appropriate
and which are most realistic.
iii




Appendix 2 - Summary of savings for energy efficiency measures
The following table gives average savings for installed energy efficiency measures and renewable technologies - weighted by national property mix
and heating fuel. The figures are not for marketing or PR use, rather they should be used by the Council for assessment of savings to be achieved
when installing the measures.
                                                   Annual Savings                                          Lifetime Savings
                                     Energy                                                                                   Carbon
                                                Financial     Carbon Saving        Lifetime Energy Saving Financial
                                      Saving                                                                                   Saving
                                        Net       Saving                 kgCO2/                                   Saving
                                                             kgC/yr                  (yrs)       Net (kWh)                   tC     tCO2
                                      (kWh)        (£/yr)                   yr                                      (£)
 INSULATION
 Loft Insulation 0-270mm               4,309       £194         255        936        40          172,370         £3,239    10.2 37.4
 Loft Insulation 25-270mm              1,957        £88         116        425        40           78,297         £1,471     4.6     17.0
 Loft Insulation 50-270mm              1,236        £56          73        268        40           49,437          £929      2.9     10.7
 Loft Insulation 75-270mm               810         £37          48        176        40           32,383          £608      1.9     7.0
 Loft Insulation 100-270mm              651         £29          39        141        40           26,050          £489      1.5     5.7
 Cavity Wall Insulation                2,606       £117         154        566        40          104,224         £1,958     6.2     22.6
 External Wall Insulation
 (U=0.35)                              8,908       £402         527       1,934       30          267,238         £5,766    15.8 58.0
 Internal Wall Insulation (U=0.45)     8,422       £380         499       1,829       30          252,670         £5,451    15.0 54.9
 Draught Proofing                       559         £25          33        121        20           11,181          £280      0.7     2.4
 Double Glazing                        1,954        £88         116        424        20           39,080          £977      2.3     8.5
 Double Glazing (Min Std to
 ESR)                                   310         £14          18         67        20            6,200          £155      0.4      1.3
 Floor Insulation                       923         £42          55        200        30           27,683          £597      1.6     6.0
 HWT Insulation                         912         £41          54        198        10            9,125          £267      0.5     2.0
 PP Insulation                          309         £13          16         60        10            3,088           £80      0.2     0.6
iv




                                              Annual Savings                                      Lifetime Savings
                                    Energy                                                                            Carbon
                                             Financial   Carbon Saving     Lifetime   Energy Saving    Financial
                                    Saving                                                                            Saving
                                     Net      Saving              kgCO2/                                Saving
                                                         kgC/yr             (yrs)       Net (kWh)                    tC     tCO2
                                    (kWh)      (£/yr)                yr                                   (£)
 Radiator Panels (DIY)                17         £1       1          3       10            166            £4         0.0    0.0
 Block gaps around skirting          463        £21       27        101      10           4,631          £136        0.3    1.0
 Condensing Boiler only
 B to A Upgrades                     614       £25        32       118       12           7,374          £186        0.4    1.4
 Exceptions to Building Regs        1,722      £71        90       332       12          20,662          £522        1.1    4.0
 New non condensing boiler          1,430      £59        75       275       12          17,157          £434        0.9    3.3
 Condensing boiler from stock
 average                            3,687      £152       194      710       12          44,244         £1,118       2.3    8.5
 Heating Controls upgrade
 only (assuming stock average
 boiler)
 Full heating controls package      3,980      £164       211      774       12          47,759          £1,204       2.5   9.3
 Boiler Interlock                   1,412       £58        75      275       12          16,946           £427        0.9   3.3
 Partial heating controls package   1,004       £41        53      195       12          12,043           £304        0.6   2.3
 Room Thermostat                    1,336       £55        70      257       12          16,037           £405        0.8   3.1
 TRVs                                172         £7         9       33       12          2,066            £52         0.1   0.4
 HWT Thermostat                      585       £24         31      113       12           7,019          £177        0.4    1.4
 Delayed Start Thermostat            238        £10        13       46       12           2,859           £72        0.2    0.6
 Time and temperature (zone)
 control                             366       £15        19       71        12          4,395           £111        0.2    0.8
 Storage Heater Controls             932       £77        110      402       12          11,187          £648        1.3    4.8
v




                                                 Annual Savings                                       Lifetime Savings
                                       Energy                                                                             Carbon
                                                Financial   Carbon Saving     Lifetime   Energy Saving     Financial
                                       Saving                                                                             Saving
                                        Net      Saving              kgCO2/                                 Saving
                                                            kgC/yr             (yrs)       Net (kWh)                     tC     tCO2
                                       (kWh)      (£/yr)               yr                                     (£)
    Fuel Switching
    ...to Gas                           1,482     £570       797     2,921      20           29,643         £7,819       15.9   58.4
    ... to Biomass                     -1,257     £200      1,211    4,440      20          -25,137         £3,594       24.2   88.8
    Renewable Technologies
    Solar Water Heating                1,282       £50        71      260       25           32,058          £631         1.8    6.5
    Ground Source Heat Pumps           7,709      £247       305     1,118      40          308,358         £3,723       12.2   44.7
    Air Source Heat Pumps              7,878      £225       270      989       40          315,120         £3,237       10.8   39.6
    PV (2.5kWp)                        2,125      £248       250      916       25           53,125         £3,767        6.2   22.9
    Behavioural Change.
    Turning Heating Down 1DegC         1,378      £57        73       268
    Switching off un-needed lights       15        £8         6        20
    Only put in as much water as
    you need when boiling the kettle     51        £7         6        22
    Appliances & Lighting
    Refrigerator/fridge                  45       £13        10        37       12            538            £112        0.1    0.4
    Fridge Freezer                      132       £39        30       109       12           1,584           £328        0.4    1.3
    Freezer                              79       £23        18        65       12            942            £195        0.2    0.8
    Washing Machine                      78       £11         9        34       12            936            £93         0.1    0.4
    Dishwasher                          158       £23        19        69       12           1,896           £189        0.2    0.8
    CFLs                                8.0        £3         2         8      17.7           142             £35        0.0    0.1
vi




Assumptions
     Insulation savings based on CERT 2008-2011, and are weighted by the national property and heating fuel mixes.
     Heating savings based on BREDEM modelled data from BRE, and are weighted by the national property and heating fuel mixes
     PV assumes the installation of a 2.5kWp system.
     Appliance savings based on replacing a 10 year old model with an equivalent Energy Saving Recommended model.
     All savings are NET of comfort and the heat replacement effect.
     Savings for renewable technologies assume installation in an ‘improved’ (i.e. well-insulated) dwelling.
     ‘Full heating controls package’ assumes moving from no heating controls to a full heating controls package (full programmer, room
  thermostat, cylinder thermostat, boiler interlock, automatic bypass valve and TRV’s on all radiators except in room where room thermostat
  located).
     ‘Limited heating controls package’ assumes moving from an ‘average’ current level of some heating controls to a full set of heating controls.
vii




Appendix 3 – Other resources
The Council can also make use of the resources offered by the following organisations (further details and hyperlinks are provided in the relevant
sections of the report):
   The Homes Energy Efficiency Database (HEED) has being developed by the Energy Saving Trust to register the uptake of sustainable
       energy measures and related survey data throughout the UK housing stock. The database registers these installations on a property-by-
       property basis with data from a wide variety of sources including energy suppliers, government scheme managing agents, local authorities
       and other landlords, Energy Saving Trust advice centre home energy checks as well as other Energy Saving Trust programmes. The
       database stores property details such as building type and full address, as well as details of the installed energy efficiency measures, but not
       personal details of occupants. It will also store property survey data so that a picture of the remaining potential for measures can be built up.
       Further information about HEED is available on the Energy Saving Trust website.
   The Local Government Association (LGA) can provide further information and has produced a report that contains suggestions and guidance
       that will help all local authorities to adopt planning policies that promote sustainable design and construction. In addition, the LGA, in
       partnership with the Energy Saving Trust, has produced a high level publication Leading the way: how local authorities can meet the
       challenge of climate change.
   A climate of change is the final report by the LGA’s Climate Change Commission. The report sets out the crucial role of councils in spurring
       local people into action to both use less energy and use it more efficiently. It identifies four key areas which local authorities need to work on
       to make the necessary carbon emission reductions: transport; planning; housing; and tendering and re-tendering for new and existing
       services.
   The Improvement and Development Agency (IDeA) runs the Beacon Councils scheme. One of last year’s rounds was sustainable energy,
       and the Beacon Councils are currently piloting a programme that would offer mentoring, benchmarking and toolkits for developing
       sustainable energy plans. Further information on the toolkit and pilot can be found on the IDeA website. They can also offer mentoring using
       experienced individuals (although this incurs a cost).
   IDeA is also working on a Sustainable Energy Peer Support programme under which those developing programmes of work can share best
       practice on developing sustainable energy benchmarking and toolkits; aligning national and local policies to create cost effective
       opportunities for carbon reduction and sustainable development; and delivering affordable warmth and affordable homes.
viii




          The Environmental Advisory Service website provides a single entry point for local authority officers to various sources of good practice,
           advice and guidance available at a national level. There are relevant sections on energy and climate change, as well as transport. The
           service also aims to develop environment officer networks for local authority officers and encourage learning through these networks. The
           EAS is a joint partnership between the LGA, Encams and various environmental organisations.
          The Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (BERR) has produced guidance on climate change mitigation and fuel
           poverty alleviation for local authorities in England and Wales. The report contains information, and links to resources and case studies on
           measures that local authorities can use to: Improve energy efficiency, increase the levels of microgeneration or low carbon technologies,
           reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce the number of people living in fuel poverty.
          A free online self assessment tool that allows planning services to identify their strengths and weaknesses is available from the Planning
           Advisory Service (PAS).
ix




Appendix 4 – The benchmarking matrix

     This report was produced using information gathered through the questionnaire supplied to each participating council. The information was used
     to complete the following matrix.

                                       Weak                        Fair                        Good                     Excellent
Benchmark Score               0          1             2           3               4           5              6            7           8
Strategy
Strategic approach                No strategic approach     Council signed up to        Sustainable energy use    As good, but with a
                                  to energy management      Nottingham                  recognised as a           clear target and
                                  in own estate, service    Declaration.                priority. Strategic       timescale set for
                                  delivery or in wider      Sustainable energy          approach adopted that     energy use reductions.
                                  community. No carbon      identified as an issue to   cuts across all aspects   Long term commitment
                                  management                be considered in estate     of estate management,     to be carbon neutral.
                                  programme. No             management, service         service delivery and
                                  sustainable energy        delivery and                community leadership.
                                  strategy.                 community leadership.
Resources - internal              No dedicated              Limited resources           Member of staff within    Cross-service energy
                                  resources provided for    provided, focused on a      each service area         group established with
                                  the integration of        few key areas. Staff        allocated time to         significant resources
                                  sustainable energy into   member allocated time       promote the integration   and clear corporate
                                  service delivery.         to encourage action on      of sustainable energy.    support for action.
                                                            energy across all           More significant budget
                                                            service areas.              for action provided.
                                                                                        Commitment to invest
                                                                                        money saved as a
                                                                                        result of energy
x




                                                                                 efficiency investments
                                                                                 into further energy
                                                                                 action.
Political / corporate       No / minimal               Some discussion of        Energy discussed by      Climate change
support                     discussion of energy by    energy issues in          cabinet / main policy    identified as one of
                            councillors in             sustainable               committee.               councils top five
                            committees. No             development               Commitment to action     priorities. Corporate
                            leadership on energy       committee or              across council estate    commitment supported
                            management from            equivalent. Chief         and in the wider         by clear action plan.
                            chief executive.           executive briefed on      community.               Overall energy
                                                       energy issues.                                     champion appointed at
                                                                                                          senior level. Targets for
                                                                                                          each aspect of own
                                                                                                          estate and for key
                                                                                                          aspects of wider
                                                                                                          community (eg
                                                                                                          housing).
Staff training/engagement   No training or             Basic training provided   Basic training on        Detailed training for all
                            awareness raising of       to staff in areas of      energy issues for all    staff with regular
                            energy issues for staff.   council operation         staff as part of         refresher courses.
                                                       deemed to have most       induction. More          Departments aware of
                                                       significant impact on     detailed training for    need to meet energy
                                                       energy use.               staff in housing,        reduction targets.
                                                                                 planning and building    Energy champions in
                                                                                 control.                 place.
xi




                                Weak                         Fair                          Good                          Excellent
Benchmark Score          0        1                2         3                4            5                 6              7            8
Services


Regeneration           No recognition of the       Recognition of the value       Renewal / regeneration         Specific energy
                       role of energy efficiency   of energy efficiency           schemes actively seek          efficiency targets within
                       improvements in area        improvements as part of        projects delivering            renewal / regeneration
                       renewal. No link made       regeneration. Limited          energy efficiency advice       schemes. Core focus of
                       between local economic      acknowledgement of             and improvements.              economic development
                       development and             energy efficiency as a         Emphasis given to              activity is to secure high
                       sustainable energy.         factor in business             opportunities to improve       sustainable energy
                                                   performance.                   business efficiency.           standards in projects /
                                                                                                                 activities / participating
                                                                                                                 businesses. Active
                                                                                                                 encouragement for the
                                                                                                                 development of
                                                                                                                 sustainable energy
                                                                                                                 businesses in the area.
Social housing – own   Low average SAP rating      Average SAP already            Average SAP already            As good, plus training
stock including Arms   (under 60) for social       70 or more but no target       75 or more but no target       and advice for tenants
Length Management      housing. Not on track to    to increase, OR Action         to increase, OR Plan to        and staff on efficient use
Organisation (ALMO)    meet Decent Homes           plan in place to raise         raise average SAP              of heating etc. Clear link
                       standard and no clear       average SAP by several         rating by several              to work of Energy
                       strategy for addressing     points to at least 65,         points to at least 70,         Saving Trust advice
                       the issues.                 prioritising poorest           aiming for higher              centre and other local
xii




                                  Weak                       Fair                          Good                          Excellent
Benchmark Score            0        1              2         3                4            5                 6              7             8
Services
                                                   performing housing.            thermal standards than         energy / fuel poverty
                                                                                  Decent Homes. Plus a           advice agencies. New
                                                                                  minimum SAP target of          build designed to code
                                                                                  at least 65. Plan backed       for sustainable homes
                                                                                  by clear timetable and         level 4 as a minimum.
                                                                                  investment funds
                                                                                  identified.
Social housing – other   No liaison with           Minimal liaison with           Active partnership with        As good, plus success
stock - including        Registered Social         RSLs. Data provided for        RSLs on energy, looking        in levering in funding for
Large Scale Voluntary    Landlords (RSLs) in       Home Energy                    at working together on         joint programmes.
Transfer (LSVT)          borough.                  Conservation Act               accessing funding,
                                                   (HECA) returns.                advising tenants,
                                                                                  running programmes.
Private sector housing   Very limited staff time   Private sector energy          Specific programmes to         Strategic approach to
                         allocated to action on    efficiency improvement         improve private housing,       private sector
                         private sector domestic   strategy being followed,       with grant funding             households with clear
                         energy efficiency.        with some resources            targeted at energy             targets for improvement,
                                                   allocated.                     priorities. Specific           partnerships for advice
                                                                                  programme for tackling         and delivery, and
                                                                                  private rented housing.        monitoring.
                                                                                  Enforcing HHSRS to
                                                                                  improve private rented
                                                                                  sector.
xiii




                                Weak                      Fair                          Good                          Excellent
Benchmark Score          0        1             2         3                4            5                 6              7            8
Services
Energy advice          Limited work with        More significant support       Consistent support and         As good, plus clear
                       Energy Saving Trust      and contact with the           engagement with                policy of training and
                       advice centre (or        Energy Saving Trust            Energy Saving Trust            supporting front-line
                       similar) to support      advice centre (or              advice centre (or              staff in energy efficiency
                       householders through     similar).                      similar) including joint       advice and signposting.
                       dissemination of                                        promotions and staff
                       information.                                            training.
Resources – levering   No attempt to secure     Some attempt to secure         Funding secured from     Ongoing programme of
in external funding    external funding for     external funding, but          one or two external      seeking external
                       sustainable energy in    applications not               sources in the past      funding, with funding
                       the past three years.    successful.                    three years.             obtained from at least
                                                                                                        three different sources
                                                                                                        in the past three years.
Signposting to         Minimal signposting to   Reactive response to           Support for CERT and     Co-ordinated effort with
external grant         schemes, on reactive     schemes to provide             Warm Front to promote wide range of partners
schemes (Low Carbon    basis.                   endorsement and                locally increased take   to maximise take up of
Buildings Programme,                            enable distribution of         up. Establishment of     available grants and
Warm Front, CERT                                materials.                     own schemes to fill gaps schemes, with one-stop-
etc)                                                                           and action to encourage shop approach to
                                                                               take up. Active          signposting and
                                                                               promotion of LESA        delivery.
xiv




                                 Weak                       Fair                          Good                    Excellent
Benchmark Score          0         1              2         3                4            5              6           7           8
Services
Planning policy        Limited discussion of      Some specific energy           LDF encourages energy     As good, but with
                       energy issues in Local     policies within LDF. 10%       efficiency standards      incentives eg section
                       Development                target for renewables /        beyond building regs.     106 for exemplar / zero
                       Framework (LDF) and        CHP / DH in new build.         Code for sustainable      energy developments.
                       other planning                                            homes level 3 for all     Code for sustainable
                       documents. No                                             new developments. Use     homes level 4+ for all
                       acknowledgement of                                        of CHP / DH               new developments with
                       role of renewables or                                     encouraged, with          clear systems for
                       combined heat and                                         targets where             technical assessment
                       power (CHP) and/or                                        renewables not            and enforcement.
                       district heating (DH).                                    appropriate.              Planners proactively
                                                                                 Microgeneration on        promoting sustainable
                                                                                 houses encouraged.        energy to everyone
                                                                                                           applying for planning
                                                                                                           permission.
Building regulations   Little attention to Part   Part L assessment              Part L assessment         Systematic assessment
enforcement            L1A (new buildings) or     within building control        within building control a and review of Part L
                       part L1B (existing         but not a high priority        priority focus of         aspects of plans and
                       buildings) in building     within enforcement.            enforcement activity.     enforcement
                       control activities.        Little understanding or        Understanding and         review of actual
                                                  enforcement of Part            enforcement of Part L1B construction. Building
                                                  L1B.                                                     regulation officers
                                                                                                           promote sustainable
                                                                                                           energy to all those
xv




                                  Weak                     Fair                         Good                         Excellent
Benchmark Score           0         1            2         3              4             5                 6             7            8
Services
                                                                                                              applying for building
                                                                                                              control approval.
Education (Unitary)     No school energy         Occasional involvement       Active encouragement            Properly resourced,
                        education initiatives.   in school energy             for schools to engage           authority-wide
                                                 education initiatives.       with energy education.          programme for schools
                                                                                                              energy education
Social care (Unitary)   No advice on fuel        Limited advice on fuel       All social care clients         As good, but with part of
                        poverty provided to      poverty provided to          provided with advice on         social care budget set
                        social care clients.     social care clients.         how to cut heating bills,       aside for energy advice.
                                                                              where to gain                   Proactive partnerships
                                                                              personalised energy             with health
                                                                              advice and what grants          professionals in place,
                                                                              are available for energy        including referral
                                                                              efficiency works.               networks.
                                                                              Referrals made by
                                                                              social care to energy
                                                                              agencies.
xvi




                                 Weak                       Fair                      Good                        Excellent
Benchmark Score           0         1             2         3                4        5                  6          7            8

Community leadership
Community planning   No mention of                Recognition of energy /    Energy / climate change     As good, but linked to a
                     sustainable energy           climate change as an       identified as a priority    commitment to achieve
                     within community             issue within the           issue and linked to an      more significant cuts in
                     strategy.                    community strategy but     action plan. Target for     carbon emissions across
                                                  only aspirational          reducing community          the community by an
                                                  statement with no clear    CO2 emissions in line       agreed date.
                                                  commitment to action.      with legal national
                                                                             targets eg NI186.
Engagement with         No engagement at          Limited engagement         Active engagement with      As good, plus actively
regional stakeholders   regional level on         with other local           other local authorities     pressing for regional targets
                        energy.                   authorities and regional   and regional bodies.        in line with or exceeding
                                                  bodies.                    Local strategies refer to   national targets.
                                                                             regional priorities and
                                                                             targets.
Engagement /            No consultation /         Limited consultation /     Active consultation /       As good, but significant
awareness raising       engagement on             engagement with the        engagement,                 funding provided for
with wider community    sustainable energy with   community around           developing community-       community-led action on
                        the wider community.      energy issues.             wide action plan. Link to   energy.
                                                                             wider work on education
                                                                             and behavioural
                                                                             change.
xvii




                                 Weak                       Fair                      Good                        Excellent
Benchmark Score            0        1             2         3               4         5                  6          7            8

Community leadership
Transport in the     No work to lower             Some activity to reduce   Strategy to reduce           As good plus targets for all
community (Unitary)  CO2from transport            CO2 from transport,       CO2from transport            areas with a set timeframe.
                     through efficient driving,   including reduced car     through efficient driving,   Fiscal measures to
                     low carbon car choice,       dependency and            low carbon car choice,       encourage reduced car use
                     reduced car                  encouraging public        reduced car                  and low car CO2 purchase
                     dependency, public           transport, cycling and    dependency and               such as congestion
                     transport, cycling or        walking. Planning         increasing use of public     charging, CO2 based
                     walking.                     conditions applied to     transport, cycling and       parking levies.
                                                  help reduce traffic       walking. Working with
                                                  growth.                   local businesses to
                                                                            promote travel plans.
                                                                            Working with bus
                                                                            operators to encourage
                                                                            lower carbon vehicles.
                                                                            Climate change
                                                                            measures in local
                                                                            transport plan. Air
                                                                            quality target on track to
                                                                            be met.

				
DOCUMENT INFO