Docstoc

FEASIBILITY

Document Sample
FEASIBILITY Powered By Docstoc
					Gonzaga Debate Institute                                                                             rps aff supplement
Dunn/Gordon/Lazarevic                                                                                                 1
FEASIBILITY .................................................................................................................... 2
RPS/TAX CREDITS SOLVE- SOLAR AND WARMING .............................................. 2
RPS/TAX CREDITS K 2 RENEWABLE INVESTMENT ............................................... 3
RPS/TAX CREDITS SOLVE............................................................................................. 4
RPS FEASIBLE- SOLVES COMP .................................................................................... 5
RPS FEASIBLE- SOLVES MARKET .............................................................................. 6
RPS FEASIBLE- SOLVES WARMING ........................................................................... 7
RPS FEASIBLE- SOLVES NAT GAS .............................................................................. 8
RPS FEASIBLE- TAX CREDITS KEY ............................................................................ 9
WARMING ADVANTAGE ............................................................................................ 10
RPS SOLVES WARMING .............................................................................................. 10
RPS SOLVES WARMING .............................................................................................. 11
RPS SOLVES WARMING .............................................................................................. 12
RPS SOLVES WARMING, NAT GAS, ELEC PRICES................................................. 13
AT: ECON DA ................................................................................................................. 14
L/T- RPS GROWTH..................................................................................................... 14
L/T- RPS LOWERS ELEC PRICES ................................................................................ 15
L/T- RPS SOLVES MANUFACTURING ....................................................................... 16
L/T- LOWER CONSUMER COSTS, INC ECON .......................................................... 17
NO LINK-RPS DN INC PRICES..................................................................................... 18
AT: STATES CP............................................................................................................... 19
AT: STATES CP............................................................................................................... 20
Gonzaga Debate Institute                                                     rps aff supplement
Dunn/Gordon/Lazarevic                                                                         2


FEASIBILITY
RPS/TAX CREDITS SOLVE- SOLAR AND WARMING
Solar power is feasible and can solve global warming-a national RPS and extension of tax
credits are key
Greenwire in 2k8 (solar power: report touts potential of large-scale projects, May 9, LN)
An advocacy group issued a report yesterday touting the potential of large-scale solar power
plants to supply significant baseload electric power without greenhouse gas emissions and urging
policymakers to craft renewable power standards and extend tax incentives to help spur
development. The Environment America report extols the potential of concentrating solar power
plants (CSP), which employ large arrays of mirrors or lenses that focus sunlight to produce heat
that powers electric generators. "If we are going to get serious about fighting global warming and
addressing our nation's energy woes, solar energy must be part of the solution," said Anna
Aurilio, director of the group's Washington office. CSP technology, which is less known than
photovoltaics, is not new, but it is experiencing a U.S. resurgence after a period of dormancy
(Greenwire, Sept. 21, 2007). Acciona's 64 megawatt Nevada Solar One project, the first CSP
plant built in 17 years in the United States, came online last year, and substantially larger plants
are being planned. The Solar Energy Industries Association estimates that more than 4,000
megawatts of CSP is in various stages of planning and development. Environment America
estimates that building 80 gigawatts, enough to power about 25 million homes, of CSP capacity is
achievable by 2030 if there is "sufficient public policy support." This alone would be enough to
curb carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. power plants by 6.6 percent compared to 2000 levels,
the report states. "Solar thermal power can make even greater contributions in the years to come
-- precisely the time when the nation must achieve deep cuts in global warming pollution," the
report says. Solar power plants covering a 100-by-100 square mile area, about 9 percent of the
size of Nevada, could create enough power for the entire nation, the report states. The report
says CSP can be an important way to help bring about deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions
needed to help stave off the worst effects of global warming. But the group is calling for stronger
public support to help address cost and other barriers. This includes a national renewable
electricity standard of 25 percent by 2025, with a specific amount allotted to solar generation.
Environment America, along with environmental groups and the renewables industry, is pressing
Congress to extend federal renewable energy tax credits that are currently set to expire at the
end of this year.
Gonzaga Debate Institute                                                       rps aff supplement
Dunn/Gordon/Lazarevic                                                                           3


RPS/TAX CREDITS K 2 RENEWABLE INVESTMENT
The renewable industry will collapse without a national RPS and extension of tax credits
Duncan and Cash in 2k8 (Alexander and Cathy, Electric Utility Week, investors talk of disaster
for renewables if congress does not extend tax, March 10, LN)
Billions of dollars and thousands of megawatts are at stake, according to high-level investors who
urged Congress to extend federal tax credits to develop wind, solar and other renewable energy
resources before investments dry up this spring. Venture capital, banking and industry officials at
a news conference organized by the American Council on Renewable Energy underscored the
urgency to extend the investment tax credit for solar and the production tax credit for wind and
other renewable energy resources. Both federal incentives expire in December. But the
investment community already forecasts a tightening of capital for renewable energy projects if
Congress does not extend these credits by May, according to the panel at the event held at the
US government-sponsored Washington International Renewable Energy Conference. "It is
absolutely imperative that our legislature act immediately and extend the investment tax credit
and the production tax credit," said Credit Suisse Vice Chairman John Cavalier, adding that there
would be "disastrous consequences" if the tax credits lapse. Nancy Floyd, founder of the venture
capital group Nth Power, noted that about $3.4 billion in venture capital poured into the renewable
energy sector last year and she likened the industry's growth to that of the personal computer and
the Internet. "This is big business," Floyd said, but she added that removing the favorable tax
policy could lead the industry "to a virtual standstill." Recently the House of Representatives
passed an energy tax package that would extend the PTC through 2011 and the ITC through
2016, but it used $18 billion in repeals of tax credits to the domestic oil and natural gas industries
to help finance these breaks for renewables. The bill, H.R. 5351, heads to the Senate, which just
a couple of months ago sidelined a similar package in part because senators and the Bush
administration opposed the treatment of oil and gas.
Gonzaga Debate Institute                                                      rps aff supplement
Dunn/Gordon/Lazarevic                                                                          4




RPS/TAX CREDITS SOLVE

Incentives make renewable transition feasible-national RPS ensures transmission
capacities are solved
Power, Finance and Risk in 2k8 (industry to feds: renew the tax credits!, june 23, LN)
Renewable energy developers and financiers attending the Fifth Anniversary Renewable Energy
Finance Forum--Wall Street conference at the Waldorf Astoria in New York last week continued
their clamor for renewed incentives. "The lack of extensions of the production tax credits is at the
tipping point," said John Eber, managing director of energy investments at JPMorgan Capital.
Others warned of the risks to the industry and the nation's energy security of inaction. "You take
that benefits out of the project and there is not enough economics for it to work," said Kevin
Walsh, managing director of renewable energy at GE Energy Financial Services, on the
conference sidelines. Peter Duprey, ceo of Acciona Energy North America, said it is a race
against time. "It's a global environment, and if it doesn't happen here, it will happen in Spain...If
we don't do it, someone else will." Rhone Resch, president of the Solar Energy Industries
Association, predicted the amount of installed capacity in the U.S. would grow by 80% after four
years with renewed tax credits and said an eight-year extension would allow for technological
advancements to bring down the cost of solar so much that it could exist without subsidies. The
march of renewable energy players is also threatened by the lack of transmission that officials
say could be solved with national renewable portfolio standards. Dan Reicher, director of climate
change and energy initiatives at Google.org, noted that, "If we're going to crack the code on these
infrastructure challenges...it's going to take a coalition of companies large and small in
Washington." A federal transmission authority, uniting all state-level efforts, is needed, added
Michael Eckhart, president of the American Council On Renewable Energy.
Gonzaga Debate Institute                                                      rps aff supplement
Dunn/Gordon/Lazarevic                                                                          5


RPS FEASIBLE- SOLVES COMP
20% is feasible and key to competitiveness
Sierra Club in 2k8 (Myths vs. Reality about a 20% Renewable Portfolio Standard,
http://www.sierraclub.org/globalwarming/cleanenergy/renewables.asp)
Claim: It is unrealistic to expect utilities to sell 20% of their power from renewable sources in 20
years when we are currently at only 2%. Reality: The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS)
recently completed a study, Renewing Where We Live, which shows that the U.S. has more than
sufficient potential to produce 20% of our electricity from renewable sources. Adopting a 20%
standard will put the U.S. on track to be competitive with other countries-many of which have
poorer resources and less land area-that have adopted similar or more aggressive standards.
The United Kingdom plans to increase renewable energy from 2.8% of electricity use today to
10% by 2010, and a recent government report proposed increasing to 20% renewable energy by
2020.2 Denmark and Finland are planning for 30% renewable energy by 2010. The European
Union goal is 22% by 2010. Regions in Denmark, Spain, and Germany already get nearly 20% of
their electricity just from wind turbines.(3) State governments are also adopting renewable
electricity standards. Nevada's standard requires that 15% of its electricity will come from
renewable energy by 2013. Connecticut and Massachusetts both have standards that ramp up to
1% annual increases in renewable energy. The Western Regional Air Partnership-a coalition
comprising the Governors of eight western states as well as regional Tribal leaders-recommend
both state and national level renewable energy standards of 20% by 2015 as a means to reduce
regional air pollution.(4)
Gonzaga Debate Institute                                                    rps aff supplement
Dunn/Gordon/Lazarevic                                                                        6


RPS FEASIBLE- SOLVES MARKET
RPS is feasible and ensures massive renewables market
UCS in 2k7 (Union of Concerned Scientists, Cashing in on Clean Energy,
http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_energy/cashing-in-national.pdf)
In 2005, about 88 percent of our nation’s electricity was generated from just three sources: coal,
natural gas, and nuclear. This heavy reliance on fossil and nuclear fuels makes American
consumers and the U.S. economy vulnerable to potential energy supply shortages and
interruptions, as well as price spikes and price manipulation. Increasing our use of renewable
energy helps diversify our energy mix by meeting a larger portion of U.S. power demand and
reducing the projected growth in coal and natural gas use for electricity. Our analysis found that
under the UCS case 20 percent standard, America would increase its total homegrown renewable
power generating capacity to 117,000 megawatts (MW) by 2020— more than twice as much
compared with BAU and nearly six times the capacity levels in 2005 (about 20,000 MW). This
development would come from wind, bioenergy, geothermal, and solar power resources,
providing enough electricity to serve the needs of nearly 91 million typical U.S. homes. In
addition, the renewable capacity needed to meet a 20 percent national standard is nearly 80
percent greater than what would be needed to achieve full compliance with existing state-level
renewable electricity standards through 2020. After 2020, renewable energy development would
continue to grow, with significant contributions from geothermal, solar thermal, and solar
photovoltaics.
Gonzaga Debate Institute                                                       rps aff supplement
Dunn/Gordon/Lazarevic                                                                           7



RPS FEASIBLE- SOLVES WARMING
National RPS is feasible, would lower consumer costs, and solve global warming
States News Service in 2k7 (15 percent by 2020 national renewable electricity standard would
save consumers money and fight global warming, oct 25, LN)
An energy bill requiring utilities to generate at least 15 percent of their electricity from renewable
energy sources would significantly lower consumer electricity and natural gas bills and reduce
global warming pollution, according to new analysis released today by the Union of Concerned
Scientists (UCS). The House passed such a provision, called a renewable electricity standard, in
its version of the bill. "With this renewable electricity standard, Congress would give Americans
three gifts: lower electric bills, cleaner air, and more homegrown energy," said Marchant
Wentworth, Washington representative with UCS's Clean Energy Program. "When you combine
this renewables requirement with one that would force automakers to produce more fuel-efficient
cars, the bill would represent a big step forward in addressing the threat of global warming." The
national renewable electricity standard provision that passed the House would require utilities to
supply 15 percent of their power from wind, bioenergy, solar or geothermal power by 2020. States
could meet a quarter of their obligation through energy efficiency measures. Currently, about 2.5
percent of the country's power supply comes from non-hydroelectric renewable sources. The
UCS analysis found that a 15-percent-by-2020 national renewable electricity standard would:
--save consumers $13 billion to $18.1 billion on electricity and natural gas bills by 2020 by
reducing demand for fossil fuels and increasing competition in the U.S. energy market;
--generate more than a 450 percent increase in the nation's clean energy use over 2005 levels;
and --reduce global warming pollution by 126 million metric tons per year by 2020, equal to taking
as many as 21 million cars off the road. UCS's analysis uses two scenarios a higher renewable
energy case and a lower renewable energy case to illustrate the range of the 15-percent-by-2020
standard's benefits, depending on how state and federal regulators choose to implement the
requirement. "Under either scenario, the renewable electricity standard would protect the
environment and our pocketbooks by making our energy supply cleaner, more reliable and more
secure," Wentworth said.
Gonzaga Debate Institute                                                    rps aff supplement
Dunn/Gordon/Lazarevic                                                                        8


RPS FEASIBLE- SOLVES NAT GAS

RPS is feasible and key to the economy and reducing dependence on natural gas
UCS in 2k7 (Union of Concerned Scientists, Cashing in on Clean Energy,
http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_energy/cashing-in-national.pdf)
A national renewable electricity standard would make America’s energy supply more reliable and
secure. It would use local energy sources to create high-skilled U.S. jobs, improve local
economies, put energy dollars back into the pockets of consumers, and reduce the dangers of
global warming and air pollution. Using existing technologies, we can shift away from our
dependence on an unstable, dirty fossil fuel supply, and toward a future built on clean, renewable
energy. We have a responsibility and a compelling financial interest to make the renewable
electricity standard a cornerstone of America’s national energy policy.
Gonzaga Debate Institute                                                     rps aff supplement
Dunn/Gordon/Lazarevic                                                                         9



RPS FEASIBLE- TAX CREDITS KEY

RPS is feasible but only with the extension of tax credits for wind and solar
Garrington in 2k8 (Matthew, The Denver Post, Guest Commentary A new energy economy, jan
10, LN)
A national renewable electricity standard is the cornerstone for cutting global warming pollution
and transitioning away from dirty coal plants and to a new energy future. So far, it is states like
Colorado that bear the burden of this fight. Last spring, we doubled our goal of clean, homegrown
energy to 20 percent by 2020. We need Washington to live up to its responsibilities, too.
Moreover, Congress' failure to pass clean-energy tax credits will have an impact on local
businesses. Experts have mapped out the boom-and-bust development of the wind industry
based on year-to-year commitments of renewable tax incentives. Also, solar businesses from
Pueblo to Boulder have talked about why tax credits are the key to growing and maintaining a
robust solar industry in our sun-blessed state. The solar industry estimates that the tax credit
would have created 55,000 new jobs and more than $45 billion in economic investment
nationwide. How can we expect renewables to compete when we're still giving handouts to coal
and nuclear power by the billions while letting federal investments in renewables expire? U.S.
Reps. Diana DeGette and Mark Udall were key in passing the renewable electricity standard
through the House. Sen. Ken Salazar passed a renewable energy standard through the Senate
last spring and continues to fight for this important policy. Unfortunately, Sen. Wayne Allard,
founder of the Senate Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Caucus, chose to help block the
renewable electricity standard despite support of everyone from labor to agriculture to Xcel
Energy to Gov. Bill Ritter. Overall, the final energy bill was good for Colorado. We broke through
30 years of inaction on fuel economy and energy independence. Now, we need Congress to
commit to a New Year's resolution to pass a national renewable electricity standard and the
renewables tax credit package. It's high time for Washington to show the same vision that
Colorado leaders have put forth for a new energy economy.
Gonzaga Debate Institute                                                      rps aff supplement
Dunn/Gordon/Lazarevic                                                                         10



WARMING ADVANTAGE
RPS SOLVES WARMING
20% RPS is an effective way to solve Warming-power plants are the largest emitters in the
US
UCS in 2k7 (Union of Concerned Scientists, Cashing in on Clean Energy,
http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_energy/cashing-in-national.pdf)
If left unchecked, heat-trapping emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2) are expected to cause
dangerous global warming that threatens our health and environment. Increased renewable
energy use would provide an affordable global warming solution by reducing fossil fuel demand,
thereby reducing CO2 emissions from the largest U.S. source: power plants. The 20 percent
national standard would reduce power plant CO2 emissions by 223 million metric tons per year
by 2020 (8 percent below BAU and a 63 percent reduction in EIA’s projected growth of power
plant CO2 emissions from today’s levels), equivalent to taking 36.4 million cars off the road.


RPS solves warming
UCS in 2k7 (Union of Concerned Scientists, renewable energy-mitigating global warming,
http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/clean_energy_policies/RES-climate-strategy.html)
In order to ensure healthy air and a stable climate for our children and grandchildren, we must
make responsible decisions about our energy sources. Existing technologies and forward-thinking
policies offer practical and affordable solutions to reduce our dependence on the fossil fuels that
currently dominate America’s electricity system. This system threatens the health of our
communities by polluting the air and contributing to global warming. If left unchecked, heat-
trapping emissions, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), are expected to cause irreversible damage to
communities throughout the United States and around the world. This damage will likely include
increased urban air pollution and emerging infectious diseases such as West Nile Virus;[1] sea-
level rise causing flooding and erosion in coastal communities; extreme weather including more
intense droughts and hurricanes; reduced productivity of some agricultural regions; and loss of
many treasured landscapes and species—from coral reefs to polar bears.[2] Practical solutions
do exist. For example, more than 40 percent of U.S. states have adopted a renewable electricity
standard—a policy that requires electricity suppliers to gradually increase their use of renewable
energy such as wind, solar, geothermal, and bioenergy. These states are demonstrating that
renewable standards are an affordable solution to reduce CO2 and other unhealthy air emissions,
while alleviating the harmful impact that fossil fuel extraction, transport, and use have on land and
water resources.
Gonzaga Debate Institute                                                   rps aff supplement
Dunn/Gordon/Lazarevic                                                                      11


RPS SOLVES WARMING
A national RPS solves warming-electricity generation is 1/3 of US emissions, A national
RPS solves better than state action
UCS in 2k7 (Union of Concerned Scientists, renewable energy-mitigating global warming,
http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/clean_energy_policies/RES-climate-strategy.html)
A National Standard Significantly Increases Climate Benefits While many states are making
important strides in reducing CO2 emissions with renewable electricity standards, substantially
greater benefits could be achieved if Congress adopted a national standard. A 2004 UCS
analysis examined the costs and benefits of a 20 percent by 2020 renewable standard, and found
that America would increase its total renewable power to 180,000 MW in 2020—nearly 11 times
more than current levels.[3] The 20 percent national standard would reduce the projected growth
in power plant CO2 emissions under a business-as-usual scenario by more than half, or 434
MMT per year by 2020. This level of reductions is equivalent to taking nearly 71 million cars off
the road or planting 104 million acres of trees—an area approximately the size of Oregon and
Washington combined. Even a 10 percent standard would deliver substantial climate benefits,
reducing annual CO2 emissions by 166 MMT by 2020. Studies by the U.S. Department of
Energy’s Energy Information Administration have shown similar results. Renewable Electricity
Standards Are a Smart Climate Solution With only five percent of the world population, the United
States produces nearly 25 percent of annual global heat-trapping emissions.[4] Electricity
generation accounts for fully one-third of these emissions.[5] We have a responsibility and a
compelling interest to significantly reduce these harmful emissions. Renewable electricity
standards offer a smart, affordable climate solution with a proven track record.
Gonzaga Debate Institute                                                     rps aff supplement
Dunn/Gordon/Lazarevic                                                                        12




RPS SOLVES WARMING
National RPS solves global warming and ensures feasibility by creating strong incentive
market for renewables
Kohler in 2k8 (Dan, director of Wisconsin Environment, a nonprofit is a statewide, environmental
advocacy organization, Wisconsin State Journal, taking steps toward a new energy future, dec
26, LN)
With the first meaningful improvement in gas mileage standards in a generation, Congress took a
significant step toward a new energy future this week in an energy bill signed by President Bush.
But even this big step forward is just the beginning of what we must do to address America's
energy challenges. If we're serious about America's transition to a clean energy economy and
solving global warming, we can't stop now. The next milestone in the journey toward clean energy
must include making a national commitment to renewable energy. And, the best way to put
America on a path to clean, homegrown, renewable energy is one that is simple and has proven
remarkably effective - setting a nationwide minimum standard for renewable electricity Congress
just missed a golden opportunity to jumpstart renewable energy in America by including a
renewable electricity standard in this energy bill. Unfortunately, the threat of a presidential veto
and a Republican-led filibuster fueled by the coal industry and the utilities forced the Senate to
drop a provision that had been passed by the House of Representatives to require that utilities
provide 15 percent of their power from renewable resources, despite Sen. Russ Feingold's
support. Governors, mayors, labor unions, farmers, investors, and the faith community have all
united to support a national renewable electricity standard because it will create jobs, save
consumers money, revitalize rural communities, and make significant cuts in global warming
pollution. A recent study by the Renewable Energy Policy Project for the United Steelworkers
showed that a 15 percent to 20 percent renewable standard has the potential of creating 850,000
new jobs in component part manufacturing alone. Thanks to Wisconsin's renewable energy
standard, clean renewable energy will generate 79 megawatts of energy by the end of this year.
These projects will replace dirty energy as well as prevent the use of 14.2 million gallons of water
and avert 159,000 metric tons of global warming pollution. Wisconsin, along with every other
state in the country, would benefit greatly from a national renewables standard. An analysis by
the Union of Concerned Scientists found that a federal renewables standard would create 4,240
clean energy jobs in Wisconsin, and save Wisconsinites $90 million through lower energy bills by
2020. America's skilled workforce and the same venture capitalists and entrepreneurs who
helped revolutionize telecommunications and the internet are lining up to usher in the green
energy boom. But the clean energy revolution won't happen on its own. In order to realize the full
potential of our renewable energy resources, the United States needs strong and consistent
public policy to support these new economies. That is why Goldman Sachs, Google, and other
investment power houses have endorsed the renewable electricity standard. After decades of
federal inaction on fuel economy, Congress has taken action. They shouldn't stop there. The next
step on our journey toward a new energy future must be to follow the leaders in the 25 states that
are already reaping the rewards of clean renewable energy. Congress should continue its work to
pass a national renewable electricity standard.
Gonzaga Debate Institute                                                     rps aff supplement
Dunn/Gordon/Lazarevic                                                                        13



RPS SOLVES WARMING, NAT GAS, ELEC PRICES
National RPS solves warming, electricity costs, and natural gas price spikes
Udall in 2k7 (Tom, U.S. Representative, Third Congressional District Energy security increases
national security, congressional documents and publications, dec 6, LN)
By passing a national Renewable Electricity Standard, this Congress would make good on its
word to: . Slow global warming: By displacing the use of fossil fuels to generate electricity, an
RES can cut emissions of conventional pollutants and greenhouse gases. A 15 percent RES
would reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 500 million tons below business-as-usual
levels, the equivalent to taking millions of cars off the road; . Reduce energy bills: Energy
research firm Wood Mackenzie found that an RES would lower natural gas and electricity prices
and save more than $100 billion for American consumers; . Create jobs: Wind and solar energy
are likely to be among the largest sources of new manufacturing jobs worldwide during the 21st
Century. A recent Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) study found that an RES would create
hundreds of thousands of new American jobs; . Revitalize rural America: Farmers and rural land
owners in windy areas are reaping payments of $3,000-$8,000 per turbine per year, while still
being able to work their land. The "wind harvest" can carry hard-pressed farmers through difficult
times, such as droughts, even if crops fail; and Strengthen energy security: Domestic renewable
energy can reduce projected imports of liquid natural gas (LNG) from such unstable regions as
Qatar, Russia and Iran (which together hold more than half the world's gas reserves) and reduce
U.S. energy payments to these nations.
Gonzaga Debate Institute                                                    rps aff supplement
Dunn/Gordon/Lazarevic                                                                       14



AT: ECON DA
L/T- RPS GROWTH

RPS will not hurt the economy-it will generate thousands of jobs, billions in investment,
and solve US competitiveness
Sierra Club in 2k8 (Myths vs. Reality about a 20% Renewable Portfolio Standard,
http://www.sierraclub.org/globalwarming/cleanenergy/renewables.asp)
Claim: A 20% RPS will hurt consumers and reduce economic growth and employment.
Reality: : A national RES would have substantial economic benefits. Both EIA and UCS analyses
found that under a 20% RES, total consumer energy bills would be lower in 2020 than business-
as-usual because the RES would reduce natural gas prices. Lower energy bills will make the
American economy more competitive and increase economic growth and employment. A 20%
RES would create 80,000 new, high quality jobs in the wind industry alone; spur $80 billion in new
capital investment; and provide $1.2 billion in new income for farmers, ranchers and rural
landowners and $5 billion in property tax revenues for communities.
Furthermore, creating a healthy renewable electricity industry would position U.S. renewable
energy firms to compete successfully with European and Japanese companies for a multi-billion
international market in renewable energy.
Gonzaga Debate Institute                                                     rps aff supplement
Dunn/Gordon/Lazarevic                                                                        15


L/T- RPS LOWERS ELEC PRICES
RPS will lower electricity prices every year of its implementation
UCS in 2k7 (Union of Concerned Scientists, Cashing in on Clean Energy,
http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_energy/cashing-in-national.pdf)
Under the UCS case 20 percent national standard, consumers in all sectors of the economy
would experience a reduction in both their cumulative electricity and natural gas costs compared
with business as usual (BAU). Cumulative savings would reach $10.5 billion by 2020 and, by
2030, would grow to $31.8 billion ($10.4 billion for households, $13.4 billion for commercial
customers, and $8.1 billion for industrial customers).2 In addition, energy bills would be reduced
in every region of the country. The national renewable standard saves consumers money by
reducing the demand for fossil fuels and creating new competitors in the U.S. energy market. As
a result, energy companies are limited in their ability to raise fossil fuel prices in the future.
Compared with BAU, natural gas (and coal) therefore cost less for electricity generation as well
as for other purposes, benefiting both electricity consumers and natural gas consumers. Under
the 20 percent national standard, average consumer prices for both electricity and natural gas
would be slightly lower than BAU in nearly every year of the forecast, with an average annual
reduction of 1.1 percent in each sector.
Gonzaga Debate Institute                                                     rps aff supplement
Dunn/Gordon/Lazarevic                                                                        16



L/T- RPS SOLVES MANUFACTURING

RPS will generate thousands of jobs and billions of investment in the economy-saves the
manufacturing sector
UCS in 2k7 (Union of Concerned Scientists, Cashing in on Clean Energy,
http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_energy/cashing-in-national.pdf)
A renewable electricity standard would benefit the U.S. economy in other significant ways. For
example, dollars invested in clean energy go toward high-quality jobs in manufacturing and
construction, as well as jobs in operations, maintenance, finance, sales, shipping, and other
industries. Jobs are also created when these workers spend their income on goods and services
and when consumer energy bill savings are spent in the local economy. By 2020, the total new
renewable energy development needed to meet a 20 percent national standard would generate
185,000 jobs. State level poli- cies—primarily renewable electricity Electricity Bill Savings*
standards—would make an important contribution toward this job creation total as well as spur
other economic benefits. Excluding the development from full compliance with state standards,
renewable energy technologies would create nearly three times as many jobs as producing an
equivalent amount of electricity from fossil fuels—resulting in a net benefit of 120,000 jobs. The
national standard would also generate an additional $6.3 billion in income and $5.7 billion in U.S.
gross domestic product in 2020. Renewable energy technologies tend to create more jobs than
fossil fuel technologies because a larger share of the expenditures for renewable energy is spent
on manufacturing equipment, installation, and maintenance, all of which are typically more labor
intensive than extracting and transporting fossil fuels. Renewable energy facilities also do not
need to export cash to import fuel from other states or countries (with bioenergy, money is spent
on locally produced fuel), keeping money circulating in the local economy.
Gonzaga Debate Institute                                                         rps aff supplement
Dunn/Gordon/Lazarevic                                                                            17



L/T- LOWER CONSUMER COSTS, INC ECON

A national RPS would lower consumer costs and create billions in investment and jobs
Udall in 2k7 (Tom, U.S. Representative, Third Congressional District Energy security increases
national security, congressional documents and publications, dec 6, LN)
Today, for the second time since August, the U.S. House of Representatives passed energy
legislation including a bipartisan provision authored by Rep. Tom Udall, D-N.M, to create a
federal standard for electric utilities to provide 15 percent of their electricity from wind, solar, and
other renewable energy sources and energy efficiency measures by 2020. Udall, who first
introduced Renewable Electricity Standard (RES) legislation in 2002, said almost half the states
in the Union, including New Mexico, have led this effort by already implementing their own RES.
"New Mexico is a leader in producing renewable electricity," said Udall. "After surpassing its initial
goal of 10 percent years in advance, our state has now enacted a 20 percent by 2020 standard.
New Mexico and many other states have recognized that energy security and national security
are directly correlated, and now the responsibility rests with the Senate to send the president the
message that we must move our nation towards a more stable energy future." Udall urged
colleagues in the Senate to pass the measure, "The benefits of an RES are clear and I call on my
colleagues in the Senate to enact this provision because it will strengthen our energy security,
lower our energy bills, create jobs, revitalize rural America, spur our economy and slow global
warming." Udall directly addressed the false rhetoric asserting that the implementation of this
standard could negatively impact certain states and consumers. "Opponents of an RES have
made false claims that the provision would increase electricity costs for consumers, but study
after study has shown the contrary. It has consistently been found that a strong federal RES
could actually save American consumers money." While somewhat more conservative in their
findings, the most recent study from the Department of Energy's Energy Information
Administration (EIA) -- which provides official energy statistics for the U.S. government -- show
cumulative savings in the amount $6.1 billion and $1.3 billion in savings, respectively, through
2020. And by 2030, cumulative savings are $5.5 billion and $3.3 billion, respectively. Other
studies show more significant savings. A recent study conducted by the Union of Concerned
Scientists found an RES would save consumers $13 billion to $18.1 billion on electricity and
natural gas bills cumulatively by 2020. In March, the energy consulting firm Wood Mackenzie
projected that consumers would save more than $100 billion dollars with an RES in place. They
also found that with more diverse energy sources and a decrease in fossil fuel consumption,
reduced demand for natural gas would lower prices by as much as 20 percent by 2026.
Gonzaga Debate Institute                                                        rps aff supplement
Dunn/Gordon/Lazarevic                                                                           18


NO LINK-RPS DN INC PRICES
RPS will have little to no effect on electricity prices
Sierra Club in 2k8 (Myths vs. Reality about a 20% Renewable Portfolio Standard,
http://www.sierraclub.org/globalwarming/cleanenergy/renewables.asp)

Claim: A 20% requirement would dramatically raise consumer electricity prices.
Reality: A 20% renewable electricity standard by 2020 would cost consumers almost nothing. The
Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), in a report completed at the
request of Senator Murkowski (R-AK), found that consumer prices for electricity under a 20%
standard would be largely the same as business-as-usual (if there were no renewable energy
standards at all). BAU would result in a retail electricity cost of 6.5 cents per kilowatt-hour in 2020,
and a 20% standard would result in 6.7 cents per kilowatt-hour: only a 3% increase from BAU,
and no more than electricity prices in 1999. The chart below is taken from the EIA report and
shows how little effect a 10% or 20% RPS would have on consumers' electricity bills in 2010 and
2020.(1)
Gonzaga Debate Institute                                                                       rps aff supplement
Dunn/Gordon/Lazarevic                                                                                          19



AT: STATES CP
Solvency deficit-state action is happening in the status quo and will fail. At best it solves
4%
Sovacool et al in 2k7 (Benjamin, and Jack Barkenbus, sovacool currently teaches in the Government and
International Affairs Program at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in Blacksburg, Virginia. He is a
former Eugene P. Wigner Fellow at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and a senior research
fellow at the Network for New Energy Choicesin New York, Barkenbus is a senior research associate at the Vanderbilt
Center for Environmental Management Studies in Nashville. He was formerly the executive director of the Energy,
Environment and Resources Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Environment, necessary but
insufficient: state renewable portfolio standards and climate change policies, LN)

Free market advocates have occasionally derided the case for national action on renewable
portfolio standards (RPS)--laws mandating that electricity suppliers use a certain percentage of
renewable energy by a particular date. But proponents point out that these regulations are
needed to correct three major market failures in the electric utility industry. First, they argue that
electricity prices do not reflect the social costs of generating power; second, that energy subsidies
have created an unfair market advantage for fossil fuel and nuclear technologies; and third, that
renewable energy generation is subject to a "free rider" phenomenon. (9) To gain the
transparent and multiple benefits from renewable energy at a larger scale, bold federal action is
essential. It is true that some states and regions of the nation are better positioned to exploit
renewable resources, but all regions can exploit some form of renewables, and RPS proposals
have been crafted to allow for a large portfolio of choices at the electricity retail level. Most
compelling, under the current state initiatives, renewables will still only account for 4 percent of
national capacity by 2030.


State action is only preferable if NO federal action exists-national standards have superior
solvency
Sovacool et al in 2k7 (Benjamin, and Jack Barkenbus, sovacool currently teaches in the Government and
International Affairs Program at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in Blacksburg, Virginia. He is a
former Eugene P. Wigner Fellow at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and a senior research
fellow at the Network for New Energy Choicesin New York, Barkenbus is a senior research associate at the Vanderbilt
Center for Environmental Management Studies in Nashville. He was formerly the executive director of the Energy,
Environment and Resources Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Environment, necessary but
insufficient: state renewable portfolio standards and climate change policies, LN)
It is safe to say, therefore, that considerable state action in both cases has arisen not because of
some judgment that state-based action is optimal or preferable but rather because of the
perceived policy vacuum at the federal level. A federal-scale political philosophy of allowing
market forces to determine energy and environmental policy dates back at least as far as the
presidency of Ronald Reagan, and it has been reinforced by the political power of Washington,
DC-basedinterest groups and trade associations who have a stake in maintaining the status quo.
However, this philosophy and political structure is not mirrored throughout much of the country,
and hence many states have become very active in the RPS and climate change arena. And,
similarly, many other states that mirror the philosophy and approach of the federal level remain
inactive. The piecemeal approach to renewables and climate change represented by state
action, while laudable as an alternative to federal inaction and consistent with the way many
issues are brought to the federal agenda (such as was the case for energy appliance standards
and the acid rain provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990), is ultimately an
inadequate response to the magnitude of the challenges the country faces in energy and climate
change.
Gonzaga Debate Institute                                                                       rps aff supplement
Dunn/Gordon/Lazarevic                                                                                          20



AT: STATES CP

Patch work of state policies makes RPS superior on the national level
Sovacool et al in 2k7 (Benjamin, and Jack Barkenbus, sovacool currently teaches in the Government and
International Affairs Program at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in Blacksburg, Virginia. He is a
former Eugene P. Wigner Fellow at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and a senior research
fellow at the Network for New Energy Choicesin New York, Barkenbus is a senior research associate at the Vanderbilt
Center for Environmental Management Studies in Nashville. He was formerly the executive director of the Energy,
Environment and Resources Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Environment, necessary but
insufficient: state renewable portfolio standards and climate change policies, LN)
While the considerable state-based RPS activity, just described, can be lauded as better than no
action at all, it is not necessarily superior to national legislation. Important issues such as
geographic scope, eligible technologies or industries, inclusion of existing versus new
technologies, and the specifics of credit trading have been decided differently in every state.
Consequently, the resulting state-based market may create confusion, complexity, and
inconsistency for policymakers, investors, and businesses. Contrary to enabling a well-
lubricated national renewable energy market, inconsistencies between states--over what counts
as renewable energy, when it has to come online, how large it has to be, where it must be
delivered, and how it may be traded--clog the renewable energy market like coffee grounds in a
drain. Implementing agencies and stakeholders must grapple with inconsistent state RPS goals,
and investors must interpret competing and often arbitrary statutes. (19)

				
DOCUMENT INFO