Global Geography 12 ● C.P. Allen High School Population Density and Distribution ICA Worksheet Read pages 182-189 in Global Connections. The purpose of this lab is to understand how the distribution of people in a country differs from the population density. As well, students will compare arithmetic densities to physiologic densities in order to understand population pressures on the land. 1. What is the difference between population distribution and population density? 2. Explain what Canada’s population distribution looks like. Does Canada have a high or low population density? Canada’s population distribution is concentrated along its southern border, especially in Southern Ontario and Quebec, with other major concentrations in urban centres on the Prairies, the Vancouver area and the coastal regions of Atlantic Canada. Overall, it has low population density- it has a few people for a very large area. 3. Explain how the physical characteristics of Egypt and Bangladesh have influenced their population distribution patterns. Most of Egypt is desert, and the only arable land is along the banks of the Nile river, so most of the population has settled around those areas that support agriculture and had ready access to the river as transportation before modern times. Bangladesh… 4. Create a formula to explain the difference between arithmetic population density and physiologic population density. Total area – Cultivated Area=amount of land within a country that cannot be used to grow food to support its population 5. Complete the chart. Round to one decimal place. Population Total Area Cultivated Area Arithmetic Physiologic Country (1998) (km2) (km2) Density Density Botswana 1400000 566730 4200 2.5 333.3 Chad 7400000 1259200 32560 5.9 227.3 Egypt 65500000 995450 32650 65.8 2006.1 Kenya 28300000 569140 45200 49.7 626.1 France 58800000 550100 194880 106.9 301.7 Iceland 300000 100250 60 3.0 5000.0 Italy 57700000 294060 111430 196.2 517.8 Switzerland 7100000 39550 4340 179.5 1635.9 United Kingdom 59100000 241600 59490 244.6 993.4 Ukraine 50300000 579350 343570 86.8 146.4 Canada 30600000 9220970 455000 3.3 67.3 United States 270200000 9159120 1877760 29.5 143.9 Mexico 97500000 1908690 247300 51.1 394.3 Argentina 36100000 2736690 272000 13.2 132.7 Japan 126400000 376520 44220 335.7 2858.4 Israel 6000000 20620 4340 291.0 1382.5 Nepal 23700000 143000 27430 165.7 864.0 Vietnam 78500000 325490 67580 241.2 1161.6 India 988700000 2973190 1697000 332.5 582.6 China 1242500000 9291000 957820 133.7 1297.2 6. Which 2 countries have the lowest physiologic densities? Give a reason for each to explain why they have such a small proportion of cultivated land. Canada, Argentina. Most of their land area is covered with features (arctic, Canadian shield, Boreal Forest, Andes mountains) which make it difficult to carry out agriculture. 7. What do you notice about all the physiological density values in your chart compared with their corresponding arithmetic density values? How can this be explained? All physiologic density values are higher than their corresponding arithmetic density values. This is due to the fact that there are no countries where all land area within its borders is either suitable or available for use in agriculture (desert, mountains, land inhabited by settlement) 8. With the arithmetic and physiologic density values graphed in order of smallest total population to largest total population (see graph below), what trends or patterns can be found solely on the basis of small or large populations? What explanation can you give for the presence or absence of a trend based on total population? There is no trend or pattern to predict population density values by total population; some countries with small population have large gaps, but so do some countries with large populations, and some countries with small populations have small gaps, as do some large countries. This can be explained by the fact that the number of people in a country does nothing to determine the amount of land it contains, and only somewhat effects the amount of land used for food production. 9. Explain why countries such as Egypt, Iceland, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Japan, Israel and China have a special challenge in trying to provide sufficient amounts of food for their populations. Suggest one strategy that these countries might use to keep their populations well fed. All of these countries have large populations and small amounts of arable lands, which means that unless their arable lands are super productive, much of their food supply would have to be imported. Bringing in food is likely the main strategy (imports), and perhaps advanced agricultural techniques would be a second option to get the most out of the little arable land they do have. 10. When we think of countries where there is chronic hunger, African countries such as Chad and Botswana come to mind, yet the number of people depending on each square kilometer of cultivated land in these countries is not nearly as high as in question 8. What does this say about the quality of land in the African countries? This likely means that though there may be more arable land available in these countries than other countries, the arable land isn’t as productive per unit as the arable land in other countries- it means they get less yield from their land than other countries with better quality land do. 11. Based on the physiologic densities suggest at least 2 countries in the world that might be food exporters. Canada, Ukraine, USA, France, Italy, Mexico. 12. Find an example of a country with a high population but a relatively low physiologic population density. USA, Mexico, India 13. Find an example of a country with a low population but a relatively high physiologic population density. Iceland, Switzerland, Israel, Egypt, Japan 14. Does a high population necessarily lead to a high physiologic density? Why or why not? Not necessarily. Mexico and the USA have high populations but have enough arable land to keep their physiologic density value low (along with advanced methods of cultivation and agriculture). Countries with MEGA populations look like their high populations are trending towards high physiologic densities because the number of people is growing at a far faster rate than new arable land can be cleared and put to use, and the amount of land that can be cleared is disappearing quickly. 15. Explain one problem in only using arithmetic population density to determine how dense the population of a country is.