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Greenstone is a suite of software for building and distributing


									Greenstone is a suite of software for building and distributing digital library
collections. It provides a new way of organizing information and publishing it on
the Internet or on CD-ROM. Greenstone is produced by the New Zealand
Digital Library Project at the University of Waikato, and developed and
distributed in cooperation with UNESCO and the Human Info NGO. It is open-
source, multilingual software, issued under the terms of the GNU General
Public License. Read the Greenstone Factsheet for more information.

The aim of the Greenstone software is to empower users, particularly in
universities, libraries, and other public service institutions, to build their own
digital libraries. Digital libraries are radically reforming how information is
disseminated and acquired in UNESCO's partner communities and institutions
in the fields of education, science and culture around the world, and particularly
in developing countries. We hope that this software will encourage the effective
deployment of digital libraries to share information and place it in the public
domain. Further information can be found in the book How to build a digital
library, authored by two of the group's members.

The complete Greenstone interface, and all documentation, is available in
English, French, Spanish, Russian and Kazakh. Greenstone also has interfaces
in many other languages. We are looking for volunteers to add new language
interfaces and help maintain existing ones.

How to find information in the How to Build a Digital Library collection
There are 4 ways to find information in this collection:
search for particular words
access publications by figure number
browse phrases occurring in publications
access publications by acronym occurance
You can search for particular words that appear in the text from the "search" page. This
is the first page that comes up when you begin, and can be reached from other pages by
pressing the search button.
You can access publications by figure number by pressing the figures button. This brings
up a list of figure numbers in numeric order.
You can browse phrases occurring in publications by pressing the phrases button. This
uses the phind phrase browser.
You can access publications by acronym occurance by pressing the acronyms button.
This brings up a list of the acronyms, and the places that they occur.
What is Library Automation?

 Library automation can be defined simply as the use of computer and networking
technologies in the library.Areas of Library Automation:

Automation of library functions
Use of electronic resources within the library (e.g. CD-ROMs)
Accessing remote electronic resources (e.g. the Internet)
Office automation (e.g. word-processing, spreadsheets, databases, etc.)
Patron services (e.g. computer laboratory, multimedia center)
Objectives of Library Automation:

To improve the level of service and quality of output
To fulfill needs that cannot be achieved by manual system:
Sharing of resources
Information that appears only in electronic format (e.g. CD-ROM, Internet resources,
databases, etc.

Barcoding the Collection

Barcoding is the process by which a barcode label is attached to an item in the library's
Barcodes serve as a computerized accession number - a unique identifier that links a
specific book, journal issue, compact disc, etc., to the item record that describes it.

Methods of barcoding the library collection:

Smart barcodes - Barcode number is pre-assigned to a particular item record. The library
software prints this barcode together with call number and/title of the item. Library staff
find that specific item on shelf and put the barcode label on it.
Dump barcodes - Barcode number on the barcode label is not related to any item until
that number is manually entered into the item record by the library staff. This is usually
done by scanning in the number using a barcode reader.
Automation of Library Functions

Human Factors of Library Automation

 "The greatest marvel of technology is that if it breaks down, we can fix it; if it has
flaws, we can debug it; if it doesn't work at all, we can ignore it; and if it works well ,
we can make it work better. No one has as yet figured out a way to debug the human
factor. It is the most complicated aspect of any technological system, yet it's the one
that gets the least attention, is least discussed, the least researched, and perhaps the least
understood." -- Fine (1982, p. 209). In Information technology : critical choices for
library decision makers / edited by Allen Kent and Thomas J. Galvin. New York : M.
Dekker, 1982.

Players in school library automation:

Teacher Librarian
Principal and Supervisors
IT Coordinator and Staff
Library Staff
Resistance to changes

Loss of control; uncertainty; more work; concerns about future competence; disruptions
of other plans and works; loss of status; etc.

Risks in Automation

The most common causes of failure:

Loss of commitment
Vendor viability
Support of higher-level administrators
Computer center support
Inadequate resources
Organizational changes
Staff attitudes
Patron attitudes

Library Automation Steps

Planning is time-consuming, but it is usually cost-effective because time spent planning
reduces the amount of time required for system implementation. Steps involved are:

Step 1: Describing existing library services and technology

Identifying existing services and functions provided by the library
Identifying existing technology being used in the library
Collecting and organizing basic statistical data
Step 2: Assessing needs and setting priorities

Who should be involved in planning?
Needs assessment
Identifying approaches to satisfy the needs
Setting priorities
Developing a preliminary budget
Step 3: Translating needs and priorities into specifications

Designing specifications
Preparing and distributing the Request for Proposal (RFP)
Step 4: Evaluating proposals and selecting a system

Making the first cut
Seeing system demonstrations
Analyzing vendor responses
Obtaining responses from vendor's clients
Making the final cut
Step 5: Putting your system into place

Contract negotiations
Hardware and software installation
Step 6: Retrospective conversion and barcoding

Automation Options

 Acquiring software to run on a computer already in place Pursuing in-house software
development acquiring a turnkey system for the library Acquiring a turnkey system for
a consortium of libraries Relying on the data-processing facilities and staff of the
library's parent organization
Bibliographic Standards

 "The creation of a high-quality, machine-readable database provides the cornerstone
upon which all future automation efforts will rest. Vendors may come and go, hardware
may become obsolete, software may be replaced, but a well-constructed, well-
maintained database, with its accompanying local holdings, will be the library's
transportable and viable link from system to system." -- extracted from John M. Cohn,
etc. Planning for automation, 1992.

Why bibliographic standards?

Bibliographic standards are well-established and accepted
To maintain the portability of data
To enable resource sharing

Library Automation System Selection Guidelines

 1. The library automation software must be developed and designed based on the best
practices that are internationally adopted in the library profession. These include:

Adoption of MARC-based bibliographic record. Record can be imported, created,
updated and exported using the MARC 21 and ISO 2709 standards.
Bibliographic and item information must be stored separately in two different types of
record so that more than one item records can be attached to one bibliographic record.
Support of internationally adopted library standards, including ISBD, AACR2, subject
heading scheme, classification scheme, etc.
Automation of library operations and activities, including circulation, public catalog
searching, cataloging, ordering, serials control, and reporting.
2. The library automation software must be supported by a team that processes library
experience and qualification. This is essential to ensure that the team understand the
library requirements and at the same time is able to provide professional advices to the

3. The software vendor (or developer) must have long-term commitment on the further
development of the software. Particularly:

The vendor should be quick to integrate emerging library standards and new technology
to the software. These include: Web and Internet based access to the library catalog,
XML and Dublin Core technology, Unicode, etc.
The vendor must be financially stable.
The vendor must be specialized in library applications
The vendor must have periodical upgrade release with new enhancements.
4. The library automation software must be able to support Hong Kong school library
environment, these includes:

Support bilingual (English/Chinese) interface and bilingual (English/Chinese) data
SAMS (Hong Kong Education Department's School Administration Management
System) student data can be imported to the library database
Support sharing of cataloging records among Hong Kong school libraries
The software must run on computer and networking equipment commonly used in Hong
Kong school libraries
The initial purchase cost and the annual upgrade cost must be priced at a level affordable
by Hong Kong school libraries

Hints for Viewing System Demonstrations

 Request that high priority modules be demonstrated first. Request the display of a
tagged full MARC record in the Cataloging Module Be alert for, and note, functions or
operations that cannot be demonstrated. Ask if the version that is being demonstrated,
for each module, is the same as the version in current release, i.e. what you would be
getting if you brought the system. Also ask if the modules demonstrated are included in
the price quoted in the RFP.

Watch for cumbersome or awkward operations within or between functions.
Request that, in addition to the pre-planned demonstration scenarios, a few specific
searches, operations, etc., be performed that are analogous to real situations in your
library. Ask each vendor to perform the same specific operations so that there will be a
common basis of comparison.
Take note of specifics about the system's functionality that you judge to be particularly
strong, as well as those that appear weak.
Telecommunications problems with dial-ups and/or lack of expertise on the part of the
demonstrator may hamper the effectiveness of the demonstration. Note this separately
from any functionality weaknesses.

Typical Configuration


Pentium PC (e.g. Pentium III 500MHz)
Sufficient RAM for serving the network (e.g. 512MB)
Large and fast hard disk (e.g. 20GB)
Network card
Operating system: Windows 2000 Server or Windows XP Professional
Backup Device (e.g. DAT tape drive)
Optional: networked CD-ROM drives
Pentium PC (e.g. Pentium II 500 MHz)
9GB hard disk
Network card
Operating system: Windows 98 or Windows 2000 Professional or Windows XP
Optional: CD-ROM drive and sound card

Why do systems need to be upgraded?

The library is ready to add new functions

The library has exceeded the capacity of the original system
Current software must be upgraded because newer versions have been issued and current
versions are no linger supported by the vendor
Original hardware must be replaced and similar hardware is no longer produced
The vendor no longer supports the system or ceases operation.

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