Developing More Super Green Products and Achieving Eco-efficiency by maclaren1


									             Developing More Super Green Products and
             Achieving Eco-efficiency Factor

             V Haruo Takayama          V Yoshiko Shinomura      V Yoshimasa Nakagami
             V Masataka Fujii
                                                            (Manuscript received June 20, 2008)

             The Fujitsu Group has promoted the development of eco-friendly products by con-
             ducting environmental assessments on products since 1993. In line with the latest
             Fujitsu Group Environmental Protection Program (Stage V) launched in fiscal 2007,
             we have been working on two programs to improve the environmental values of our
             products. The first program aims to increase the number of Super Green Products
             with top-class environmental characteristics, which have been created since the pre-
             vious stage IV (fiscal 2004 to 2006). In order to achieve this goal, we have expanded
             the scope of developing Super Green Products across our group companies. The
             second program, which introduces the eco-efficiency factor as our new approach,
             strives to double the eco-efficiency of new products as compared with the products
             in fiscal 2005 by the end of fiscal 2009. Both approaches are aimed not only at re-
             ducing environmental burden throughout the entire product life cycle, but also of-
             fering customers high-performance products. This paper illustrates our promotion
             activities, cites examples of Super Green Products, and describes the efforts we are
             making toward achieving the eco-efficiency factor.

1. Introduction                                            REACH regulationnote 4) as well as the propaga-
     In recent years, notable movements have been          tion of Green Product procurement in govern-
seen in the area of environmental conservation in-         ment organizations based on EPEATnote 5) and the
cluding the reinforcement of product-related regu-         establishment of the consortium of ICT industry
lations in Europe such as the RoHS Directive,note 1)       for energy-saving countermeasures applicable to
WEEE Directive,note 2) EuP Directivenote 3) and            products and data centers in North America. In
                                                           the domestic arena, consumers’ awareness for the
                                                           environment has been enhanced since the es-
                                                           tablishment of the Law on Promoting Green
note 1)   Abbreviation of Restriction of the use of cer-
          tain hazardous substances in electrical and      Purchasing in 2001. The movements of promoting
          electronic equipment. An EU directive regu-
          lating the specific hazardous substances con-    note 4)    Abbreviation of Registration, Evaluation,
          tained in electric and electronic equipments.               Authorization and restriction of CHemicals.
note 2)   Abbreviation of Waste electrical and elec-                  An EU regulation to stipulate mandatory
          tronic equipment. An EU directive for waste                 registration and evaluation by operators
          of electrical and electronic equipment, it                  who manufacture and/or import chemical
          stipulates mandatory collection and recy-                   substances.
          cling of electrical and electronic equipments    note 5)    Abbreviation    of   Electronic    Product
          by manufacturers.                                           Environmental Assessment Tool. A system
note 3)   Abbreviation of eco-design of Energy-using                  to promote green procurement in govern-
          Products. An EU directive concerning envi-                  ment organizations, industries and private
          ronmentally friendly designs.                               consumers in North America.

62                                                           FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J., Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 62–73 (January 2009)
                                       H. Takayama et al.: Developing More Super Green Products and Achieving Eco-efficiency Factor

green procurements to buy products with excellent                     ucts that can address environmental regulations,
environmental friendliness have been accelerated                      environment conservation, resource saving, ma-
not only in government and public organizations                       terial recycling, energy saving and information
but also among businesses and personal consum-                        disclosure.1) Besides, we have been implementing
ers. Further, the revision of the Law Concerning                      “Rules for Green Product Evaluation” with rein-
the Rational Use of Energy in 2006 contributed to                     forced emphasis on eco-friendly products since
the reinforcement of energy efficiency and disclo-                    1998, and we have positioned products that con-
sure about the use of certain hazardous substanc-                     form to these rules as Green Products. In 2004,
es was added in the revised version of Law for                        we established a consolidated and revised version
Promotion of Effective Utilization of Resources.                      of these rules, “Rules for Product Environmental
Through these movements, product manufactur-                          Green Assessment”. In this system, we upgraded
ers are being asked to make extra commitments                         environmental standards aiming to reinforce and
to develop more environmentally friendly prod-                        rationalize Green Products (Table 1).
ucts and disclose information.
     To address these requirements, the Fujitsu                       2.1 Implementation of environmental
Group decided to increase the number of Super                             assessment of products
Green Products and introduce a new approach,                                Our development division performs the en-
called the “eco-efficiency factor”. We started these                  vironmental assessment of products from a prod-
activities in fiscal 2007 based on the Fujitsu Group                  uct’s development stage in order to minimize en-
Environmental Protection Program (Stage V).                           vironmental burden and prevent environmental
The Group will further activate its approaches                        pollution throughout the life cycle of the products
to minimizing environmental burden and to en-                         and their packages, from delivery to customers to
hancing product values across all stages of the                       the end-of-life products after usage.
product life cycle (material procurement, manu-                             The criteria for the environmental assess-
facturing, logistics, usage, and disposal and recy-                   ment of products are comprised of 10 major cat-
cling of products) aiming to offer customers more                     egories including 39 minor items (Table 2). Prod-
products that can contribute to the sustainable                       ucts that achieve 70 points or higher are defined
development of society.                                               as eco-friendly products.
     This paper describes the development and
examples of Green Products and Super Green                            2.2 Development of Green Products
Products that are the eco-friendly products pre-                           When evaluating Green Products, we do so
sented by the Fujitsu Group as well as Fujitsu’s                      during the design and development phases con-
approach toward the eco-efficiency factor.                            cerning the ecological items of Green Product
                                                                      standards established by the Fujitsu Group such
2. Development of eco-friendly                                        as energy saving, 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle)
   products                                                           design and technology, and countermeasures for
     The Fujitsu Group makes consolidated efforts                     hazardous chemical substances. The require-
as a group to promote ecological designs when de-                     ment for Green Product accreditation is to achieve
veloping new products, trying to minimize envi-                       90 points or higher in the general evaluation of
ronmental burden and to enhance product values                        environmental assessment of products and to be
across all stages of the product life cycle.                          compliant with all the applicable items of com-
     Fujitsu started implementing voluntary en-                       mon standards, as well as product category stan-
vironmental assessments of products in 1993 to                        dards for Green Products (Figure 1).
promote the development of eco-friendly prod-                              We continuously update standards, reflect-

FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J., Vol. 45, No. 1, (January 2009)                                                                           63
H. Takayama et al.: Developing More Super Green Products and Achieving Eco-efficiency Factor

     Table 1
     Approach toward eco-friendly products of Fujitsu Group.
      Environment protection program              Target and measures                 Establishment of rules (establishment year)
                                        • Increase of 50% in potential of material    Guideline for Environmental Assessment
        Stage I (FY 1993 to 1995)
                                          recycling rate compared with FY 1992        of Products (1993)
                                        • Product recycle countermeasures
                                                                                      Rules for Green Product Evaluation and
        Stage II (FY 1996 to 2000)      • Promotion of Green Product
                                                                                      Rules of LCA (1998)
                                        • All new developments shall be of Green      Rules for Environmental Assessment for
        Stage III (FY 2001 to 2003)
                                          Products                                    OEM Products (2003)
                                                                                      Rules for Product Environmental Green
                                        • Offer Super Green Products from main
        Stage IV (FY 2004 to 2006)                                                    Assessment and Super Green Product
                                          product groups of all divisions
                                                                                      operation rules (2004)
                                        • At least 20% of new developments from
                                          all divisions shall be of Super Green       Rules for Eco-efficiency Factor Evaluation
        Stage V (FY 2007 to 2009)
                                          Products                                    (2007)
                                        • Achievement of Eco-efficiency Factor 2

                   Table 2
                   Items for environmental assessment of products.
                                       Major items for environmental assessment of products
                    • Environmental regulations (7)                    • Material recycling (7)
                    • Environment conservation (1)                     • Ease of disposal (4)
                    • Resource saving (3)                              • Ease of collection and transportation (1)
                    • Long-term service (1)                            • Information disclosure (3)
                    • Energy saving (3)                                • Packaging (9)

                   Figures in parentheses indicate number of minor items

ing domestic and international laws and regula-                        •	    Use	 of	 bio-based	 plastics	 made	 from	 plants	
tions, environmental labels and market trends                                (such as corn) in large housings.
as necessary, such as adding an understanding                          •	    Use	of	halogen-free	plastic	housings	and	re-
of environmental burden evaluated by life cycle                              cycled plastic.
assessment (LCA) and formulating disassem-                             •	    Acquisition	 of	 Ecoleaf	 label	 based	 on	 third-
bling manuals.                                                               party certification as the first approach in
     Our brochures and packages for those prod-                              the PC industry and disclosure of informa-
ucts accredited as Green Products indicate the                               tion of environmental burden.
environmental emblem of the Fujitsu Group                              2)    Desktop PCs
(Figure 2).                                                            •	    Use	of	coating	material	that	allows	recycling	
     Taking PC products as examples, facts about                             without removing the coating film.
Green Products are described below, for which                          •	    Arrangement	of	an	outlet	power	line	that	is	
the Fujitsu Group applies its advanced ecologi-                              cut off when the PC unit is turned off. An
cal scheme in design, technology and approaches                              energy-saving design that disconnects the
(Figure 3).                                                                  power supply to the display when the power
1) Notebook PCs                                                              supply to the main unit is switched off.
•	 Use	 of	 recycled	 magnesium	 alloy	 recovered	                     •	    Use	of	recycled	plastic	and	tool-less	mainte-
     from the collected waste products of the                                nance are possible.
     Fujitsu Group.                                                    •	    Integration	 of	 automatic	 brightness	 sensor	

64                                                                                   FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J., Vol. 45, No. 1, (January 2009)
                                         H. Takayama et al.: Developing More Super Green Products and Achieving Eco-efficiency Factor

               Common                                        Compliance with environmental regulations
               standard             – Disclosure of the use of certain hazardous substances – Easiness of removing rechargeable batteries
                                    – Compliance with the requirements of Law Concerning the Rational Use of Energy
                                    – Display of energy consumption efficiency

                                  Resource saving                                                  Energy saving
                 – Volume reduction          – Downsizing                       – Reduction of power consumption
                 – Possibility for upgrading – Reduced number of parts          – Offering of power-saving function
                 – Guarantee
                                  Material recycling                            – Display of material
                 – Use of recycled material                                     – Reduction of packaging
                 – Improved potential material recycling rate                   – No use of PVC
                 – Use of plastic that can easily be recycled                   – Reduction of plastic cushioning material
                 – Minimum level of coating and galvanizing of plastic          – Use of plastic or paper that can easily be recycled
                 – Use of recycled paper                                        – Use of carton paper including recycled paper
                                                                                – No use of glued plastic panels
                                Easiness of disposal
                 – Easiness of disassembling – Display of plastic material
                                                                                          Prevention of global warming
                 – No use of PVC
                                                                                – Implementation of LCA (Understanding CO2 emissions)
                 – Formulation of disassembling procedure

                               Information disclosure                                       Environmental efficiency
                 – Information on collection and recycling                      – Implementation of eco-efficiency factor

               Category standard               – Standard determined for each product category

            Figure 1
            Standards of Green Products.

                                                                                 ness among the products that conform to the
                                                                                 requirements of Green Products of the Fujitsu
                                                                                 Group. The operation of its definition and re-
                                                                                 quirements for applicability is based on “Super
                                                                                 Green Product operation rules”, the same as with
                                                                                 Green Products.
                                                                                      Within the previous framework of the
                                                                                 Environment Protection Program (Stage IV), the
                                                                                 Fujitsu Group sets a target to develop at least one
Figure 2                                                                         Super Green Product in each product division by
Fujitsu Group’s environmental emblem.                                            the end of fiscal 2006. As a consequence, we were
                                                                                 able to achieve that target with 54 Super Green
                                                                                 Products developed in total by 35 product divi-
      that adjusts the display brightness auto-                                  sions (Figure 4).
      matically.                                                                      To further propagate this initiative, the
                                                                                 Environment Protection Program (Stage V) has
3. Development of Super Green                                                    been established. The target, definition and ex-
   Products                                                                      amples of developed products are described be-
     Super Green Products are the products or                                    low.
systems with top-class environmental friendli-

FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J., Vol. 45, No. 1, (January 2009)                                                                                       65
H. Takayama et al.: Developing More Super Green Products and Achieving Eco-efficiency Factor

         World first                                                                              Paint available for recycling
        Recycled magnesium alloy                                                                  Paint with composition identical
        Magnesium alloy recycled                                                                  to plastic
        from Fujitsu’s products
                                                                                                  Display power cable interlocked
         World first                                                                              with main unit power supply
        Bio-based plastic                                                                         Turning off display power
        Resin using polylactic acid                                                               Recycled plastic
        made from cornstarch
                                                         Recycled plastic                         Use in a part of components
        Halogen-free resin
                                                         Use in a part of                Automatic brightness sensor
        Resin emitting no dioxins                        components
        during incineration                                                              Automatic adjustment of brightness

            Law Concerning the Rational Use of Energy: Achievement of AAA* for energy consumption efficiency
            Certification of Energy Star Program (Mobile note PC)              Addressing J-Moss Green mark
            Compliance with Law on Promoting Green Purchasing                  Certification of PC Green Label System
                                                                               Certification of Ecoleaf label

                                                                  AAA: Higher than 500% based on the standard as of FY2007

       Figure 3
       Examples of PC Green Products.

                                         FY2004                              FY2005                                 FY2006

        Fujitsu                          7 products                         11 products                          14 products

        Fujitsu Group                    5 products                         10 products                            7 products

        Total                           12 products                         21 products                          21 products

        Representative                IPCOM S Series                    FMV-BIBLO NB                         PRIMERGY TX120

                                                                                                      – 3R design/Energy saving
                             – CO2 emissions                                                              Volume reduced by 1/4, installation
                                 Reduction by 40% versus                                                  area reduced by 1/3, and power
                                 conventional product by        – Bio-based plastic                       consumption reduced by 39%
                                 consolidation of functions.         Use in large parts of housing.       compared with conventional product.
                             – 3R design                        – CO2 emissions                       – CO2 emissions
                                 Installation area/number of         Reduction by 15% versus              Reduction by 37% versus
                                 cables reduced by 1/3 versus        conventional product across          conventional product across
                                 conventional product.               product life cycle.                  product life cycle.

     Figure 4
     Achievement of Super Green Products.

66                                                                                        FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J., Vol. 45, No. 1, (January 2009)
                                            H. Takayama et al.: Developing More Super Green Products and Achieving Eco-efficiency Factor

          Environment Protection Program (Stage IV)                          of environmental information about Fujitsu’s
                                                                             products to the customers.
 ● Offering Super Green Products (by the end of FY2006)
    Development of at least one Super Green Product
    in each product division                                                 3.2 Definition
     • Top-class eco-friendly products such as “globally first or
       globally smallest” or “domestically first or domestically smallest”        To further activate the combination of lower
                                                                             environment burden throughout the whole prod-
       • Increase of products and enhancement of value
       • Review of environmental top-class elements                          uct life cycle and the enhancement of product
                                                                             values, we have defined Super Green Products
                                                                             as those products with top-class environmental
          Environment Protection Program (Stage V)
                                                                             characteristics that are compliant with the fol-
 ● Ensuring at least 20% of Green Products are Super Green Products          lowing requirements (Figure 6).
   (by the end of FY2009)
     Number of Super Green Products                                          •	 Significantly	 superior	 product	 and	 system	
                                         × 100 = 20% or higher
        Number of Green Products                                                  with top-class environmental friendliness in
     • Top-class or more eco-friendly products in comparison with
       market standard or conventional products                                   comparison with other products of the own
     • Number of products: Product series basis                                   brand or competitors in either of the envi-
                                                                                  ronmental elements such as energy saving,
Figure 5
                                                                                  3R design and technology, and countermea-
Activity target of Super Green Products.
                                                                                  sures for hazardous chemical substances.
                                                                             •	 Products	 adopting	 a	 globally	 first,	 domesti-
3.1 Target of activity                                                            cally first or industry-first material or tech-
      This initiative is applicable to hardware,                                  nology which is advantageous to the envi-
electronic components and semiconductor prod-                                     ronment.
ucts for information or communication equip-                                      We update the top-class environmental ele-
ment developed by Fujitsu’s original specification                           ments and targeted standard of the Super Green
in all divisions involving the product develop-                              Products at a suitable frequency, depending on
ment. The achievement of the target is evaluated                             the market trends. Basically, we determine stan-
based on accumulated data for three years from                               dards on a quantitative basis.
fiscal 2007 to the end of fiscal 2009. We have set
the series-based commercialization percentage                                3.3 Organization
of Super Green Products versus the newly devel-                                   All divisions involving product development
oped Green Products by the end of fiscal 2009 at                             are planning and implementing programs for
20 percent or higher1) (Figure 5).                                           developing Super Green Products. This activity
      The target of this activity is to offer more                           is promoted by the Green Product Committee,
Super Green Products based on enhanced devel-                                which is one of the committees established to
opment of eco-friendly products through the de-                              address each of the environment-related issues.
velopment of Super Green Products in the design                              This Committee is comprised of representatives
divisions responsible for the fundamental part of                            from each product division and serves also as a
monozukuri (product making) with an extended                                 relaying committee to promote horizontal devel-
scope of activity and setting of numerical targets.                          opment of the environment technologies devel-
      Further, to support product development,                               oped by each division.2)
the research division develops materials and
technologies that contribute to the environment                              3.4 Example of developed Super Green
while reinforcing tie-ups with public relation and                               Products
advertisement divisions to promote the disclosure                                 In fiscal 2007, 32 products were developed as

FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J., Vol. 45, No. 1, (January 2009)                                                                                67
H. Takayama et al.: Developing More Super Green Products and Achieving Eco-efficiency Factor

                                    Green Product                                            Super Green Product

                     Step 1                                   Step 2                                   Step 3
          Implementation of product                Implementation of green               Development of environmental
          assessment.                              product evaluation.                   top-class elements for Super
          * Overall evaluation of at               * Compliance with                     Green Products.
            least 90 points.                         applicable requirements.            * Top class in the market.

         Scale for environmental top-class elements and standards

        – Energy saving:          Achievement of 500% or higher versus
                                  requirements of Law Concerning the                 Super Green Products            High
                                  Rational Use of Energy, or 70% or                 (Products with top-class
                                  lower versus Energy Star Program.                environmental friendliness)
        – Power consumption:      Reduction of at least 20% versus
                                  conventional product.                                                             Level of
        – Resource saving:        Reduction of at least 20% versus
                                                                                         Green Products          environmental
                                  conventional product.
        – Chemical substance:     Advanced substitution of restricted
                                                                                    (Products with enhanced       awareness
                                                                                   environmental friendliness)
        – Environmental material: Being 20% or more made of bio-based
        – Other features.

      Figure 6
      Structure of Super Green Products.

Super Green Products. The representative devel-                               (PC-ABS), CO2 emissions can be reduced by
opments among them are explained in the follow-                               about 15 percent across the whole product
ing paragraphs (Figure 7).                                                    life cycle (estimation by Fujitsu).
1) Notebook PC: FMV-BIBLO NX series                                      2) Disk array: ETERNUS2000 series
     Notebook PC using bio-based material as en-                              Disk array that can drastically decrease con-
vironmentally friendly material for large plastic                        sumption power, weight, volume and number of
housing.                                                                 parts in comparison with the level achieved by
•	 As	 a	 material	 with	 less	 effect	 on	 the	 glob-                   conventional products.
     al environment that serves as a substitute                          •	 Adoption	 of	 single	 chip	 specifications	 for	
     for limited petroleum resources, bio-based                               RAIDnote 6) controller and eco-mode that
     plastics (PLA stands for “polylactic acid”)                              controls fan rotation and schedules disk
     are used for about 30 percent of the plastic                             rotation. Compared with the conventional
     parts in the notebook PC housing (lower cov-                             product (ETERNUS4000), power consump-
     er, hard disk drive [HDD] cover and DIMM                                 tion has been reduced by about 40 percent,
     cover). Plastics need to have specific char-                             weight by about 30 percent, volume by about
     acteristics such as flame resistance in this                             50 percent and number of parts by about
     application. Because about 50 percent of the                             60 percent.
     material is a natural material (including bio-
     based material), consumption of petroleum                           note 6)   Abbreviation of Redundant Array of
                                                                                   Inexpensive Disks. A technology to manage
     resources can be suppressed. In comparison                                    a redundant HDD which is comprised of a
     with conventional petroleum-based resins                                      combination of multiple, inexpensive HDDs.

68                                                                                  FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J., Vol. 45, No. 1, (January 2009)
                                        H. Takayama et al.: Developing More Super Green Products and Achieving Eco-efficiency Factor

                        FMV-BIBLO NX Series                                             ETERNUS2000 series

       PC using bio-based plastic                                      Space-saving, lightweight and energy-saving disk
                                                                       array system
       – Bio-based plastic                                             – 3R design
           Applied to three components of housing                         Volume reduced by 50%, weight reduced by 30% and
       – Law Concerning the Rational Use of                               number of parts reduced by 60% versus conventional product
         Energy                                                        – Power consumption
           Energy consumption efficiency                                  Reduction by 15% versus conventional product in eco-mode
           Achievement of 0.00067 (AA*)                                – Quietness
                                                                          42 dB in operation

       *AA: Achieving at least 200% of energy saving standard

                            ScanSnap S300                                                MHY2 BH/BS Series

       World’s smallest, lightest and most energy efficient            Energy-saving, quiet HDD
       ADF scanner of A4 size, both-sided
       – 3R design/Energy saving                                       – Law Concerning the Rational Use of Energy
           Volume reduced by 30%, weight reduced by 50% and power         Energy consumption efficiency
           consumption reduced by 30% versus upper-level product          Achievement of 0.0060 (AAA*)
       – Compliance with Energy Star Program                              (MHY2100BH 100 GB)
       – No mercury included                                           – Achieving eco-efficiency factor of 2.3
         (substituted by LED)                                          – Quietness
                                                                          2.4 B when idling

                                                                       *AAA: Achieving at least 500% of energy saving standard

     Figure 7
     Examples of Super Green Products.

3)   Image scanner: ScanSnap S300                                      energy-saving and quietness characteristics.
     The world’s smallest and most lightweight                         •	 MHY2100BH	(100	Gbyte)	achieved	an	ener-
scanner of A4 size with ADF (automatic paper-                              gy consumption efficiency of 0.0060 W/Gbyte
feeder mechanism). An image scanner with excel-                            versus the targeted standard of energy con-
lent energy-saving characteristics that addresses                          sumption efficiency (0.05 W/Gbyte) stipulat-
chemical substance countermeasures.                                        ed in the Law Concerning the Rational Use
•	 Compared	 with	 the	 upper-level	 product	                              of Energy as of fiscal 2007. The percentage
     (ScanSnap S510), equipment volume has                                 of achievement versus the standard is high-
     been reduced by about 30 percent and weight                           er than 800 percent.
     by about 50 percent.                                              •	 Power	 consumption	 at	 reading	 and	 writing	
•	 The	energy-saving	design	is	compliant	with	                             is suppressed to 1.9 W and the tranquility at
     the Energy Star Program after the revision                            idling is achieved (2.4 dB).
     in 2007. Power consumption during sleep
     mode is 3.2 W or less, achieving a level below                    4. Introduction of eco-efficiency
     70 percent of the standard level for scanners                        factor
     (which is 5 W).                                                        To quantitatively understand the environ-
•	 Adoption	 of	 LED	 instead	 of	 mercury-                            mental burden of a product, the Fujitsu Group
     containing cold cathode tube as a light                           carries out LCA on all of its new developments
     source.                                                           by integrating LCA requirements into Green
4) HDD: MHY2 BH/BS series                                              Product assessment.
     A 2.5-inch HDD with top-of-the-industry                                The quantitative data on environmental bur-

FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J., Vol. 45, No. 1, (January 2009)                                                                                  69
H. Takayama et al.: Developing More Super Green Products and Achieving Eco-efficiency Factor

den obtained through LCA are used to create prod-                  4.1 Eco-efficiency factor of the Fujitsu
ucts with good environmental characteristics. On                       Group
the other hand, many of the IT products offered                          The Fujitsu Group has introduced the eco-
by the Fujitsu Group tend to consume more elec-                    efficiency factor based on the concept of eco-
tric power in order to realize a drastic increase                  efficiency. The eco-efficiency factor indicates the
in performance and functions that are being de-                    level of improvement in eco-efficiency.5) By using
veloped with accelerating speed. Therefore, one                    this concept, it is possible to indicate how many
of the main emphases is to suppress power con-                     times eco-efficiency has been improved for a new
sumption at the design stage. However, because                     product in comparison with the eco-efficiency
LCA focuses on the evaluation of environmental                     achieved by a standard product (conventional
burden, it is difficult to numerically express such                product). The factor is calculated as below, after
an effort in the design stage. The difficulty of ex-               obtaining the ratio versus the standard product
pressing improvements in eco-design technology                     regarding the value or service and the environ-
only from the evaluation of environmental bur-                     mental burden, respectively.
den poses a serious problem.
       Accordingly, a new concept “Eco-efficiency”                     Eco-efficiency factor =
has been introduced since fiscal 2007 to evalu-                                       Value and service
ate efforts in the design stage by numerically ex-                     (ratio of new product versus conventional product)
                                                                                   Environmental burden
pressing the product performance and functions                         (ratio of new product versus conventional product)
and then combining the result with LCA. The
eco-efficiency is an index that indicates the status                     Basically, the LCA result is used to compare
of both ecological and economic activities. It is a                the environmental burden in the denominator. In
concept to seek the development of a sustainable                   this case, the ratio is calculated based on the CO2
society and industries by creating more benefits                   emissions throughout the product life cycle. The
(i.e., improving value) with less environmental                    values and services in the numerator are quan-
burden.3),4) Eco-efficiency can be expressed as be-                tified for each product category based on public
low:                                                               data such as specifications and functions shown
                                                                   in brochures to ensure transparency.
                            Product value
     Eco-efficiency =                                                    For products whose product value and ser-
                        Environmental burden
                                                                   vice can be specified (so-called single function
      There is a point to consider when introduc-                  products), we quantify the function of the prod-
ing the eco-efficiency. Namely, it is essential to                 ucts that the consumers actually use. For in-
present a clear explanation with the purpose of                    stance, the function of scanners can be evaluated
eliminating misunderstandings such as “the com-                    from several aspects such as optical performance
pany might be using the eco-efficiency to hide                     including basic resolution and reading speed, me-
the actual increase of environmental burden and                    dia processing performance including maximum
to lead to an outcome that is convenient for it-                   size or maximum thickness of document to be
self”. In calculating the eco-efficiency, the defini-              processed, and their data-processing features in-
tion should be clearly identified and the items for                cluding the image processing or number of com-
which transparency and reliability are ensured                     pressed programs.
should be used. As a basic policy of the Fujitsu                         On the other hand, for products such as PCs
Group, we give priority to the environmental bur-                  that have versatile functions (word processing,
den evaluation using Fujitsu LCA or LCA based                      spreadsheet, E-mail, Internet browsing, games,
on the Ecoleaf label program.                                      music and image reproduction, TV) it is hard to

70                                                                             FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J., Vol. 45, No. 1, (January 2009)
                                       H. Takayama et al.: Developing More Super Green Products and Achieving Eco-efficiency Factor

Table 3                                                                                  FMV-718NU4/B                   FMV-C8230
Comparison of function, performance and environmental
burden between new and old computers.
                                        Ratio of new to old
       Assessment item                     FMV-C8230
  Function and performance
    Processing speed                            1.7                                  Standard product (2003)       Target product (2007)
    Memory                                      4.0
    HDD                                         2.0                                                    FMV-718NU4/B
                                                                                 3                     FMV-C8230
  Environmental burden

    CO2 emissions                              0.72
                                                                                     × 2.8                                     Eco-efficiency
                                                                                                               × 0.72          factor
                                                                                 1                                             3.8
                                                                                       Product value   Environmental
specify a single function, and so specifying the                                                          burden

hardware that plays an essential role to realize
                                                                      Figure 8
the aforementioned features should be identified                      Eco-efficiency factor of PC.
and their level of improvement should be evalu-
ated. For instance, processing speed, memory ca-
pacity and HDD capacity can be included in these                      evaluation includes the divisions involving hard-
evaluation items. These data are clearly men-                         ware products that are to be developed based on
tioned in brochures and they match with the gen-                      Fujitsu’s in-house specifications and design. Di-
eral elements to be considered when a consumer                        visions operating dedicatedly for purchased OEM
purchases a new PC.                                                   products or software development are excluded
      When several types of features are available                    from that scope.
as mentioned above, a consolidated value should                             We set a target value for each product cate-
be obtained by conducting numerical process-                          gory. For product categories for which short-term
ing. Taking a PC product by the Fujitsu Group                         improvement of product value is difficult, we plan
as an example, each feature and performance of                        to enhance the eco-efficiency factor by decreasing
FMV-C8230 (launched in 2007), the product to                          the environmental burden. Meanwhile, for prod-
be evaluated, can be described as in Table 3, as-                     uct categories for which drastic improvement of
suming that the features of the standard product                      the value can be expected, we strive for a category
FMV-718NU4/B (launched in 2003) have a value                          target higher than two. The ultimate target is
of 1. The improvement in this value is considered                     to achieve an eco-efficiency factor of two by fiscal
to be about 2.8 times versus the value of the stan-                   2009 as an average of the whole Fujitsu Group.
dard product after consolidation, while the envi-                           Another important point to be considered
ronmental burden has decreased to 72 percent.                         when calculating the eco-efficiency factor is the
Based on these data, the eco-efficiency factor can                    selection of a standard product to be used as a
be calculated as 3.8 (≈ 2.8/0.72) (Figure 8).                         reference for comparison. Taking a standard
                                                                      product from more recent years, the technical dif-
4.2 Target of Fujitsu Group Environment                               ference from the level achieved by the new prod-
    Protection Program (Stage V)                                      uct will become smaller in general, which makes
      The Environment Protection Program                              it difficult to obtain a larger eco-efficiency factor.
(Stage V) sets a target to achieve an eco-                            When evaluating the eco-efficiency factor, the
efficiency factor of two by fiscal 2009 as the whole                  Fujitsu Group stipulates that the standard prod-
Fujitsu Group through the increase of the above-                      uct should be taken from those products devel-
mentioned Super Green Products.1) The scope of                        oped in fiscal 2005.

FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J., Vol. 45, No. 1, (January 2009)                                                                                      71
H. Takayama et al.: Developing More Super Green Products and Achieving Eco-efficiency Factor

              ETERNUS4000                  ETERNUS2000                 to increase the number of Super Green Products
                                                                       and to achieve the targeted eco-efficiency factor
                                                                       in association with the environmental friend-
                                4U                                     liness of Fujitsu’s products, within the frame-
 Standard product (2003)                Target product (2007)          work of the Environmental Protection Program
                                                                       (Stage V). Focusing on the whole product life cy-
          4                                                            cle, this initiative intends to promote the develop-
          3                      ETERNUS2000                           ment of products that can enhance product value

          2    × 2.0
                                                      factor           and minimize environmental burden through en-
                                       × 0.6
          1                                           3.3              hanced multifunctional efforts, with the purpose
                Product value    Environmental
                                                                       of producing products with top-class environmen-
                                    burden                             tal friendliness.
                                                                             Fujitsu will proactively disclose informa-
Figure 9
Eco-efficiency factor of disk array system.
                                                                       tion on the outcome of this initiative so that the
                                                                       Group can offer benefits to customers by address-
                                                                       ing their requests for decreasing environmental
4.3 Example of eco-efficiency factor                                   burden through support for green procurement
    evaluation                                                         and decrease of power consumption in product
      The following examples indicate cases where                      use. Fujitsu is committed to continue doing its
we were able to achieve the targeted value at an                       best to realize a sustainable society.
early stage.
      ETERNUS2000 Disk array could achieve a                           References
drastic reduction of power consumption when in                         1)   Fujitsu Group Sustainability Report 2007.
eco-mode through positive use of Massive Arrays                             environment/report/rep2007.html
of Idle Disks (MAID) technology. In comparison                         2)   S. Oikawa: Promoting Development of Super
                                                                            Green Products. FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J., Vol. 41,
with ETERNUS4000 developed in fiscal 2005, its                              No. 2, pp. 201–208 (2005).
product value indicated about a two-fold improve-                      3)   S. Oikawa et al.: Fujitsu’s Approach for
                                                                            Eco-efficiency Factor. FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J.,
ment and CO2 emissions throughout the product                               Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 236–241 (2005).
life cycle were reduced by about 40 percent. As                        4)   K. Fuse: Utilization of Eco-efficiency Factor
                                                                            for Products in Fujitsu Group (in Japanese
a consequence, we were able to achieve an eco-                              with English abstract). Journal of Life Cycle
efficiency factor of 3.3 (≈ 2/0.6) (Figure 9).                              Assessment, Japan, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 195–200
      The eco-efficiency factor is not only a tool for                 5)   Japan Environmental Management Association
seeking benefits but also a tool to realize a new                           For Industry: Handbook of Eco-efficiency Factor
                                                                            for products (in Japanese).
type of advantage based on an ecological aware-                   
ness. By effective use of the eco-efficiency fac-                           eco-efficiency_index.cfm

tor, it is possible to express corporate efforts to
minimize environmental burden while improving
product value in a quantitative manner. Further,
it may serve as a promising new scale for custom-
ers in their decision making when purchasing a

5. Conclusion
              This paper introduced Fujitsu’s approaches

72                                                                               FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J., Vol. 45, No. 1, (January 2009)
                                       H. Takayama et al.: Developing More Super Green Products and Achieving Eco-efficiency Factor

                         Haruo Takayama                                                       Yoshimasa Nakagami
                         Fujitsu Ltd.                                                         Fujitsu Ltd.
                         Mr. Takayama graduated from Tsurumi                                  Mr. Nakagami received the M.S. degree
                         Industrial High School, Yokohama,                                    in Physics from Chiba University, Chiba,
                         Japan in 1969. He joined Fujitsu Ltd.,                               Japan in 1982. He joined Fujitsu Ltd.,
                         Kawasaki, Japan in 1969 and has been                                 Kawasaki, Japan in 1982 and was en-
                         engaged in promoting development of                                  gaged in development of LSI and LCD
                         eco-designs for products.                                            manufacturing processes until 2002.
                                                                                              Since 2002 he has been engaged in
                                                                                              planning and promoting of corporate
                                                                                              environmental policies.

                         Yoshiko Shinomura                                                    Masataka Fujii
                         Fujitsu Ltd.                                                         Fujitsu Ltd.
                         Ms. Shinomura received the degree of                                 Mr. Fujii received the B.S. degree
                         Ph.D. in Shizuoka University, Shizuoka,                              in Applied Chemistry from Seikei
                         Japan in 2005. She was a researcher                                  University, Tokyo, Japan in 1982. He
                         at Shizuoka University, working on oce-                              joined Fujitsu Ltd., Kawasaki, Japan in
                         anic ecosystems until 2007. She joined                               1982 and engaged in manufacturing
                         Fujitsu Ltd., Kawasaki, Japan in 2007                                engineering for telecommunication sys-
                         and has been engaged in promoting                                    tems. Currently, he is promoting devel-
                         development of eco-designs for prod-                                 opment of environmental engineering.
                         ucts through Life Cycle Assessment.                                  He is a member of the Japan institute of
                                                                      Electronics Packaging (JIEP).

FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J., Vol. 45, No. 1, (January 2009)                                                                              73

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