Detailed project report for developing Solar Power Plant at - PDF by nsq71178

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 78

									August 2009




Detailed project report for developing Solar
Power Plant at Bap, Jodhpur, Rajasthan



                                                                Prepared for
                      Shri Rangam Brokers and Holding Limited, New Delhi
                 A subsidiary of Dalmia Cement (Bharat) Limited, New Delhi




                                                      Project Report No. 2009RT03

    www.teriin.org                           The Energy and Resources Institute
                                                 Contents
                                                                                                              Page No.
Executive Summary
Salient features of the project
Terminology
CHAPTER 1 Proposed site to setting up the solar power plant ............................... 1
  Site details ........................................................................................................... 1
CHAPTER 2 Solar radiation resource assessment .................................................... 5
  Preamble ............................................................................................................. 5
  Rajasthan............................................................................................................. 5
    Solar radiation over Rajasthan ........................................................................6
  Solar radiation resource assessment ..................................................................8
  Estimation of solar radiation on different tracking surfaces .............................9
CHAPTER 3 Proposed technology...........................................................................11
  Overview of concentrating solar power technology ..........................................11
    Parabolic trough collector...............................................................................11
    Central receiver system.................................................................................. 12
    Parabolic dish-sterling technology ................................................................ 12
    Linear Fresnel Reflector (LFR) ..................................................................... 12
  Infinia Solar System (ISS)................................................................................. 18
  Physical data of Infinia Solar System ............................................................... 19
  Environmental ratings ...................................................................................... 19
    Performance of Infinia Solar System (ISS) ...................................................20
  De-Rating .......................................................................................................... 21
    System Control...............................................................................................23
    Operation .......................................................................................................23
    Inverter ..........................................................................................................24
  General specifications/Interface ......................................................................24
    Power Electronics and Control System .........................................................25
  Operation and maintenance .............................................................................25
    Safety..............................................................................................................26
  Foundation ........................................................................................................ 27
  Layout................................................................................................................ 27
  Sizing of a 10 MW Solar Dish-Sterling power plant.........................................29
  Estimation of power output ..............................................................................30
CHAPTER 4 Control, internal transmission and evacuation of power.................32
  Interconnection facility for the proposed plan.................................................32
CHAPTER 5 Project execution plan .......................................................................36
CHAPTER 6 Financial analysis...............................................................................38
  Assumptions & estimates..................................................................................38
    Project cost break-up & means of finance.....................................................38
    Project implementation schedule..................................................................38
    Proposed electricity tariff ..............................................................................39
Annexure I: Solar Radiation Resource Assessment for Bap, Jodhpur.............. 40
Annexure II: Product brochures .........................................................................54
Annexure III: MOU letters between Dalmia group and INIFINA ......................56
Annexure IV(a): Layout of 10 MW power plant ..................................................58
Annexure IV (b): Estimation of cost of electrical & civil works ......................... 60
Annexure-IV (c) Single line diagram of proposed interfacing scheme ...............62
Annexure V: Financial sheets...............................................................................64
List of figures
Figure 1.1 Road Network of Jodhpur (proposed location) ....................................................1
Figure 1.2 Railway Network of Jodhpur (proposed location) ............................................... 2
Figure 1.3 Land Plan of the proposed solar power plant at Bap, Jodhpur ........................... 3
Figure 2.1 DNI map of North-west region on India .............................................................. 6
Figure 2.2 Global solar radiation map of Rajasthan............................................................. 7
Figure 2.4 Global Solar Radiation over Bap, Jodhpur (from Mani and METEONORM) ... 9
Figure 3.1 Overview of Concentrating Solar System............................................................ 11
Figure 3.2 Schematic diagram of concentrating solar thermal (CST) power technologies 13
Figure 3.3 Major components of the ISS ............................................................................ 18
Figure 3.4 Schematic of 3kW system of ISS .........................................................................19
Figure 3.5 Performance curve of the system........................................................................21
Figure 3.6 Pattern of monthly average wind speed at Bap, Jodhpur................................. 22
Figure 3.8 Shadow pattern for solar field at 8.30am on 23rd Dec (ECOTECH) ............... 28
Figure 3.9 Shadow pattern for solar field at 10.30am on 23rd Dec ................................... 28
Figure 3.10 Illustrative power block (1 MW)...................................................................... 29
Figure 3.11 Illustration of sub module of 5x5 arrays of 3 kW ISS ....................................... 29
Figure 3.12 Illustrations of 5x3 arrays of sub modules to make 1 MW module ................. 30
Figure 3.13 Process flow chart diagram of parabolic Dish-Sterling system of ISS.............31


List of tables
Table 2.1 Monthly total values of DNI over Bap, Jodhpur with effective sunshine hours 10
Table 3.1 Technological maturity level of CST technologies................................................13
Table 3.2 Comparison between various CSP technologies ...................................................14
Table 3.3. Technical Characteristics of Concentrating Solar Power Technologies..............16
Table 3.4 Physical details of parabolic Dish-Sterling of ISS.................................................19
Table 3.5 Operating parameters and ranges of parabolic dish-sterling system...................19
Table 3.5 Performance outputs of Parabolic Dish-Sterling system.................................... 25
Table 3.6 Expected service life of service items .................................................................. 26
Table 3.8 Performance summary of ISS of 10 MW............................................................. 28
Table 5.1 Action Plan For Execution of 10 MW Solar Power Plant ................................... 36
Table 6.1 Project cost & means of finance (10 MW)........................................................... 38
Executive Summary


                   This proposal is for setting up a 10MW capacity concentrating
                   solar power plant based on innovative parabolic dish sterling
                   technology developed by a US based company,which has been
                   successfully developing and delivering innovative Sterling
                   generators and cryocoolers since 1985. For more than twenty
                   years, it has developed unique hardware and technology based
                   on its proprietary free-piston Stirling designs. The technology
                   provider’s engineers work closely with clients to develop
                   systems ranging from power for deep-space missions to
                   cryocoolers for research.The company has already entered into
                   agreement with the project promoters M/s Shri Rangam
                   Brokers and Holding Limited, New Delhi. The solar power
                   project is proposed in Jodhpur district of Rajasthan, which is
                   one of the best suited locations in terms of higher annual direct
                   normal insolation (DNI), favourable climatic conditions and
                   land availability.

    About Dalmia
                   The Dalmia Cement (Bharat) Limited is in business for about 70
                   years now. They are the pioneers in the cement sector in India.
                   The DCBL has ushered into a higher growth trajectory and has
                   been posting phenomenal financial numbers for the past several
                   quarters. The company balance sheet for FY2009 seems to be
                   very strong with reserves of Rs. 1252 cr. Over the past decade
                   the company has commissioned projects worth more than Rs.
                   2000 crore in cement,sugar and power businesses. The installed
                   power generation of the company stands at 140.5 MW. To
                   sustain this growth momentum and as being an environmental
                   friendly corporate citizen the company plans to diversify in the
                   renewable energy sector. The group has already experience of
                   the wind power generation and is currently operating 17 MW
                   wind power plant in Tamil Nadu. The organization has now
                   identified to tap the solar bliss of the nature and help the nation
                   achieve its solar objectives be at forefront of the green power.
                   They have assigned to its subsidiary company, M/s Shri
                   Rangam Brokers and Holding Limited, New Delhi, to explore
                   and take up establishment and operation of solar power plants.
                   They have engaged M/s The Energy and Resources Institute,
                   New Delhi as consultant to prepare Detailed Project Report
                   (DPR).

    About TERI
                   A dynamic and flexible organization with a global vision and
                   local focus, TERI was established in 1974. While in the initial
                   period the focus was mainly on documentation and information
               dissemination activities, research activities in the fields of
               energy, environment, and sustainable development were
               initiated towards the end of 1982. The genesis of these activities
               lay in TERI’s firm belief that efficient utilization of energy,
               sustainable use of natural resources, large-scale adoption of
               renewable energy technologies, and reduction of all forms of
               waste would move the process of development towards the goal
               of sustainability.

Technology
               The proposed plant will comprises modular 3kW solar parabolic
               Dish- Sterling technology for power generation. Technology
               provider has developed and patented innovative oscillating
               piston Sterling engine technology which has better performance
               and longer life as compared to conventional cranks shaft type
               Sterling engine designs.
                  The technology is stand alone type which needs no external
               power or water source and hence is most appropriate for desert
               region of Rajasthan. Small amount of processed water is
               required only for cleaning of the system.

Solar Energy Action Plan of Shri Rangam Brokers and Holding Limited,
New Delhi/ Dalmia Group
              The company proposes to set up concentrated solar power
              generation station using Stirling Engine technology. This
              technology has been identified as a “technology of future” in the
              draft National Solar Mission in the section “mission strategy”
              page-7. The company intends to implement this nest generation
              technology now. In this context the company has following plans
              for assimilation of the aforesaid technology:
              1. To start with installing Solar Power Plant based on this
                  technology imported from the original technology provider.
              2. Install manufacturing facility in India to drive down the
                  costs with the indigenization and by going along the learning
                  curve with volume growth.
              3. Install large size Solar Power Projects in India based on this.
                  The company is looking at 400 MW installed capacity in
                  next 5 years.
Salient features of the project


                  1. Project promoter:- M/s Shri Rangam Brokers and
                     Holding Limited, New Delhi
                  2. Project location:- Village Bap, Tehsil Phalodi, Jhodpur
                     District, Rajasthan
                  3. Proposed technology:- Solar Dish-Sterling
                  4. Design consultant:- The Energy and Resources
                     Institute (TERI), New Delhi
                  5. Plant capacity:- 10 MW
                  6. Dish sterling systems required:- 3340 Dish -
                     Sterling engine systems each of 3kW capacity.
                  7. Annual average Direct Normal Insolation (DNI):-
                     2240 kWh/m2
                  8. Annual Effective DNI:- 2202 kWh/m2
                  9. Annual output (expected):- 22.2 MU
                  10. Land area required:- 70 acre
                  11. Project implementation period:- 26 months from
                     date of approval.
                  12. Estimated project cost:- Rs 230 crore
                  13. Design Optimisation Software used:- ECOTECH
                  14. Agreement with supplier:- Signed and copy enclosed
                     in Annexure II.
                  15. Site selection:- Site identified and suitability confirmed
                  16. Financial closure:- On approval of the project
                     promoters will approach banks/ IREDA for loan. Equity
                     share capital is readily available.
Terminology


     Direct solar radiation
                      It is the solar radiation propagating along the line joining the
                      receiving surface and the sun. It is also referred as beam
                      radiation. It is measured through pyrehiliometer.

     Diffuse solar radiation
                      It is the solar radiation scattered by aerosols, dust and
                      molecules. It does not have a unique direction and also dose not
                      follows the fundamental principals of optics. It is measured by
                      shading pyrenometer.

     Global solar radiation
                      The global solar radiation is the sum of the direct and diffuse
                      solar radiation and is sometimes referred to as the global
                      radiation. The most common measurements of solar radiation
                      are total radiation on a horizontal surface often referred to as
                      ‘global radiation’ on the surface. It is measured by pyrenometer.

     Irradiance
                      Irradiance is the rate at which radiant energy is incident on a
                      surface, per unit area of surface.

     Direct Normal Insolation (DNI)
                      It is the direct component of the solar radiation incident on
                      normal to the collector; means the angle of incidence of incident
                      solar radiation with the normal of the collector is zero
                      throughout the day.
CHAPTER 1     Proposed site to setting up the solar power
plant

        Site details
                       The proposed location of the solar power plant based on Dish-
                       Sterling technology, is near village Bap in Phalodi Tahsil
                       (latitude 27°06’ to 27°09’ North and 72°20’ to 72°23’ East) of
                       Jodhpur district of Rajasthan state. Bap town is situated at
                       distance of 140 km. from Jodhpur and connected to Jodhpur-
                       Jaisalmer railway line.
                            Bap (Latitude 27o 22’N and Longitude 72o22’E) is an up
                       Tahsil of Phalodi and area where land has been selected for
                       proposed solar power plant. The location is well connected with
                       the National Highway NH15 (Bikaner-Jaiselmer).
                            The proposed location has shadow free area (almost flat
                       terrain) and located at very close (0.5-1.5 km) to a 33/11 kV
                       substation from where the power generated through the solar
                       power plant can be feed to the grid. In addition another 132/33
                       kV grid substation is planned near Bap village. The distance of
                       this substation from the proposed site is around 4-5 km. Figures
                       1.1 and 1.2 respectively represent the road and rail connectivity
                       of the proposed project location; where the important locations
                       are marked as Red.




                                Figure 1.1 Road Network of Jodhpur (proposed location)
                                             (Source: www.mapsofindia.com)



                       T E R I Report No.2009RT03
2 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan




Figure 1.2 Railway Network of Jodhpur (proposed location)
                         (Source: www.mapsofindia.com)


The land plan of the identified land area for the proposed solar
power project at Bap, Jodhpur is presented in Figure 1.3. The
next chapters cover solar radiation resource potential, expected
electrical output from the proposed 10MW system along with
the financial analysis of the project.




T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
3 Proposed site to setting up of the solar power plants




Figure 1.3 Land Plan of the proposed solar power plant at Bap, Jodhpur




T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
4 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan




T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
CHAPTER 2 Solar   radiation resource assessment


     Preamble
                   India is located in the sunny belt of the earth, thereby receiving
                   abundant radiant energy from the sun. Its equivalent energy
                   potential is about 6,000 million GWh of energy per year. India
                   being a tropical country is blessed with good sunshine over
                   most parts, and the number of clear sunny days in a year also
                   being quite high. India is in the sunny belt of the world. The
                   country receives solar energy equivalent to more than 5,000
                   trillion kWh per year. The daily average global radiation is
                   around 5 .0 kWh/m2 in north-eastern and hilly areas to about
                   7.0 kWh/m2 in western regions and cold dessert areas with the
                   sunshine hours ranging between 2300 and 3200 per year. In
                   most parts of India, clear sunny weather is experienced for 250
                   to 300 days a year. The annual global radiation varies from
                   1600 to 2200 kWh/m2. The direct normal insolation1 (DNI)
                   over Rajasthan varies from 1800 kWh/m2 to 2600 kWh/m2.
                       This chapter covers the detailed-feasibility of solar radiation
                   resource assessment and Direct Normal Insolation (DNI) study
                   for Jodhpur Rajasthan.



     Rajasthan
                   Rajasthan is situated in the north-western part of India. It
                   covers 342,239 square kilometres. Rajasthan lies between
                   latitudes 23o 3'and 30o 12', North and longitudes 69o 30' and 78o
                   17', East. The southern part of Rajasthan is about 225 km from
                   the Gulf of Kutch and about 400 km from the Arabian Sea.
                   Rajasthan is bounded by Pakistan in the west and north-west;
                   by the State of Punjab in the north; by Haryana in the north-
                   east; by Uttar Pradesh in the east, by Madhya Pradesh in the
                   south-east and Gujarat in the south-west.
                       The climate of Rajasthan can be divided into four seasons;
                   summers, Monsoon, Post-Monsoon and winter. A summer,
                   which extends from April to June, is the hottest season, with
                   temperatures ranging from 32 oC to 45 oC. In western Rajasthan
                   the temp may rise to 48 oC, particularly in May and June. The
                   second season Monsoon extends from July to September, temp
                   drops, but humidity increases, even when there is slight drop in
                   the temp (35 oC to 40 oC). 90% of rains occur during this period.
                       The Post-monsoon period is from October to November. The
                   average maximum temperature is 33o C to 38o C, and the

                   1DNI= Direct normal insolation; all concentrating solar power
                   technologies comprises this component of solar radiation only.


                   T E R I Report No.2009RT03
                 6 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
                 Rajasthan

                 minimum is between 18 oC and 20 oC. The fourth season is
                 winter or the cold season, from December to March. There is a
                 marked variation in maximum and minimum temperatures and
                 regional variations across the state. January is the coolest
                 month of the year. There is slight precipitation in the north and
                 north-eastern region of the state, and light winds,
                 predominantly from the north and northeast. At this time,
                 relative humidity ranges from 50% to 60% in the morning, and
                 25% to 35% in the afternoon.
                     The north-west part of the country is best suited for solar
                 energy based projects because the location receives maximum
                 amount of solar radiation annually in the country. Figure 2.1
                 presents the annual average DNI map for the northwest region
                 of India.




           Bap




                 Figure 2.1 DNI map of North-west region on India
                 (Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA)


Solar radiation over Rajasthan
                 Rajasthan receives maximum solar radiation intensity in India.
                 In addition the average rainfall is minimum in the state, hence
                 best suited for solar power generation. The global solar radiation
                 map of Rajasthan is presented in Figure 2.2; which is based on
                 the measured data of Indian Metrological Department (IMD)
                 and satellite data through NASA. The map clearly emphasize


                 T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
7    Solar radiation resource assessment

that the western and southern parts of the state receives good
amount of annual average solar radiation. Jodhpur is also one
representative location of Rajasthan State.




\




           Figure 2.2 Global solar radiation map of Rajasthan
                            (Source: TERI Analysis)
Bap, Jodhpur
Jodhpur is the one of the largest district of Rajasthan is
centrally situated in Western region of the State, having
geographical area of 22850 sq. km. The district stretches
between 2600’ and 27037’ at North Latitude and between 72o55’
and 73o 52’ at East Longitude. This district is situated at the
height between 250-300 meters above sea level. Jodhpur is
bound by Nagaur in East, Jaisalmer in west, Bikaner in North as
well as Pali in the South. The length of the district from North to
South and from East to West is 197 Km. & 208 Km. respectively.
This district comes under arid zone of the Rajasthan state. It
covers 11.60% of total area of arid zone of the state. The average
rainfall is around 360 millimetres, it is extraordinarily variable.
Bap block of Jodhpur district is and situated between Jodhpur,
Jaisalmer and Bikaner districts in western Rajasthan. Located
in the heart of the Thar desert, Bap gives the impression of
endless desolation, with scattered habitation. A typical sun path
diagram2 for Bap, Jodhpur has been presented in Figure 2.3.

2Sun path diagrams are a convenient way of representing annual changes
in the path of the Sun through the sky within a single 2D diagram. Their
most immediate use is that the solar azimuth and altitude can be read off
directly for any time of the day and day of the year. They also provide a
unique summary of solar position that the designer can refer to when
considering shading requirements and design options.


T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                                              8 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
                                              Rajasthan



Stereographic Diagram                                                                        N
Lo c a tio n: 26 .3°, 73 .0 °                                            34 5°                                    15 °
S un P o sition : 1 53 .9°, 65 .6°
H SA: 15 3.9 °                                             3 30 °                                                                 30 °
VSA: 11 2.1°
                                                                                                 1 0°


                                             3 15 °                                                                                               4 5°
                                                                                                 2 0°



                                                                                                 3 0°
                                    3 00 °                                                                                                                     6 0°
                                                                                                 4 0°
                                1st Jul                                                                                                                    6
                                                                                                                                                                 1 st Jun
                                             19                                                  5 0°
                           1st Aug

                           2 85 °                                                                6 0°                                         7                            7M
                                                                                                                                                                        1 st 5° ay
                                                      18
                                                                                                 7 0°
                     1st S ep                                                                                                             8
                                                             17
                                                                                                 8 0°                         9
                                                                    16                                                                                                     1st Ap r
                                                                         15                                              10
                      2 70 °                                                     14                          11                                                              9 0°
                                                                                        13              12
                     1st O c t


                                                                                                                                                                          1 st M ar


                        2 N ov
                       1st55 °                                                                                                                                            1 05 °
                                                                                                                                                                      1st Feb

                             1 st D ec
                                                                                                                                                                1st Ja n


                                    2 40 °                                                                                                                     1 20 °




                                             2 25 °                                                                                               1 35 °




                                                           2 10 °                                                                 15 0°
T ime : 1 2:00
D ate : 1 st A p r (9 1)
                                                                         19 5°                                    16 5°
D otted line s: July-D ec embe r.                                                        18 0°


                                       Figure 2.3 Sun-path Diagram for the location of Bap, Jodhpur
                                                                                      (Source: Ecotech Software)




Solar radiation resource assessment
                                              Resource assessment is the primary and essential exercise
                                              towards project evaluation. In India, the Indian Meteorological
                                              Department (IMD) measures the solar radiation and other
                                              climatic parameters over various locations across the country
                                              however, the measuring stations record only global and diffuse
                                              solar radiation on horizontal surfaces. The parabolic Dish-
                                              Sterling technology utilises infrared component of direct
                                              normal component of global solar radiation; which is essentially
                                              the solar radiation measured/assessed at a surface normal to
                                              Sun rays throughout the day. The direct solar radiation is not
                                              measured at many locations of India; while it could be
                                              estimated through global and diffuse solar radiation on
                                              horizontal surface. The direct solar radiation is not measured by
                                              IMD in Jodhpur while the global and diffuse solar radiation
                                              values are measuring from last 25-30 years. The best way of
                                              carrying out the solar radiation resource assessment is to use




                                              T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                                               9          Solar radiation resource assessment

                                               TMY3 (Typical Meteorological Year weather data files) data files
                                               for selected location. Since the TMY data files for Indian
                                               locations are not available hence in the present study the
                                               METEONORM4 database has been used for solar radiation
                                               study and DNI estimation. Further the DNI values estimated
                                               using METEONORM data base have been compared with the
                                               values obtained using IMD data as well as with the NASA
                                               satellite data for the location of Jodhpur.
                                                  In order to assess the closeness of the METEONORM data a
                                               comparison of the monthly values obtained from ‘Handbook of
                                               Solar Radiation’ by A Mani5 with TMY data of METEONORM.
                                               The annual global solar radiation through Mani and
                                               METEONORM database has been obtained as 2201 kWh/m2
                                               and 2051 kWh/m2 respectively; which are very close (<7%
                                               deviation). Figure 2.4 presents the global solar radiation over
                                               Bap, Jodhpur using the data of A Mani and METEONORM.

                                                   250
             Global Solar Radiation (kWh/m )




                                                   200
             2




                                                   150



                                                   100



                                                    50



                                                      0
                                                            JAN       FEB MAR APR MAY JUN                              JUL AUG SEP                  OCT NOV DEC

                                                                                                      MANI         METEONORM

                                                    Figure 2.4 Global Solar Radiation over Bap, Jodhpur (from Mani and
                                                                             METEONORM)


Estimation of solar radiation on different tracking surfaces

                                               3 † TMY data sets for 234 U.S. locations, derived from the widely accepted 1952-1975 SOLMET/ERSATZ data base, have
                                               been modified at the Solar Energy Laboratory for ease of use with the TRNSYS energy system simulation program. The
                                               original TMY files are ASCII text files containing one year of weather data (ranging from solar radiation to precipitation) at one
                                               hour time intervals. TRNSYS TMY files, containing only the most widely used information from the original files and corrected
                                               for known problems.


                                               4 METEONORM is a comprehensive meteorological reference, incorporating a catalogue of meteorological data and
                                               calculation procedures for solar applications and system design at any desired location in the world. It is based on over 20
                                               years of experience in the development of meteorological databases for energy applications. METEONORM addresses
                                               engineers, architects, teachers, planners and anyone interested in solar energy and climatology. The database includes
                                               climatological data of 7 700 weather stations (60 stations of India) based on measured climatic parameters viz. solar radiation,
                                               temperature, humidity, precipitation, days with precipitation, wind speed and direction, sunshine duration etc. including
                                               complete coverage of the global, including polar regions.


                                               5 Mani, A., Handbook of Solar Radiation, Allied Publishers, 1982.



                                               T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                               10 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
                               Rajasthan

                               TMY file for the locations of Jodhpur has been selected from
                               METEONORM database. A program has been developed to
                               estimate the direct solar radiation over stationary and tracking
                               surfaces (single axis, double-axis) using computer software
                               TRNSYS6. TRNSYS is a time dependent systems simulation
                               program, which recognizes a system description language in
                               which the user specifies the components that constitute the
                               system and the manner in which they are connected. The
                               TRNSYS library includes many of the components commonly
                               found in thermal and electrical energy systems, as well as
                               component routines to handle input of weather data or other
                               time-dependent forcing functions and output of simulation
                               results. TRNSYS is well suited to detailed analyses of any
                               system whose behaviour is dependent on the passage of time.
                                  Table 2.1 presents the outcome of solar radiation resource
                               assessment for Bap, Jodhpur. It has been estimated that the
                               location receives 2241 kWh/m2 Direct Normal Incidence over
                               the year. The monthly values of global solar radiation, diffuse
                               radiation and effective sunshine hours at Bap, Jodhpur has also
                               been given in the Table 2.1. The daily average values of solar
                               radiation, sunshine hours, effective DNI and associated climatic
                               parameters especially ambient temperature and prevailing wind
                               speed have been summarized in Annexure-1.

Table 2.1 Monthly total values of DNI over Bap, Jodhpur with effective sunshine hours
Month           Global Solar          Diffuse Solar     Direct Solar       DNI (two axis        Effective DNI*       Effective
                Radiation on          Radiation on      Radiation on     tracking)(kWh/m2)        (kWh/m2)           Sunshine
                 Horizontal            Horizontal        Horizontal                                                 Hours (hrs)
                 (kWh/m2)               (kWh/m2)         (kWh/m2)
    Jan              142                   29               113                  222                 221                289
    Feb              154                   31               123                  215                 213                274
    Mar              201                   46               155                  240                 239                331
    Apr              214                   62               151                  217                 214                330
    May              226                   79               147                  204                 202                361
    Jun              189                   83               106                  147                 141                269
    Jul              146                   85                61                   83                  77                173
    Aug              135                   88                47                   65                  56                131
    Sep              212                   32               179                  270                 269                326
    Oct              171                   47               124                  208                 206                315
    Nov              134                   39                95                  182                 179                270
    Dec              126                   34                93                  187                 185                273
   Total            2050                  655               1394                2240                 2202               3342
                                                          *meeting the performance conditions for selected technology
                                         (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)




                               6   http://sel.me.wisc.edu/trnsys/


                               T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
CHAPTER 3   Proposed technology


                      Concentrating solar power (CSP) plants produce electricity by
                      converting the infrared part of solar radiation into high-
                      temperature heat using various mirror/reflector and receiver
                      configurations. The heat is then channelled through a
                      conventional generator. The plants consist of two parts: one
                      that collects solar energy and converts it to heat, commonly
                      known as ‘solar field’ and another that converts heat energy to
                      electricity, known as ‘power block’.
                      CSP plants use the high-temperature heat from concentrating
                      solar collectors to drive conventional types of engines turbines.


     Overview of concentrating solar power technology
                      All CSP are based on four basic essential sub systems namely
                      collector, receiver (absorber), transport/ storage and power
                      conversion. Following four CSP technologies have either
                      reached commercialisation stage or are near it:
                         Parabolic Trough
                          Power towers
                          Parabolic Dishes (Dish-Sterling)
                          Compound Linear Fresnel Reflectors (CLFR)

                                                                                  FOSSIL – FIRED
                                                                                    BACKUP
                                                                                     SYSTEM


                                                                                           Thermal
                                                     Solar Thermal Energy                   Energy

                 SOLAR
                                         CONCENTRATOR                RECEIVER
               RADIATION
                                                                                            Stored
                                                                                           Thermal
                      Concentrated Solar Radiation                                          Energy


                                                                                     POWER
                                                                                   CONVERSION
                                                                                     SYSTEM

                      Figure 3.1 Overview of Concentrating Solar Thermal System

     Parabolic trough collector
                      Parabolic trough-shaped mirror reflectors are used to
                      concentrate sunlight on to thermally efficient receiver-tubes
                      placed in the trough’s focal line. The troughs are usually
                      designed to track the Sun along one axis, predominantly north–
                      south. A thermal transfer fluid, such as synthetic thermal oil, is
                      circulated in these tubes. The fluid is heated to approximately


                      T E R I Report No.2009RT03
                12 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
                Rajasthan

                400°C by the sun’s concentrated rays and then pumped through
                a series of heat exchangers to produce superheated steam. The
                steam is converted to electrical energy in a conventional steam
                turbine generator, which can either be part of a conventional
                steam cycle or integrated into a combined steam and gas
                turbine cycle.

Central receiver system
                A circular array of heliostats (large mirrors two-axis with
                tracking) concentrates sunlight on to a central receiver mounted
                at the top of a tower. A heat-transfer medium in this central
                receiver absorbs the highly concentrated radiation reflected by
                the heliostats and converts it into thermal energy, which is used
                to generate superheated steam for the turbine. To date, the heat
                transfer media demonstrated include water/steam, molten salts
                and air. If pressurised gas or air is used at very high
                temperatures of about 1,000°C or more as the heat transfer
                medium, it can even be used to directly replace natural gas in a
                gas turbine, making use of the excellent cycle (60% and more)
                of modern gas and steam combined cycles.

Parabolic dish-sterling technology
                A paraboloid dish-shaped reflector (commonly called as
                parabolic dish) concentrates sunlight on to a receiver located at
                the focal point of the dish. The concentrated beam radiation is
                absorbed into a receiver to heat a fluid or gas (air) to
                approximately 750°C. This fluid or gas is then used to generate
                electricity in a small piston or Stirling engine or a micro turbine,
                attached to the receiver. The parabolic dish are designed to
                track the Sun along both axis, predominantly north–south and
                east-west.

Linear Fresnel Reflector (LFR)
                An array of nearly-flat reflectors concentrates solar radiation
                onto elevated inverted linear receivers. Water flows through the
                receivers and is converted into steam. This system is line-
                concentrating, similar to a parabolic trough, with the
                advantages of low costs for structural support and reflectors,
                fixed fluid joints, a receiver separated from the reflector system,
                and long focal lengths that allow the use of flat mirrors. The
                technology is seen as a potentially lower-cost alternative to
                trough technology for the production of solar process heat.
                   Figure 3.2 presents the schematic diagram of above CST
                technologies.




                T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
               13    Proposed technology




Figure 3.2 Schematic diagram of concentrating solar thermal (CST) power technologies


               On the basis of technological aspects Table 3.1 presents the
               maturity levels of CSP technologies while inter-comparability of
               CSP technologies is presented in Table 3.2.

               Table 3.1 Technological maturity level of CST technologies
                                          Installed Capacity   Appropriate capacity
                                                (MW)           under construction
                CSP Technology Type            till 2009       and proposed (MW)
                Parabolic Trough                 500                > 10,000
                Central Receiver                  40                 > 3,000
                Parabolic Dish-Sterling          <1                  > 1500
                CLFR                              5                   > 500




               T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                                14 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
                                Rajasthan


Table 3.2 Comparison between various CSP technologies
                                                                                                                 Fresnel linear
               Parabolic trough              Central receiver                      Parabolic Dish                reflector
Applications   Grid-connected plants,        Grid-connected plants, high           Stand-alone, small off-grid   Grid connected
               midium to high-process        temperature                           power systems or              plants, or steam
               heat                          process heat                          clustered to larger grid      generation to be used
               (Highest single unit solar    (Highest single unit solar capacity   connected dish parks          in conventional
               capacity to date: 80 MWe.     to date: 20 MWe under                 (Highest single unit solar    thermal power plants.
               Total capacity built:         construction, Total capacity          capacity to date: 100 kWe,    (Highest single unit
               over 500 MW and more          ~50MW with at                         Proposals for                 solar
               than 10 GW under              least 100MW under development)        100MW and 500 MW in           capacity to date is
               construction or proposed)                                           Australia and US)             5MW
                                                                                                                 in US, with 177 MW
                                                                                                                 installation under
                                                                                                                 development)
Advantages     • Commercially available      • Good mid-term prospects for         • Very high conversion        • Readily available
                 over 16 billion kWh of        high conversion efficiencies,         efficiencies – peak solar   • Flat mirrors can be
                 operational experience;       operating temperature potential       to net electric               purchased and bent
                 operating temperature         beyond 1,000°C (565°C proven          conversion over 30%           on site, lower
                 potential up to 500°C         at 10 MW scale)                     • Modularity                    manufacturing
                 (400°C commercially         • Storage at high temperatures        • Most effectively              costs
                 proven)                     • Hybrid operation possible             integrate thermal           • Hybrid operation
               • Commercially proven         • Better suited for dry cooling         storage a large plant         possible
                 annual net plant              concepts than troughs and           • Operational experience      • Very high space
                 efficiency of 14% (solar      Fresnel                               of first demonstration        efficiency around
                 radiation to net electric   • Better options to use non-flat        projects                      solar noon.
                 output)                       sites                               • Easily manufactured and
               • Commercially proven                                                 mass-produced from
                 investment and operating                                            available parts
                 costs                                                             • No water requirements
               • Modularity                                                          for cooling the cycle
               • Good land-use factor
               • Lowest materials
                 demand
               • Hybrid concept proven
               • Storage capability


                                It has been observed that parabolic trough collector is well
                                proven but the suppliers are not available in India and the
                                projects based on the technology become viable for large
                                capacity. The size of power plant under trough as well as tower
                                technology is dependent on size and economics of steam turbine
                                and such trough as well as tower technology does not have
                                capability and flexibility of development on modular concept for
                                small to large size. The power tower technology also requires big
                                amount of land as compared with other CSP technologies.
                                CLFR technology is new but again similar as above technologies
                                in point of view of modularity. In addition all these three

                                T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
15   Proposed technology

technologies consume a big amount of water for cooling tower
and heat transfer medium. In these power plants only thermal
energy is collected through solar collectors, rest parts are
similar as conventional thermal power plants which comprise
steam turbine, generator and other associated moving parts.
Hence the cost of operation and maintenances increases.




T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                                         16 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
                                         Rajasthan

                                         Taking in to account all advantages and limitations of all CSP
                                         technologies Shi Rangam Brokers & holdings Limited (Dalmia
                                         cement [Bharat] Ltd.) has selected parabolic-dish sterling
                                         technology which is modular and requires no water and heat
                                         transfer fluid etc. Presently there are three major companies
                                         worldwide who are manufacturing parabolic dish-sterling
                                         systems of different capacities. These are M/s Infinia Solar
                                         Systems, M/s Sterling Energy Systems and M/s Sun Power. The
                                         technological characterises of all CSP technologies are given in
                                         Table 3.3.

   Table 3.3. Technical Characteristics of Concentrating Solar Power Technologies
                                                                                       Area       Total
CSP              Concentra-               Solar              Thermal        Thermal    Required* Installed
Technology       tion Ratio   Tracking    Radiation          Input          Storage    (acre/MW) Capacity    Projects      Company
Parabolic trough 80           Single-     Direct radiation   250-400   oC   Possible   7-8        > 400 MW SEGS, USA       Luz
                              axis        over single axis                                                   (354 MW)      International
                                                                                                                           Ltd.
                                                                                                             ANDASOL-1
                                                                                                             (50 MW)       Solar
                                                                                                                           Millenium
Central receiver 500-1500     Two-axis    Direct Normal      250-1200       Possible   14-15                 PS-10         Abengoa
                                          Incidence          oC                                   >25 MW     (11 MW)       Solar
                                                                                                             Solar Tres
                                                                                                             (17 MW)       SENER,
                                                                                                                           Sppain
Parabolic dish- 500-1500      Two-axis    Direct Normal      700 oC         Not        7-8        < 1MW      NA            Sterling-
engine                                    Incidence                         Possible                                       engine
                                                                                                                           systems
Concentrating    80           Single-     Direct radiation   250-400 oC     Possible   4-5        1 MW       NA            Ausra
Linear Fresnel                axis        over single axis                                                                 Australia
Reflectors


                                         Presently, solar energy is utilised to generate electricity through
                                         solar photovoltaic, concentrated solar thermal power (CSP)
                                         plants and parabolic dish sterling engine etc. The solar
                                         photovoltaic route comprises ultraviolet portion and high
                                         energy region of solar spectrum; and mainly utilizes crystalline
                                         silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon (a-Si) or
                                         cadmium telluride (CdTe) and other thin film photovoltaic solar
                                         cells. It has been noticed that these materials are based on
                                         highly refined silicon or rare earth tellurium; which has lesser
                                         potential of cost reduction in near future. The thin films has
                                         shown possibilities of cost reduction but also carries sufficient
                                         degradation and hence reduction of efficiency.
                                             The Parabolic trough collector, or heliostat field collectors
                                         based CSP power plants and other concentrating solar thermal
                                         technologies utilizes visible and infrared portion of incident



                                         T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
17   Proposed technology

solar radiation to achieve high temperatures and hence
generation of steam to run the turbine.
    Rajasthan receives significant annual average DNI and
comprises huge waste/desert land, which are the basic
requirements to install CSP plant. Water requirement for CSP
plants might be one of the drawbacks for the region because
Rajasthan has limited water resources. The power generation
can be effected only because of the availability of water. Getting
water supply from existing reservoirs or canal might add
additional cost in the project and could affect its viability. The
electricity generation through parabolic dish sterling engine
system does not require water for operation. In addition these
systems are best suited solar power technology for decentralized
and distributed power generation as they are modular units of
3kW capacity. This dish-sterling engine, is based on sterling
cycle instead prior to carnot cycle and hence shows the highest
efficiency. The sterling engine has efficiency of 24% compare to
the 15% maximum efficiency of solar photovoltaic. It is
therefore the best suited technology for Rajasthan. Further
being simple mechanical device, has potential of cost reduction
by indigenisation.
    The company has identified Parabolic Dish-Sterling
concentrating solar power technology developed by INFINIA
Corp, USA. INFINIA Corporation, a USA based company is
commercially manufacturing the parabolic dish-sterling
systems and has joined hands with Dalmia Cement (Bharat)
Ltd., towards supply of the technology. The technical
specifications of this parabolic dish-sterling system of are
discusses below.
    The System consists of following principal components;
    Heat Drive
    Chassis
    Parabolic dish solar Reflector
    Bi-axial Drive and
    Solid state Power Electronics & Control System

All components are out-door rated and will meet Ingress
Progression Standards IP54 (Heat Drive), IP56 (Electrical
Enclosures) and IP66 (Bi-axial drive)7. The Heat Drive consists of a
Cavity Receiver that captures the concentrated sunlight from the
parabolic reflector, a Free Piston Stirling Engine that efficiently
converts the solar energy to electricity, and a heat rejection system
similar to an automotive cooling system (Figure 3.3).
    The Product manual and detail specifications are enclosed in
Annexure II.




7IP54, IP56, and IP66 are the international standards applicable for
outdoor installation of mechanical/electrical system.


T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
               18 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
               Rajasthan




                                 Figure 3.3 Major components of the ISS


Infinia Solar System (ISS)
               Infinia’s Solar System relies on a advanced Free-Piston Stirling
               Engine (FPSE)- initially developed for NASA for space
               applications- to convert concentrated solar heat to electricity.
               Infinia FPSEs convert thermal energy from external energy
               sources to linear motion which drives an integral linear
               alternator, thus generating clean, reliable electricity. The system
               integrates a Stirling engine (Heat Drive), a parabolic dish solar
               Reflector, a Bi-axial Drive mounted on a Chassis, and Power
               Electronics and Control Systems. The Bi-axial Drive points the
               system at the sun and tracks the sun throughout the day to
               concentrate sunlight off the mirrored face of the parabolic dish
               into the Heat Drive. This concentrated thermal energy is
               converted to linear motion and drives the power piston of a
               linear alternator. AC electrical output of the alternator is
               rectified to DC by the power electronics and automatically
               inverted to match the AC voltage and frequency of the connected
               grid. The main features of the parabolic dish-sterling system of
               Infinia Solar System are;
                   3,000 W net AC
                   Long-life, zero-maintenance Free-Piston Stirling Engine
                   Dual Axis Tracking
                   Self-contained power electronics that meet utility
                   interconnection requirements
                   No Cooling Water required

               The 3 kW Solar System is comprised of a parabolic solar
               concentrating dish, a 3 kW Stirling engine module, and a
               supporting post, as illustrated in figure 3.4.



               T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
               19    Proposed technology




               Figure 3.4 Schematic of 3kW system of ISS


Physical data of Infinia Solar System
               The weight and dimensions of this parabolic dish-sterling of are
               given in Table 3.4 as following;

               Table 3.4 Physical details of parabolic Dish-Sterling of ISS
                Dimension      Position at Horizon
                Width                 4.7 m
                Length                4.4 m
                Height                5.6 m
                Total Weight         864 kg



Environmental ratings
               The range of environmental parameters under which this
               parabolic dish-sterling system works, is given in Table 3.5 as
               following;

               Table 3.5 Operating parameters and ranges of parabolic dish-sterling system
                Operating Parameter                   Operating Range
                Operating temperature range           -20oC to 55 oC
                Operating elevation range             Up to 1890 m above sea level



               T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                20 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
                Rajasthan

                 Operating Parameter                  Operating Range
                 Operating relative humidity range    0 to 100 %
                 Wind speed – no power degradation    7 m/s
                 Wind speed – max operation           14 m/s
                 Wind speed – maximum                 45 m/s



                Additional features of dish sterling system
                  3 kW peak at 850 W/m2 output
                  28% gross efficiency
                  24 % net efficiency
                  closed-loop tracking & unattended operation
                  Output 120/240 VAC 1 Phase or 208/230 VAC 3 Phase
                  UL, CE, CEC certifications compliant
                  Power Factor > 0.95
                  3.5 kW Sterling Generator (3.0 kW net electrical output at
                  inverter output and 0.5 kW auxiliary consumption of the
                  generation system)
                  Stand alone system which does not need any external source
                  of power or water etc
                  Power plant can be built from smaller kW to MW scale with
                  the use of 3 kW module.
                  Modular in design hence easy to install and maintain
                  Sealed engine which is practically maintenance free
                  Innovative Sterling engine technology is already
                  commercialised for various waste heat recovery and biomass
                  based combined heating and power applications.
                  The company is in the process of setting up mega watt level
                  power plants in Spain.


Performance of Infinia Solar System (ISS)

Methodology
                The annual electrical output has been estimated on the basis of
                hourly DNI values, ambient air temperature and prevailing
                wind speed along with the rated specifications of Infinia Solar
                System. Following considerations have been taken in to account
                for output estimation;
                   Proposed Net efficiency of Infinia Solar System will be 24%
                   Electrical output 3 kW when DNI is greater than 850 W/m2
                   Efficiency De-rating because of ambient temperature
                   Efficiency De-rating because of wind
                   Efficiency De-rating because of age

Peak Power
                Peak Electrical Power produced is 3,000 W at 850 W/m2 of
                Direct Normal Incidence (after all internal parasitic power




                T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                    21   Proposed technology

                    requirements), at an ambient temperature of 20 °C. Electrical
                    energy output is grid-ready AC 3-phase 208/230 volt.



Performance curve
                    The performance curve (power output vs. solar DNI) of the ISS
                    is presented in Figure 3.5. The efficiency increases with solar
                    insolation. There is no generation till solar insolation of 100
                    kWh/sq. meters and when DNI increases above 850 W/m2, the
                    ISS does not increase its power production beyond the nominal
                    3,000 W output. As DNI increases above 850 W/m2, the system
                    will defocus reflectors thereby diverting the additional heat
                    input out of the system.




                                  Figure 3.5 Performance curve of the system


De-Rating
                    The overall performance of the these systems mainly depends
                    on the DNI availability and partially depends upon ambient
                    temperature and prevailing wind speed. In addition the de-
                    rating factor is also associated with the age of the system.

                    Temperature De-rating
                    Altitude and ambient temperature affects the performance and
                    energy output of ISS. Over the operating temperature range, -20
                    °C to 55 °C , power is de-rated by ~2.5-3.0% for every
                    temperature increase of 10 °C above 20 °C ambient, at 850
                    W/m2 of DNI.
                        For elevations above 1890 m [6,200 ft], increased fan
                    performance may be required.
                    Calculating the de-rating factor for high temperature
                    environments is as following;
                    850 W/m2, 20 °C >> 3,000 W
                    850 W/m2, 30 °C >> 3,000 W*(1-0.03) = ~2,910 W


                    T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
22 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan



The hourly values of ambient temperature have been taken
using METEONORM database and day time values have been
filtered when system produces electricity. The above criteria
have been taken in to account with mentioned de-rating factors.




Wind Power De-rating
In order to assess the pattern of annual prevailing wind speed at
the location of Bap, satellite data of wind speed at the height of
10 meter has been taken and analyzed. It has been observed that
at the location maximum monthly average wind speed at the
height of 10 m is 3-3.5 m/s. Figure 3.6 presents the pattern of
monthly average wind speed at Bap, Jodhpur.

                      4.0

                      3.5

                      3.0
 Wind Speed (m/s)




                      2.5

                      2.0

                      1.5

                      1.0

                      0.5

                      0.0
                            Jan   Feb   Mar   Apr   May   Jun   Jul   Aug   S ep   Oct   Nov   Dec


                    Figure 3.6 Pattern of monthly average wind speed at Bap, Jodhpur

The ISS has been designed to structurally withstand wind
loading up to a maximum of 45 m/s. It will operate with
practically no power degradation due to no structural deflection
for wind speeds up to 7 m/s. Figure 3.7 shows the impact of a
constant wind during an entire day. This will result in a 1.7%
reduction in energy production for the location used in this
example.




T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                     23   Proposed technology




                                    Figure 3.7 Impact of wind on performance




                     System Age De-rating
                     System Efficiency has been calculated and is expected to
                     modestly degrade over time at a rate of 0.5% or less per year.
                     Several factors may affect system efficiency over time, such as
                     mirror edge degradation or environmental conditions that may
                     affect mirror reflectivity (e.g., wind debris or high humidity).
                     Over a twenty-five year life, the system efficiency may be
                     reduced as shown in the example here:

System Control
                     Infinia Solar System uses a high quality control mechanism to
                     control operations of individual dishes. It operates in following
                     modes;

System Calibration
                     At initial start-up, an electronic calibration table is
                     automatically built to ensure solar tracking accuracy.

System Check
                     Inverter, Rectifier, Motor (Azimuth, Elevation) Controllers, and
                     Sensors perform self tests at Operational Wake-Up and when
                     initialized by the user.

Operation
                     Typical operation starts with a system self check, the system
                     then “wakes up” and slews to the sun. Using Built In
                     algorithms, system calibrations, project site meteorological
                     inputs, real time sensor data and environmental conditions (like
                     temperature and wind), and user defined limits (in terms of
                     time of day or elevation of sun), system control automatically
                     monitor ISS/faults, initiates system alerts, processes algorithms,


                     T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
               24 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
               Rajasthan

               to make decision for tracking, adjusting tracking, stand by, slew
               to sun and slew to stow mode.

Tracking
               Tracking consists of aligning the axis of parabolic dish with that
               of incident ray of the sun so that sun rays reflected by parabolic
               dish is concentrated on receiver. Tracking is adjusted after
               predefined interval so that at no stage sun rays do not focus on
               receiver.

Standby
               If after tracking has commenced during the day, sun can not be
               tracked due to environmental conditions other than those of
               slew to stow (e.g. low solar insolation not coinciding with sun
               shine hours preset say due to cloud cover, suspended dust etc),
               parabolic dish remain in stand by mode i.e. last tracked
               position.

Slew to Sun
               Slew to sun is initiated if user defined conditions of sun shine
               are met to initiate it after wake up.

Slew to Stow
               In addition to non sun shine hours ,if during sun shine hours
               supplied by users, if abnormal conditions of high wind, hail
               storm, fault on system (likely to remain uncured for long time),
               etc, occurs system takes a decision to slew to stow”.

Inverter
               Power output is set and produced compliant with the utility
               voltage. Protective relay functions ensure safe system shutdown
               in the event of grid failure or if system operates beyond
               specification limits.
                   When the system is off, the unit enters the stow position and
               remains connected to the grid. When the grid is not present, the
               24-V DC battery provides power to the system electronics and
               stows the system until the grid is present.


General specifications/Interface
               Table 3.5 presents the output details of the parabolic dish-
               sterling system. The peak power has been estimated at rated
               input direct normal incidence (DNI) ≥ 850 W/m2 at 20oC
               ambient temperature and wind speed <7 m/s. The voltage and
               frequency automatically sensed and adjusted according to
               voltages on output (grid connect) voltage and frequency used
               adjustable, 4-wire output (stand alone) Overall System
               Efficiency and 28% gross efficiency (gross AC output divided by
               rated direct normal insolation times collector area). The


               T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                         25    Proposed technology

                         frequency is based on local utility requirements, with no-de-
                         rating for ‘50 Hz +3Hz’ so that the plant operates satisfactorily
                         up to 47 Hz.

         Table 3.5 Performance outputs of Parabolic Dish-Sterling system
                           Output                                                        Input
          Pear power      Minimum 3,000 W             Tracking grid load                         Maximum 50 W, typical 5-10 W
          Voltage         208 VC, 50 Hz 3 Wire        Slew to Sun/Stow grid connection           Maximum 250 W, typical 50 W
          Frequency       50 Hz or 60 Hz


    Power Electronics and Control System
    Engine Controller/Rectifier
                         The high efficiency engine controller/rectifier transforms
                         electrical power from the sterling engine in a closely controlled
                         manner to maintain engine control and maximize Stirling
                         engine energy conversion efficiency. The resulting high-voltage
                         DC power is an ideal supply source for the functionally
                         independent inverter.
    Output Inverter
                         “The high efficiency bi-directional output inverter converts high
                         voltage DC produced by the engine controller/rectifier to grid-
                         Quality AC. As the inverter is a current source only, it
                         automatically matches the AC voltage and frequency that it sees
                         on the system output terminals. In addition, the inverter also
                         performs all the protective relay functions. Software has
                         adjustable parameters and set points for these protective relay
                         functions which allow the product to be easily configured to
                         meet the interconnect requirements. The output inverter is
                         housed in the weatherproof (IP56 rating) enclosure mounted on
                         the ISS unit near the ground and also houses the user interface
                         and connections, and batteries”

    Interface
                         Voltage and frequency are automatically sensed and adjusted
                         according to voltages on the output/interconnection terminals
                         (grid connect). AC output from the system shall be connected to
                         the local grid in accordance with local regulations and
                         requirements. The ISS control system is accessed via the key
                         switch and the Ethernet port.


    Operation and maintenance

    Preventive maintenance
                         The ISS is a safe and reliable power conversion device which
                         can provide many years of safe dependable performance. Like
                         any power conversion device, preventive maintenance and a few
                         basic safety guidelines are to be followed.



                         T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
               26 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
               Rajasthan

                   Proper operation of the tracking system is critical. The
               tracking system ensures that the reflector is positioned to
               maximize the solar energy captured by tracking the sun
               throughout the day. This system will invert the dish to the
               “stow” position at night or when environmental conditions are
               outside of the system’s operating range. The Bi-axial Drive,
               which is an integral part of the tracking system, must have its
               oil changed every 10 years to ensure proper operation.
                   The ISS, designed with robust fail-safe circuitry that
               prevents harm to the whole system in the event of component
               failure, has an expected 25-year field life (listed at Table 3.6);
               however several external components, with a service life less
               than the 25-year field life, will need to be serviced or replaced if
               they fail. For example, the batteries are constantly monitored by
               the Control System to assure proper charge rates, discharge rate
               and capacity. A system fault is triggered when the health of a
               battery declines below safe tolerances; the system will either not
               slew to sun for normal operation or will return to stow during
               normal operation.

               Table 3.6 Expected service life of service items
                Components                  Life
                Coolant pump             10 years
                Coolant fan(s)           10 years
                System electronics       7 years
                Receiver sensors         7 years
                Inverter box             10 years
                Sensors                  7 years
                Batteries                5 years


Cleaning
               Mirror cleaning maintains system efficiency and promotes the
               long-life, high output of the ISS. Heat exchanger (radiator)
               fouling is to be expected in the field life of this product.
               Periodically cleaning the radiator fins will promote maximum
               efficiency of the system.

Installation
               The Infinia Solar System arrives in the field packaged in the
               following subsystems:
                   Heat Drive Kit
                   Chassis Kit
                   Reflector Kit
                   Bi-axial Drive Kit
                   Power Electronics and Control System Kit

Safety
Lightning



               T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
             27   Proposed technology

             ISS has built-in lightning protection that requires external
             grounding. A 13 mm stainless steel stud/jam-nut is provided at
             the base of the chassis pole to allow a heavy duty spade eyelet to
             be connected. This can be interconnected to an external
             ground/ lightning protection system. Besides this four
             lightning masts will be installed in the four corners of the solar
             field for lighting of the solar field as well as lightning protection.

System
             The ISS is a safe and reliable power conversion device that will
             provide many years of safe dependable performance. Just as
             with any power conversion device, good sense and a few basic
             safety guidelines should be heeded.


Foundation
             The solar system structures have been designed to a survival
             wind speed of 45 m/s in stow position. The system will move to
             stow position when the wind speed approaches 14 m/s. The
             foundation loads were calculated for these situations and
             determined that the highest loads occurs when the dish is at the
             horizontal position, while moving from operation position to
             stow position. This condition could exist when the dish has
             sensed a high wind condition and is moving to stow position.


Layout
             Layout of parabolic solar dishes i.e. distances between dishes is
             critical as it influences the output of the system and land area
             requirement; while too close dishes can reduce land
             requirement and also electrical cabling losses and cost, but the
             dishes can cast shadow on each other and solar system
             performance is reduced.
                  TERI has utilised special software named ECOTECH to
             calculate/ show sun path and sun position in the sky for the
             selected place (Bap) based on its geographical parameters,
             simulate the shadow pattern for any unit, date and time and
             analyse its impact on adjoining units thereby to optimise the
             solar plant layout design. The pictorial out put of the ECOTECH
             software are shown in the Figure 3.8 and 3.9 below.
                  The calculation shows that solar field area of about 60-70
             acre is required for the 10 MW capacity plant.




             T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
28 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan




      Figure 3.8 Shadow pattern for solar field at 8.30am on 23rd Dec
                              (ECOTECH)




     Figure 3.9 Shadow pattern for solar field at 10.30am on 23rd Dec

The performance summary of ISS of the capacity of 10 MW is
given in Table 3.8 as following.

Table 3.8 Performance summary of ISS of 10 MW
                                              Array details
Number of Infinia units                          3340
MW (peak AC capacity)                              10
MW/acre (peak AC capacity)                        0.15
Area (acres)                                       70


The 3-D schematic diagram of the solar concentrating power
plant of the capacity of 1 MW is presented in Figure 3.10.




T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
               29   Proposed technology




               Figure 3.10 Illustrative power block (1 MW)


Sizing of a 10 MW Solar Dish-Sterling power plant

               Solar dish sterling power plant will be built in 1 MW modules.
               The total numbers of Infinia solar system units of 3 kW capacity
               in each 1 MW module of a solar concentrating power project are
               estimated as 334. Each module will be made up mainly of sub
               module of 25 dishes connected in array of 5x5 to produce 75kWp
               power (vide Figure 3.11). There will be 14 such modules (13 full
               75 kW module and 1 part module of 45kW - vide Figure 3.12) to
               give 1MW module.




                     Figure 3.11 Illustration of sub module of 5x5 arrays of 3 kW ISS




               T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
               30 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
               Rajasthan




         TX = 208 v/distribution voltage transformer
               Figure 3.12 Illustrations of 5x3 arrays of sub modules to make 1 MW module

              The total area required for the ISS based solar power plant of
              the capacity of 10 MW is approximately as 70 acres. This are
              includes the inter dish spacing, area of cabling and internal
              transmission network of the power plant etc.
                  As there are 333-334 ISS dishes are used for 1 MW
              concentrating solar power plant. Hence 3330-3340 ISS dishes
              are required in the power plant of the capacity of 10 MW.




Estimation of power output
              The efficiency of the ISS system is claimed to be 24 percent.
              Accordingly the net annual electrical energy output of the ISS
              parabolic dish-sterling system mainly depends upon the
              following parameters;
                   Direct normal incidence (DNI)
                   De-rating factors
                   - Ambient temperature (oC)
                   - Prevailing wind speed (m/s) and
                   - System age
                   Field losses (~ 4.0 %)

              The efficiency distribution pattern of the complete system is
              shown in Figure 3.13.




               T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
    31    Proposed technology

      ISS Parabolic Dish
                            Tracking & Optical
                                  Losses
         Sterling Engine
                                                     Efficiency = 24%
                            System Losses


            Inverter



      Cabling, Control,
      Interconnections,
                                            4% Maximum losses
     Transformers up to
     HV side of 11/33 KV

Figure 3.13 Process flow chart diagram of parabolic Dish-Sterling system of ISS

    The output of the ISS dish has been estimated on hourly basis
    incorporating the de-rating due to ambient temperature and
    prevailing wind speed. The de-rating because of system age has
    not been taken into account for estimating electrical output in
    first year only.
         It has been estimate that Bap, Jodhpur receives 2202
    kWh/m2 annual equivalent effective DNI (150 W/m2 ≤ DNI ≥
    850 W/m2). Taking in to account the efficiency of the system
    (i.e. 24 percent) and the respective value of DNI along with the
    simultaneous de-rating factors due to ambient temperature and
    prevailing wind speed the annual electrical output of an ISS
    parabolic dish-sterling system of 3kW capacity has been
    estimated as 6946 Units per year at sterling engine terminal (i.e.
    AC terminals of inverter). Multiplying with the number of
    dishes (i.e. 334) in 1 MW capacity the aggregate electrical output
    per MW module at sterling engine terminals has been estimated
    as 2227579.6 (2.22 MU) Units annually at HV end of inverter
    considering cut off DNI of 150 W/m2 and maximum DNI
    clamped to 850 W/m2.
         Further considering the field losses from sterling engine
    terminal to HV side of 11/33 kV 16000 kVA transformer, including
    losses in cables, 1600 kvA 208 volt / 11 kV transformer etc., at 4
    percent, the effective cumulative electrical output has been
    estimated as 2.14 MU per MW annually at PH bus bar. Hence the
    ISS based solar plant of 10 MW capacities will generate 21.39 MU
    sellable units per year.




    T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
CHAPTER 4   Control, internal transmission and evacuation of
power

     Interconnection facility for the proposed plan
                    The electrical generation, transmission and synchronisation
                    with grid will consist of;
                        Panel – I: Power panel I with circuit breaker (MCB/MCCB),
                        junction bus and general protection system including panel
                        earthling for each 3 kW solar generators.
                        Panel – II: Power panel II with circuit breaker
                        (MCB/MCCB), junction bus and general protection system
                        for each section consisting 5 nos of solar power generators.
                        This circuit breaker will enable us to cut off the particular
                        row from the system in case of any fault.
                        Panel – III: Power panels III with ACB/VCB and protection
                        system for 75 kW modules.
                        Panel – IV: Power panels IV with VCB and necessary
                        protection system for 1 MW modules. The panel will be
                        indoor type along with the necessary protection and safety
                        system.
                        Step up power transformer of 1600 kVA, 208/11000 V, to
                        interconnect the 1 MW power generator with local grid of 11
                        kV (approximate length of 2.3 km).
                        Transmission line of 11 kV, 1.6 MVA capacity to
                        interconnect power generation of phase I of 1 MW. The
                        estimated length of the transmission line will be 1.5 km up
                        to existing 11/33 kV substation of Jodhpur Vidyut Vitran
                        Nigam Limited (JdVVNL) at village Bap.
                        Power station with grid protection system
                        Step up power transformers of 16 MVA, 11/33 kV, to
                        interconnect the power generation with commissioning of
                        phase II (9MW) with JdVVNL or Rajasthan Rajya Vidhyut
                        Prasaran Nigam Limited (RVPNL)’s grid.
                        Double circuit transmission line of 33 kV, 16 MVA capacity.
                        This transmission line will be the interconnection between
                        33kV substation of JdVVNL and the 10 MW solar power
                        plant. The estimated length of the transmission line will be
                        about 2 km. Also, RVPNL is proposing the 132 kV
                        substation at Bap, Jodhpur. If permitted, 33 kV line will be
                        extended to feed the power directly to the 132 kV grid of the
                        state. The estimated length of the double circuit
                        transmission line will be 4.5 km of 132 kV, 16 MVA capacity.
                        Layout of 10 MW power plant is given in Annexure IV (a).
                        Energy monitoring and information system: Energy
                        Management Information System (EMIS) is a hardware
                        interconnection of energy meter installed at PH bus bar of
                        11 kV in phase I and 33 kV in phase II, and power


                    T E R I Report No.2009RT03
                       33     Control, internal transmission and evacuation of power

                           distribution panel to PC based data acquisition system for
                           report generation and analysis of energy generation
                           profiling of the solar power generation system. The meter
                           will communicate on RS – 485 modbus/RS - 232 protocol.
                           The data communication may be the Power Line
                           Communication (PLC) or RF communication over the plant.
                       The estimated cost for electrical system like cables, power
                       panels, power transformer and internal transmission lines is
                       given in Annexure IV (b).

Interfacing scheme proposed
                       The power generated from the power plant will be transmitted
                       through the grid of JdVVNL. JdVVNL operates a high voltage
                       transmission and distribution network in the Jodhpur,
                       Rajasthan. It is envisaged that the solar generation plant will be
                       connected to the 33 kV high voltage network at Bap.
                          The concentrating solar project size is proposed to be 10
                       MW. This higher rating solar power plant would feed the
                       generated power to high voltage electricity grid of state
                       distribution company.
                       The proposed plant will be connected to the 33 kV transmission
                       systems through an 11kV/33 kV substation. This involves an
                       11kV/33 kV power transformer; underground cables and
                       overhead lines at 11kV and 33 kV with at least 15 MVA rated
                       capacity. The network connection is designed to carry rated
                       power on a 24-hour basis. For connection to the 33 kV
                       transmission grid, Indian Electricity Rules / CEA’s regulations
                       will be followed and the connection will meet State Grid code
                       requirements.
                       This study and design is based on the following
                           Load flow studies,
                           Dynamic stability assessment,
                           Connection substation concept design, and
                           Protection design (connection substation and transmission
                           line).
                       Further studies would be conducted, if required, in consultation
                       JdVVNL /RVPNL’
                          The single line diagram of proposed interfacing scheme is
                       given in Appendix IV (c).

Net Metering
                       The Energy accounting metering system will be installed at 11
                       kV or 33 kV Power Station bus to account electric energy
                       generated by the powerplant and delivered to the local grid of
                       JdVVNL or State Grid of RVPNL and the electrical energy
                       imported from the grid during the non – power period. The
                       energy meter will measure import and export energy
                       parameters. This meter will be sealed by JdVVNL/RVPNL.




                       T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
34 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
Rajasthan

   Additionally energy management and control system will be
installed in the solar plant which will monitor and record the
performance at each power generator and each 1 MW module.
Factors to be considered when selecting meters are the
    Possible harmonics content of metering signals
    Associated degree of inaccuracy of the meter selected; and
    Site specific that need to be considered in metering design.




T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
35   Control, internal transmission and evacuation of power




T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
CHAPTER 5            Project execution plan

     Total project can be completed within 26 months from date of sanction of the project. The proposed execution plan is shown below.

     Table 5.1 Action Plan For Execution of 10 MW Solar Power Plant
                                 Months
S.No Activity
                                 M9 J9 Ju9 A9 S9 O9 N9 D9 J10 F10 M10 A10 M10 J10 Ju10 Au10 S10 O10 N10 D10 J11 F11 M11 A11 M11 J11 Ju11 Au11 S11 O11 N11
       Project Approval by
1      SLEC with all prior
       approvals
2      Tariff Petition
3      Tariff Approval by RERC
       Site Allotment and
4*
       possession
5      Financial Closures
6      Detailed Engineering
       Equipment Supply/
7      Construction &
       Installation
       Commencement of
8      Commissioning (First
       1MW)
       Extension of
9
       Transmission line
       Installation and
10     Commissioning for 9
       MW




                                   T E R I Report No.2009RT03
37   Transmission of power and evacuation plan




T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
CHAPTER 6          Financial analysis


        Assumptions & estimates
                               The proposed solar parabolic Dish-Sterling power project is of
                               10 MW capacity. Estimate cost of the project is Rs. 23.0 crores
                               per MW. The total project cost is Rs. 230 crores. Gross
                               aggregate electricity generation has been arrived at 22.27
                               million kWh per annum at 3 kW sterling engines’ terminals at
                               the proposed site at Bap, Jodhpur. The plant load factor is
                               25.42%. There will be losses between Sterling engines and
                               substation out put, which is estimated at 4% maximum.
                               Therefore, total annual sellable electricity has been estimated as
                               21.379 million kWh. There will be deterioration of 0.5% every
                               year due to the aging of the plant

        Project cost break-up & means of finance
                               Apart from machinery, installation and commissioning cost,
                               interest during construction, financial institution fees and
                               margin money for working capital is part of project cost. Project
                               financial analysis has been carried out considering debt equity
                               ratio of 70:30. Interest rate at debt part has been considered at
                               12.5%. The total project cost and means of finance are
                               summarized in Table 6.1.

                                  Table 6.1 Project cost & means of finance (10 MW)

              PROJECT COST:BREAK-UP
                           Cost, Rs. Lacs                                             phase-2(9MW)   phase-1(1MW)
                                                                                          20700           2300


   Sr. No.                         Particulars
  1           Project Cost
        1.1   Imported Component                                                          16884.62       1876.07
        1.2   Local Component including EPC charges                          2700         2430.00        270.00
  2           preoperative costs                                              40            36.00         4.00
  3           Interest During Construction (IDC)                                          1132.03        125.78
  4           Financial Institiution Fees                                                  217.35         24.15
  5           Project Cost                                                                20700.00       2300.00
  6           Total Project Cost                                           23000.00       20700.00       2300.00
  7           Sources of fund
        7.1   Loan                                              70%                       14490.00       1610.00
        7.2   Equity                                            30%                       6210.00        690.00
        Project implementation schedule
                               Based on international practices and technological
                               advancements, it is estimated that 1 MW capacity phase of the
                               project will be supplied, installed and commissioned in 13
                               months from project approval and additional 9 MW of phase –
                               II of the project will be installed and commissioned in 26
                               months from project approval.



                               T E R I Report No.2009RT03
                  39   Transmission of power and evacuation plan

Proposed electricity tariff
                  Project will be implemented as IPP (Independent Power
                  Project) and envisages sale of generated electricity to the grid.
                  The tariff calculations are at Annexure V.The technical and
                  financial parameters are also listed therein.The tariff works out
                  to be at Rs. 19.03/kWhr for the whole project life of 25 years.
                  This tariff has been considered with 16% post tax return on
                  equity. The details of the local components (estimation of cost
                  of electrical & civil works) are attached as Annexure IV(b).

                  The solar power plants are entitled to CDM benefit. The
                  Developer shall endeavour for CDM benefit. CDM benefit ,
                  interalia, depends on non firm/firm nature of supply of power
                  and is market driven. The generation from this power plant,
                  which can not have thermal storage and thus will be infirm. On
                  account of these, it will attract lower CDM credit. Therefore, it
                  will not be possible to quantify it beforehand. Its certification
                  also involves cost and time. Developer will share the CDM
                  benefits as per RERC regulations. It is anticipated the average
                  CDM credit of 30 paisa/KWh and corresponding reduction in
                  annual tariff.




                  T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
             40 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
             Rajasthan


Annexure I: Solar Radiation Resource Assessment
                for Bap, Jodhpur
             It has been estimated that Jodhpur receives 3301 kWh/m2
             annual average extraterrestrial solar radiation, which has been
             considered for parabolic dish sterling engine power plant at
             Bap. Table 1A presents the daily total values of extraterrestrial
             solar radiation based on its hourly values. It has been estimated
             that the annual average global solar radiation availability on
             horizontal surface over Bap, Jodhpur is 2051 kWh/m2; direct
             component is 1395 kWh/m2 and diffuse is 656 kWh/m2 on
             horizontal surface. The daily total along with the monthly total
             and average values of global, diffuse and direct solar radiation
             on horizontal surface are presented in Tables 2A to Table 4A
             respectively.
                 Only direct solar radiation is directional and can be reflected
             /concentrated using mirrors. Further the direct solar radiation
             has been processed using TRNSYS and hourly values of direct
             radiation have been estimated over tracking surfaces. Since the
             selected technology (i.e. parabolic dish-sterling) comprises two
             axis tracking hence the results have been reported under two
             axis tracking conditions only. Table 5A presents the daily total
             values of direct normal irradiance (DNI) for Bap, Jodhpur. It
             has been estimated that the total annual DNI over Jodhpur is
             2241 kWh/m2. The DNI has been estimated maximum in the
             month of September (270.4 kWh/m2) and minimum in the
             month of August (63.4 kWh/m2).
                 The parabolic Dish-Sterling technology uses only direct
             normal incident solar radiation; which is transient and varies
             with time. It has been observed that in early morning and late
             evening hours the fraction of beam radiation is quite low.
             Hence ISS Dish-Sterling technology has low efficiency at low
             irradiance levels. For present Infinia Solar System technology
             the minimum level of instantaneous direct solar radiation for
             power generation is 150 W/m2. Therefore the analysis has been
             made considering this aspect also. Table 6A presents the
             effective DNI (more than 150 W/m2) over Bap, Jodhpur which
             shows that the location receives 2202 kWh/m2 annual effective
             DNI. The effective number of sunshine hours has also been
             carried out and it has been obtained that Bap, Jodhpur receives
             2202 kWh/m2 effective DNI in 3342 effective sunshine hours
             (DNI>150 W/m2). The daily total effective sunshine at Bap,
             Jodhpur hours are presented in Table 7A.
                 It has been noticed that the efficiency of ISS parabolic Dish-
             Sterling technology reduces when DNI goes above 850 W/m2;
             while the electrical output becomes constant. The effective
             sunshine hours have also been estimated for DNI more that 850
             W/m2. Table 8A presents the effective sunshine hours at more


             T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                                                       Annexures

than 850 W/m2 DNI. It has been estimated that during 846
sunshine hours the DNI remains more than 850 W/m2 at
Jodhpur throughout the year.
   The overall performance of the selected technology critically
depended on the climatic parameters namely ambient
temperature, prevailing wind speed, etc. The daily average
values of day time ambient temperature of Bap, Jodhpur are
presented in Table 9A; which indicated that the monthly
average temperature varies from 17.6 oC to 34.8oC.
   The annual average wind speed has been observed from 0.59
m/s in October to 2.30 m/s in the month of June. The daily
average values of prevailing wind speed have been presented in
Table 10A. The other climatic parameters namely relative
humidity (%) and visibility (km) have also analyzed and their
daily average values are represented in Tables 11A and Table
12A respectively.




T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                                   42 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
                                   Rajasthan

 Table 1A. Daily total values of Extraterrestrial (IExt) solar radiation (kWh/m2) in Jodhpur
   Days        Jan       Feb        Mar       Apr       May        Jun         Jul      Aug      Sep       Oct       Nov      Dec
   1          6.23       7.07      8.41       9.89     10.86      11.27     11.26      10.95   10.12       8.85      7.31     6.34
   2          6.24       7.12      8.46       9.93     10.89      11.27     11.25      10.93   10.08       8.80      7.27     6.33
   3          6.25       7.16      8.51       9.97     10.91      11.28     11.24      10.92   10.05       8.76      7.23     6.31
   4          6.27       7.20      8.56      10.01     10.93      11.28     11.24      10.90   10.01       8.70      7.19     6.29
   5          6.28       7.25      8.62      10.05     10.95      11.28     11.23      10.88    9.97       8.66      7.14     6.27
   6          6.30       7.29      8.67      10.08     10.97      11.29     11.22      10.86    9.93       8.61      7.10     6.26
   7          6.32       7.34      8.72      10.12     10.99      11.29     11.21      10.84    9.89       8.55      7.06     6.24
   8          6.34       7.38      8.77      10.15     11.00      11.29     11.20      10.82    9.84       8.50      7.02     6.23
   9          6.36       7.43      8.82      10.19     11.02      11.29     11.20      10.80    9.77       8.45      6.91     6.22
  10          6.38       7.47      8.87      10.22     11.04      11.30     11.19      10.78    9.73       8.40      6.88     6.20
  11          6.40       7.52      8.93      10.26     11.06      11.30     11.18      10.76    9.69       8.35      6.84     6.19
  12          6.42       7.57      8.98      10.29     11.07      11.30     11.18      10.73    9.66       8.30      6.81     6.19
  13          6.45       7.62      9.03      10.32     11.08      11.30     11.17      10.71    9.61       8.25      6.78     6.18
  14          6.47       7.66      9.08      10.35     11.10      11.30     11.16      10.68    9.57       8.20      6.74     6.17
  15          6.50       7.71      9.13      10.38     11.11      11.29     11.15      10.66    9.53       8.15      6.71     6.16
  16          6.53       7.76      9.18      10.41     11.13      11.29     11.14      10.63    9.49       8.09      6.68     6.16
  17          6.55       7.81      9.23      10.44     11.14      11.29     11.13      10.61    9.45       8.04      6.65     6.16
  18          6.58       7.86      9.27      10.47     11.15      11.29     11.12      10.58    9.41       7.99      6.62     6.15
  19          6.61       7.91      9.32      10.49     11.16      11.29     11.11      10.55    9.36       7.94      6.59     6.15
  20          6.64       7.96      9.37      10.52     11.18      11.28     11.10      10.52    9.32       7.89      6.56     6.15
  21          6.67       8.00      9.42      10.55     11.18      11.28     11.09      10.49    9.27       7.84      6.53     6.15
  22          6.70       8.05      9.46      10.57     11.19      11.28     11.08      10.46    9.23       7.79      6.50     6.15
  23          6.73       8.10      9.51      10.60     11.20      11.27     11.07      10.43    9.18       7.74      6.48     6.15
  24          6.76       8.15      9.55      10.62     11.21      11.27     11.06      10.40    9.14       7.69      6.45     6.16
  25          6.80       8.20      9.60      10.65     11.22      11.27     11.04      10.37    9.09       7.64      6.43     6.16
  26          6.84       8.25      9.64      10.67     11.23      11.26     11.03      10.33    9.04       7.59      6.41     6.17
  27          6.87       8.30      9.69      10.73     11.24      11.28     11.01      10.30    8.99       7.54      6.39     6.17
  28          6.91       8.36      9.73      10.76     11.24      11.28     11.00      10.27    8.95       7.48      6.36     6.18
  29          6.95                 9.77      10.80     11.25      11.28     10.98      10.23    8.90       7.43      6.26     6.19
  30          6.99                 9.81      10.83     11.26      11.28     10.97      10.20    8.87       7.38      6.22     6.20
  31          7.03                 9.85                11.26                10.98      10.16               7.33               6.21
 Total       203       216        284       311        344        339       345        329     285       251        202       192
Average      6.6        7.7       9.2       10.4       11.1      11.3       11.1      10.6     9.5        8.1       6.7       6.2




                                   T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                                                                                                 Annexures

 Table 2A Daily total values of global solar radiation (kWh/m2) on horizontal surface in Bap, Jodhpur
  Days      Jan      Feb       Mar      Apr      May       Jun       Jul     Aug       Sep       Oct     Nov   Dec
   1      4.16      5.01     5.74     6.72      7.22     7.42      7.68     7.47     7.44      5.55     5.23   3.95
   2      4.39      4.99     6.12     5.03      6.11     7.70      7.72     5.61     7.41      5.44     5.04   4.36
   3      4.34      5.13     6.40     7.11      7.66     7.87      6.59     3.62     7.36      5.05     4.89   4.29
   4      4.32      5.02     6.19     6.78      7.01     6.03      1.48     3.43     7.34      5.69     5.04   4.03
   5      4.13      5.00     6.26     7.24      7.52     7.47      1.42     3.55     7.32      6.20     5.03   4.43
   6      4.11      5.17     6.15     6.53      6.46     7.70      5.98     4.26     7.33      6.05     4.95   4.26
   7      4.17      5.32     6.46     7.05      5.38     7.89      5.98     5.22     7.30      6.09     4.96   3.54
   8      4.50      5.36     6.37     6.74      7.04     7.23      4.54     5.45     7.27      4.50     4.69   3.56
   9      4.58      5.30     6.29     6.72      7.31     7.55      2.49     7.09     7.25      5.75     4.69   4.03
  10      4.37      5.57     5.95     6.81      7.19     3.71      4.41     3.69     7.20      5.79     4.82   3.99
  11      4.56      5.30     6.15     7.28      7.63     6.50      3.30     1.98     7.17      5.83     4.46   4.11
  12      4.59      5.55     6.42     7.34      7.17     3.89      7.71     3.09     7.19      5.14     4.78   4.15
  13      4.61      5.63     6.14     7.16      7.86     5.23      7.91     3.18     7.17      5.78     4.45   4.16
  14      4.64      5.44     6.20     6.90      7.75     3.71      7.52     6.04     7.04      5.99     4.75   4.34
  15      4.44      5.41     6.07     7.18      7.74     2.89      1.56     7.01     7.12      5.76     4.48   4.33
  16      4.47      5.65     6.57     7.21      7.28     5.78      5.23     3.27     7.03      5.65     4.14   3.88
  17      4.70      5.97     5.92     7.54      7.31     6.74      4.11     2.98     7.05      5.63     4.60   4.11
  18      4.53      5.51     6.79     7.42      6.88     7.45      2.85     2.41     7.02      5.56     3.97   4.17
  19      4.58      4.75     6.65     6.95      7.57     6.28      2.07     2.03     6.96      5.78     3.93   3.94
  20      4.39      5.62     6.28     7.12      7.47     3.50      6.42     3.10     6.96      5.73     3.68   4.15
  21      4.84      5.61     6.87     7.36      7.23     7.87      4.05     2.97     6.88      5.49     4.08   4.12
  22      4.87      5.63     7.07     7.06      7.62     5.59      6.54     5.48     6.88      5.34     4.30   4.24
  23      4.56      6.16     6.27     7.53      7.43     7.79      7.29     3.02     6.81      5.63     3.93   4.01
  24      4.90      6.01     6.99     7.24      7.71     2.70      6.25     3.41     6.83      5.35     4.49   3.92
  25      4.84      5.93     6.93     7.12      6.37     8.06      2.63     4.41     6.78      5.21     4.41   4.23
  26      5.03      5.96     6.88     7.57      7.49     7.60      3.74     4.01     6.75      5.23     4.30   3.87
  27      4.79      6.31     7.13     7.65      7.50     7.82      1.93     3.52     6.75      5.59     4.63   3.93
  28      4.76      5.95     6.48     7.67      8.07     8.03      3.26     7.25     6.72      4.95     4.33   3.76
  29      5.10               7.14     7.64      7.62     3.90      4.71     4.12     6.68      5.32     4.48   3.97
  30      5.14               7.17     7.92      7.96     7.46      3.75     5.57     6.63      4.91     2.79   4.19
  31      5.06               7.11               7.89               4.74     6.53               4.92            4.36
 Total    142       154      201       214      226      189       146      135       212      171      134    126
Average    4.6      5.5      6.5       7.1      7.3       6.3      4.7      4.3       7.1      5.5      4.5    4.1
                                       (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)




                               T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                    44 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
                    Rajasthan

Table 3A. Daily total values of diffuse solar radiation (kWh/m2) on horizontal surface in Bap, Jodhpur
   Days     Jan     Feb     Mar     Apr     May      Jun     Jul    Aug      Sep       Oct      Nov      Dec
       1   0.92    0.97     1.61    2.16    2.59    2.69    2.22    2.36     1.24      2.26    1.08      1.48
       2   0.90    1.02     1.20    3.21    3.35    2.39    2.42    3.67     1.22      2.35    1.29      0.92
       3   0.87    1.06     0.89    1.50    1.82    2.14    3.40    3.02     1.19      2.61    1.29      0.89
       4   0.87    1.10     1.23    2.10    2.85    3.41    1.47    3.17     1.23      2.04    1.14      1.26
       5   1.13    1.18     1.14    1.49    2.11    2.72    1.41    2.92     1.25      1.17    1.12      0.83
       6   1.18    1.21     1.38    2.35    3.26    2.49    3.43    3.08     1.17      1.34    1.12      0.82
       7   1.09    0.99     1.04    1.85    3.53    2.03    3.51    3.30     1.14      1.30    1.05      1.66
       8   0.86    0.98     1.17    2.35    2.80    2.94    3.33    3.36     1.12      2.67    1.36      1.71
       9   0.79    1.10     1.49    2.43    2.56    2.72    2.37    2.46     1.17      1.66    1.34      1.04
      10   1.02    0.83     1.82    2.29    2.69    2.70    3.45    2.93     1.19      1.65    1.07      1.06
      11   0.86    1.12     1.63    1.78    2.28    3.52    2.91    1.94     1.19      1.40    1.45      1.00
      12   0.76    1.02     1.35    1.74    2.77    3.31    2.19    2.71     1.07      2.20    1.03      1.00
      13   0.70    0.88     1.82    2.03    1.82    3.61    1.96    2.81     1.06      1.40    1.32      1.01
      14   0.75    1.11     1.84    2.50    2.14    3.12    2.48    3.38     1.14      1.09    1.02      0.69
      15   1.03    1.24     2.07    1.99    2.19    2.55    1.53    2.50     1.04      1.22    1.36      0.75
      16   1.04    1.11     1.41    2.11    2.65    3.62    3.34    2.49     1.13      1.50    1.69      1.34
      17   0.85    0.72     2.27    1.53    2.67    3.26    3.13    2.76     0.99      1.51    1.11      1.05
      18   0.96    1.27     1.25    1.86    3.08    2.67    2.60    2.24     0.98      1.42    1.84      1.04
      19   1.03    2.11     1.37    2.55    2.30    3.63    2.03    1.94     1.09      1.06    1.73      1.19
      20   1.23    1.24     2.04    2.39    2.48    2.66    3.35    2.79     0.99      1.13    1.79      0.96
      21   0.91    1.33     1.27    2.08    2.95    2.19    3.45    2.34     1.07      1.34    1.50      1.02
      22   0.81    1.32     1.05    2.49    2.48    3.83    3.16    3.40     0.97      1.46    1.20      0.85
      23   1.27    0.75     2.16    1.76    2.74    2.30    2.61    2.84     1.03      0.94    1.68      1.14
      24   0.78    1.04     1.41    2.31    2.13    2.47    3.47    2.77     0.96      1.30    1.05      1.18
      25   0.93    1.16     1.53    2.52    3.46    1.88    2.27    3.28     0.98      1.34    1.12      0.84
      26   0.82    1.14     1.58    1.79    2.41    2.47    2.61    3.41     1.00      1.27    1.25      1.38
      27   1.01    0.83     1.26    1.80    2.67    2.22    1.91    3.00     0.89      0.86    0.84      1.23
      28   1.14    1.18     2.22    1.76    1.79    1.88    2.97    1.76     0.88      1.60    1.19      1.33
      29   0.82             1.28    1.93    2.46    3.15    3.43    3.22     0.88      1.08    0.87      1.25
      30   0.81             1.28    1.50    2.13    2.62    3.00    3.36     0.94      1.62    2.14      1.07
      31   0.92             1.38            2.11            3.26    2.60               1.54              0.73
   Total     29      31       46     62      79       83      85      88      32         47      39       34
Average      0.9    1.1      1.5     2.1     2.6      2.8    2.7     2.8      1.1       1.5      1.3      1.1
                     (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)




                    T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                                                                                                          Annexures

Table 4A. Daily total values of direct solar radiation (kWh/m2) on horizontal surface at Bap, Jodhpur
   Days       Jan       Feb        Mar       Apr       May       Jun        Jul      Aug        Sep       Oct    Nov   Dec
   1        3.24       4.04      4.13      4.56      4.64      4.73      5.46       5.11      6.20      3.29    4.15   2.47
   2        3.49       3.97      4.93      1.82      2.76      5.31      5.31       1.94      6.19      3.08    3.75   3.44
   3        3.47       4.08      5.51      5.61      5.84      5.73      3.19       0.61      6.17      2.44    3.61   3.41
   4        3.45       3.92      4.96      4.68      4.16      2.61      0.01       0.26      6.11      3.65    3.90   2.78
   5        3.01       3.82      5.12      5.74      5.41      4.75      0.01       0.63      6.06      5.04    3.91   3.60
   6        2.94       3.96      4.77      4.18      3.20      5.21      2.55       1.17      6.16      4.71    3.83   3.44
   7        3.08       4.32      5.41      5.20      1.85      5.86      2.47       1.91      6.16      4.79    3.92   1.89
   8        3.64       4.39      5.19      4.39      4.24      4.29      1.21       2.09      6.15      1.83    3.33   1.85
   9        3.79       4.20      4.80      4.29      4.76      4.83      0.12       4.63      6.08      4.08    3.35   2.99
   10       3.35       4.74      4.13      4.52      4.50      1.01      0.96       0.76      6.02      4.13    3.74   2.93
   11       3.70       4.19      4.52      5.49      5.35      2.98      0.38       0.05      5.98      4.43    3.01   3.11
   12       3.83       4.53      5.07      5.61      4.40      0.57      5.52       0.39      6.12      2.94    3.75   3.15
   13       3.91       4.75      4.32      5.13      6.04      1.62      5.94       0.37      6.11      4.38    3.13   3.15
   14       3.89       4.32      4.36      4.41      5.61      0.59      5.05       2.66      5.90      4.91    3.74   3.64
   15       3.41       4.17      4.01      5.19      5.55      0.34      0.03       4.51      6.08      4.54    3.13   3.59
   16       3.43       4.54      5.17      5.09      4.64      2.16      1.89       0.78      5.90      4.15    2.45   2.54
   17       3.86       5.25      3.65      6.01      4.64      3.48      0.98       0.22      6.05      4.12    3.49   3.07
   18       3.58       4.24      5.53      5.56      3.80      4.78      0.25       0.17      6.04      4.14    2.13   3.13
   19       3.55       2.63      5.29      4.41      5.27      2.65      0.04       0.08      5.87      4.72    2.20   2.75
   20       3.17       4.38      4.24      4.73      4.99      0.84      3.07       0.31      5.97      4.61    1.89   3.19
   21       3.92       4.27      5.60      5.27      4.28      5.68      0.59       0.63      5.81      4.15    2.57   3.10
   22       4.06       4.31      6.02      4.57      5.14      1.76      3.38       2.08      5.91      3.87    3.11   3.40
   23       3.29       5.41      4.10      5.77      4.69      5.49      4.68       0.18      5.77      4.68    2.26   2.88
   24       4.12       4.98      5.58      4.93      5.57      0.23      2.78       0.64      5.87      4.05    3.44   2.73
   25       3.91       4.77      5.40      4.59      2.91      6.17      0.36       1.13      5.80      3.86    3.29   3.40
   26       4.21       4.82      5.30      5.78      5.08      5.14      1.13       0.61      5.74      3.96    3.05   2.49
   27       3.77       5.49      5.87      5.84      4.82      5.60      0.03       0.52      5.85      4.73    3.79   2.70
   28       3.62       4.77      4.26      5.91      6.28      6.15      0.29       5.49      5.84      3.35    3.14   2.43
   29       4.29                 5.86      5.71      5.16      0.76      1.28       0.90      5.81      4.23    3.61   2.73
   30       4.33                 5.88      6.42      5.83      4.84      0.75       2.21      5.69      3.29    0.65   3.12
   31       4.13                 5.72                5.77                1.48       3.93                3.38           3.62
 Total       113       123       155       151       147       106        61        47        179       124     95     93
Average      3.7       4.4       5.0       5.0        4.7       3.5       2.0       1.5       6.0       4.0     3.2    3.0
                                            (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)




                                   T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                                        46 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
                                        Rajasthan

Table 5A. Daily total values of direct normal incidence (DNI) at Bap, Jodhpur
    Days       Jan       Feb       Mar          Apr       May       Jun        Jul       Aug       Sep        Oct      Nov         Dec
    1        6.86      7.72      6.99         7.40      6.40       6.40      6.86      7.56      9.05      5.23       7.55         4.99
    2        7.09      7.32      7.47         2.52      3.83       6.86      7.24      2.49      9.07      4.81       6.91         6.68
    3        6.84      7.05      9.31         8.58      7.78       7.38      4.51      0.95      9.00      3.85       6.84         6.87
    4        7.07      7.07      8.34         6.80      5.38       3.47      0.01      0.57      8.90      6.10       7.24         6.01
    5        6.05      6.40      8.75         8.21      6.91       6.59      0.02      0.82      8.86      7.50       7.50         6.88
    6        5.97      7.38      7.55         6.30      4.56       7.54      3.03      1.47      9.09      7.60       7.33         6.89
    7        5.86      7.71      8.27         7.43      2.81       7.53      3.27      2.87      9.08      7.53       7.46         4.09
    8        7.25      8.11      8.45         6.59      6.33       5.55      1.51      2.57      9.09      3.36       5.74         3.78
    9        7.58      7.44      7.66         5.88      6.59       6.85      0.14      5.89      8.98      6.66       6.13         5.59
   10        7.10      8.52      6.84         6.40      6.45       1.65      1.10      1.00      8.85      6.69       7.35         5.71
   11        7.34      7.65      6.65         7.96      7.45       4.26      0.74      0.06      8.79      7.76       5.42         6.16
   12        7.76      8.13      8.08         7.90      6.14       0.65      7.34      0.53      9.15      5.36       7.31         6.28
   13        7.99      8.59      6.41         7.54      8.16       3.15      8.35      0.55      9.16      7.05       5.70         6.60
   14        7.73      7.46      6.95         6.37      7.82       0.83      6.72      3.48      8.70      8.22       7.26         7.34
   15        6.91      7.76      6.29         7.03      8.00       0.53      0.03      5.82      9.16      7.41       6.13         7.29
   16        6.77      7.60      7.78         7.43      6.27       2.69      2.89      0.87      8.75      6.83       4.55         5.10
   17        7.68      9.32      6.01         8.43      6.66       5.31      1.45      0.40      9.18      6.96       6.80         5.93
   18        7.08      7.18      8.35         7.94      5.34       6.07      0.41      0.48      9.20      7.05       4.42         6.49
   19        6.78      4.25      7.85         6.31      7.05       3.52      0.05      0.10      8.69      8.05       4.16         5.48
   20        6.61      7.34      6.97         6.86      7.25       1.81      4.35      0.38      9.12      8.03       3.28         6.44
   21        7.32      7.19      8.80         7.96      5.92       8.15      0.87      1.11      8.77      7.54       5.01         6.39
   22        7.82      7.59      9.40         6.35      7.04       2.83      4.55      3.68      9.17      6.42       5.78         6.82
   23        6.33      9.41      6.24         8.06      6.64       7.26      6.70      0.22      8.79      7.78       4.68         5.68
   24        7.70      8.48      8.22         6.83      7.78       0.51      3.75      0.85      9.18      6.95       6.95         5.65
   25        7.09      7.41      8.38         6.06      4.28       8.66      0.43      1.35      8.99      6.44       6.19         6.78
   26        8.04      8.17      7.70         8.09      6.45       6.56      1.37      0.96      8.85      6.97       5.76         4.93
   27        7.13      9.43      8.36         8.06      6.83       7.78      0.03      0.69      9.25      8.42       7.30         5.50
   28        6.94      7.29      6.15         8.42      8.66       8.03      0.48      7.79      9.27      5.99       6.40         4.90
   29        8.02                9.02         7.87      6.93       1.52      2.00      1.28      9.26      7.28       7.20         5.68
   30        8.28                8.73         9.28      8.44       6.99      1.07      3.02      8.99      5.77       1.45         6.44
   31        7.33                8.19                   8.25                 1.80      5.57                6.21                    7.47
  Total       222       215       240         217        204       147        83        65       270        208       182          187
Average       7.2       7.7       7.7          7.2       6.6       4.9       2.7        2.1       9.0       6.7       6.1          6.0
                                              (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)




                                        T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                                                                                                         Annexures

Table 6A. Daily total values of effective direct normal incidence (IB>150W/m2) at Bap, Jodhpur
     Days       Jan       Feb       Mar        Apr     May       Jun     Jul      Aug       Sep     Oct     Nov       Dec
         1    6.76      7.70      6.99       7.30    6.39      6.33     6.59    7.43      8.91    5.23      7.38     4.80
         2    7.02      7.31      7.47       2.38    3.57      6.82     7.13    2.19      8.93    4.68      6.76     6.62
         3    6.69      6.93      9.31       8.53    7.78      7.21     4.51    0.41      8.96    3.75      6.84     6.69
         4    7.04      6.95      8.34       6.71    5.23      3.17     0.00    0.28      8.85    6.10      7.24     5.88
         5    5.94      6.27      8.75       8.11    6.76      6.59     0.00    0.31      8.75    7.34      7.45     6.83
         6    5.97      7.34      7.53       6.30    4.44      7.52     2.78    1.07      8.99    7.52      7.28     6.88
         7    5.79      7.67      8.27       7.36    2.35      7.50     3.27    2.56      9.04    7.53      7.40     4.04
         8    7.25      7.95      8.45       6.53    6.20      5.55     1.24    2.17      9.05    3.13      5.59     3.59
         9    7.44      7.40      7.66       5.88    6.45      6.58     0.00    5.85      8.91    6.66      5.97     5.50
        10    7.10      8.34      6.84       6.38    6.22      1.53     0.83    0.56      8.82    6.69      7.33     5.69
        11    7.30      7.59      6.64       7.92    7.45      4.12     0.57    0.00      8.77    7.76      5.40     6.09
        12    7.76      8.08      8.08       7.87    6.14      0.21     7.23    0.00      9.13    5.27      7.28     6.23
        13    7.99      8.55      6.40       7.39    8.07      2.66     8.35    0.22      9.13    7.05      5.64     6.50
        14    7.63      7.37      6.95       6.30    7.75      0.23     6.59    3.22      8.63    8.22      7.25     7.31
        15    6.91      7.66      6.29       6.82    8.00      0.17     0.00    5.79      9.16    7.37      6.13     7.24
        16    6.65      7.53      7.69       7.38    6.11      2.29     2.57    0.73      8.60    6.83      4.45     5.07
        17    7.66      9.21      6.01       8.36    6.59      5.11     1.12    0.18      9.18    6.96      6.63     5.80
        18    6.93      7.05      8.20       7.90    5.20      5.89     0.15    0.34      9.20    7.05      4.25     6.41
        19    6.64      4.18      7.85       6.16    6.95      3.41     0.00    0.00      8.69    7.94      4.00     5.46
        20    6.61      7.24      6.97       6.76    7.25      1.57     4.15    0.00      9.12    7.97      2.89     6.37
        21    7.24      7.09      8.80       7.84    5.79      8.15     0.15    0.69      8.77    7.40      4.91     6.33
        22    7.74      7.46      9.40       6.26    6.99      2.18     4.55    3.18      9.17    6.29      5.78     6.73
        23    6.27      9.41      6.24       7.91    6.64      7.17     6.43    0.00      8.67    7.66      4.54     5.59
        24    7.70      8.48      8.22       6.71    7.78      0.31     3.60    0.47      9.18    6.85      6.95     5.60
        25    7.09      7.41      8.38       6.06    4.28      8.57     0.17    0.85      8.99    6.41      6.10     6.76
        26    8.04      8.09      7.70       7.95    6.45      6.48     0.99    0.34      8.85    6.86      5.68     4.90
        27    7.13      9.43      8.24       8.04    6.75      7.70     0.00    0.24      9.25    8.42      7.19     5.43
        28    6.89      7.11      6.02       8.28    8.66      7.90     0.25    7.64      9.27    5.96      6.25     4.87
        29    8.02                9.02       7.76    6.83      0.95     1.72    0.62      9.26    7.16      7.10     5.68
        30    8.28                8.60       9.17    8.44      6.99     0.84    2.84      8.87    5.68      0.98     6.35
        31    7.28                8.19               8.15               1.30    5.33              5.99               7.39
     Total     221      213       239        214      202      141       77      56       269     206       179      185
  Average     7.12      7.60      7.73       7.14    6.50      4.69     2.49    1.79      8.97    6.64      5.95     5.96
                                         (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)




                                  T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                    48 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
                    Rajasthan

Table 7A. Daily total values of effective sunshine hours (IB>150W/m2) at Bap, Jodhpur
      Days    Jan      Feb    Mar    Apr      May    Jun     Jul      Aug    Sep     Oct      Nov     Dec
          1    9       10      11     11      12      11     10      12       11     11       9        8
          2    9       10      10     8       9       12     12       8       11     10       9        9
          3    9       9       11     11      12      11     13       2       11      9      10        8
          4    9       9       11     11      11      9      0        1       11     11      10        9
          5    9       9       11     11      11      13     0        1       11      9      10        9
          6    9       10      10     11      12      12     8        3       11     10      10        9
          7    9       10      10     11      7       12     10       8       11     11      10        9
          8    9       9       11     11      12      12     5        6       11      8       9        7
          9    9       10      11     11      11      11     0       11       11     11       9        8
        10    10       9       11     11      10      5      3        2       11     11      10        9
        11     9       10      10     11      13      11     2        0       11     11       9        9
        12    10       10      11     11      13      1      11       0       11     10      10        9
        13    10       10      10     11      11      6      13       1       11     10       9        9
        14     9       9       11     11      12      1      11       9       10     11      10        9
        15    10       10      11     10      13      1      0       11       11     10      10        9
        16     9       10      10     11      11      7      7        3       10     11       9        9
        17     9       10      11     11      12      11     3        1       11     11       9        8
        18     9       9       10     11      11      11     1        1       11     11       9        9
        19     9       9       11     11      11      12     0        0       11     10       8        9
        20    10       10      11     11      13      3      10       0       11     10       5        9
        21     9       10      11     12      12      13     1        2       11     10       9        9
        22     9       10      11     11      12      7      12       8       11     10       9        9
        23     9       11      11     11      12      12     11       0       10     10       9        9
        24     9       11      11     11      12      1      11       2       11     10      10        9
        25    10       10      11     11      12      12     1        3       11     10       9        9
        26    10       10      11     11      12      11     3        2       11     10       9        9
        27    10       11      10     12      12      12     0        1       11     10       9        9
        28     9       9       10     12      13      12     1       11       11     10       9        9
        29    10               11     11      12      4      7        2       11     10       9        9
        30    10               10     12      13      13     3       10       10     10       4        9
        31     9               11             12      0      4       10               9       0        9
      Total   289     274     331    330     361     269    173      131     326     315     270     273
   Average    9.3     9.8     10.7    11     11.6    8.7     5.6     4.2     10.9   10.2     8.7      8.8
                    (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)




                    T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                                                                                        Annexures

Table 8A. Daily total values of effective sunshine hours (IB>850W/m2) at Bap, Jodhpur
      Days    Jan      Feb   Mar    Apr     May    Jun     Jul     Aug    Sep     Oct    Nov    Dec
          1    2       5      3      2       0      0      0       3       6       0      5         1
          2    4       5      4      0       0      0      0       0       6       0      2         4
          3    4       4      7      4       2      0      0       0       6       0      2         5
          4    5       5      6      0       0      0      0       0       6       1      3         1
          5    2       4      5      3       0      0      0       0       6       5      3         4
          6    0       5      4      0       0      2      0       0       6       2      5         4
          7    3       5      5      2       0      0      0       0       6       3      6         0
          8    5       4      5      0       1      0      0       0       6       0      1         0
          9    6       4      2      0       0      1      0       0       6       1      3         3
        10     3       7      2      0       0      0      0       0       7       2      2         0
        11     6       3      1      3       0      0      0       0       7       3      0         2
        12     5       6      4      3       0      0      0       0       7       1      3         1
        13     6       7      1      1       1      1      0       0       7       3      0         2
        14     6       5      1      0       0      0      0       0       7       3      5         6
        15     3       3      0      0       0      0      0       0       7       5      2         4
        16     4       5      2      2       0      0      0       0       7       1      1         1
        17     5       8      0      5       0      0      0       0       7       1      0         2
        18     5       3      5      4       0      0      0       0       7       1      0         3
        19     3       0      5      0       0      0      0       0       7       6      0         0
        20     2       4      1      0       0      0      0       0       7       5      0         2
        21     5       2      5      1       0      2      0       0       7       4      0         3
        22     6       2      7      0       0      0      0       0       7       1      2         3
        23     2       7      0      3       0      0      0       0       7       6      0         1
        24     6       8      5      0       1      0      0       0       6       3      3         0
        25     4       5      4      0       0      3      0       0       7       2      3         5
        26     5       5      4      0       0      0      0       0       7       2      1         1
        27     4       7      6      0       0      0      0       0       7       6      6         1
        28     4       5      0      2       3      1      0       0       7       3      3         0
        29     6              5      1       0      0      0       0       7       5      4         0
        30     6              6      3       3      0      0       0       7       1      0         2
        31     5              4              2             0       0               0                5
      Total   132     133    109     39     13      10     0       3      200     76     65     66
   Average    4.3     4.8     3.5   1.3     0.4     0.3   0.0      0.1     6.7    2.5    2.2    2.1
                    (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)




                    T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
           50 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
           Rajasthan

Table 9A. Average day time daily values of ambient air temperature (oC) at Bap, Jodhpur
    Days     Jan    Feb    Mar     Apr    May     Jun     Jul   Aug      Sep     Oct    Nov    Dec
       1    23.3   21.6    25.4   25.9    34.2   34.4    33.7   29.6     31.7   28.1    21.0   21.9
       2    19.8   20.7    25.4   27.2    35.1   35.3    33.7   29.2     32.0   27.4    21.8   18.7
       3    20.5   19.4    23.1   25.7    35.4   34.9    34.5   28.2     32.6   28.5    22.2   23.1
       4    18.9   15.0    22.3   27.5    35.0   31.6    32.4   26.3     34.1   29.5    22.3   23.1
       5    18.7   18.9    23.5   31.2    35.8   33.7    32.3   28.2     33.3   30.0    24.3   21.0
       6    17.7   18.2    24.6   29.2    36.0   33.4    31.1   28.6     32.2   30.8    23.8   20.3
       7    18.5   19.8    24.4   33.7    34.3   33.3    32.0   27.4     30.6   31.2    24.3   20.5
       8    17.2   17.9    20.9   33.4    32.8   28.9    32.8   28.8     30.1   29.7    26.9   21.3
       9    16.6   16.0    21.8   31.4    31.7   30.4    39.0   28.3     29.0   31.2    27.2   19.7
      10    17.1   19.2    23.9   34.2    30.4   32.1    33.0   29.7     28.9   33.2    28.1   20.8
      11    17.7   20.5    25.0   34.4    33.5   33.9    33.4   30.6     27.5   33.4    28.6   18.3
      12    14.3   20.0    24.5   32.7    29.3   34.2    33.4   30.8     28.4   32.8    26.1   21.5
      13    16.4   22.5    25.8   31.2    32.3   38.0    33.0   29.7     27.5   32.5    25.6   19.1
      14    16.6   16.8    26.0   31.6    31.4   32.8    29.8   30.9     30.9   32.0    24.7   22.4
      15    15.6   17.6    26.6   30.1    34.7   35.0    28.8   29.4     29.4   31.7    23.2   22.3
      16    16.5   21.3    26.8   30.0    33.6   35.1    30.1   30.0     28.6   29.4    22.7   24.7
      17    18.1   23.0    31.5   29.2    33.4   33.5    31.1   31.7     27.4   30.4    24.2   21.8
      18    19.1   21.5    28.1   28.9    32.9   35.1    32.7   33.4     29.8   30.1    23.2   24.4
      19    19.8   22.3    27.9   28.3    34.3   38.9    33.5   33.9     28.7   28.8    28.0   23.4
      20    19.5   23.5    26.4   29.2    39.2   38.6    30.7   32.7     28.4   31.4    26.4   23.6
      21    21.2   25.1    27.0   29.5    37.6   37.9    37.2   30.9     29.2   30.7    22.9   17.9
      22    21.7   26.8    29.5   31.2    36.7   37.6    35.5   29.3     29.2   28.8    23.5   22.3
      23    20.0   23.7    28.2   30.0    37.0   37.4    34.3   28.8     29.0   27.2    25.2   18.6
      24    17.0   24.6    28.9   30.8    35.9   36.1    32.6   30.1     31.8   28.5    22.2   17.4
      25    18.4   24.2    29.1   33.3    36.3   36.9    30.5   31.7     30.6   26.0    24.4   15.7
      26    21.2   23.1    27.6   32.1    36.6   32.1    27.7   30.4     29.8   24.8    22.8   16.8
      27    20.8   26.0    30.7   34.3    37.4   34.6    30.0   32.2     29.7   25.1    22.7   17.6
      28    19.3   27.4    31.1   30.6    38.5   33.8    30.8   30.3     28.3   23.7    20.4   17.7
      29    20.3           29.6   30.6    36.3   32.6    33.4   30.5     28.0   26.4    18.9   19.6
      30    20.5           30.1   29.5    35.5   34.1    29.3   30.7     30.8   27.1    19.6   21.6
      31    22.7           32.1           36.5           30.3   31.2            26.6    18.5   21.0
 Average    18.9   21.3    26.7   30.6    34.8   34.5    32.3   30.1     29.9   29.3    23.7   20.6
             (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)




           T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                                                                               Annexures

Table 10A. Average daily values of wind speed (m/s) at Bap, Jodhpur
    Days     Jan    Feb    Mar    Apr     May    Jun     Jul   Aug    Sep    Oct    Nov    Dec
        1    0.78   0.99   1.20   1.64    2.08   2.33   2.39   1.55   1.49   0.42   0.60   0.39
        2    0.80   1.18   1.16   1.76    1.26   1.91   2.23   2.26   1.25   0.48   0.70   0.53
        3    0.45   0.64   1.26   0.78    1.00   3.13   1.25   1.24   0.43   0.48   0.78   0.46
        4    0.53   0.68   1.26   0.84    1.80   3.36   0.73   0.94   0.32   0.76   1.08   0.30
        5    0.62   0.76   0.71   1.32    0.86   2.72   1.54   0.88   0.39   0.62   1.19   0.45
        6    0.88   0.76   0.99   1.00    1.88   2.07   2.95   0.56   0.36   0.65   1.05   0.66
        7    0.39   0.62   1.11   1.83    1.81   2.00   1.21   1.60   0.49   0.75   0.66   0.73
        8    0.42   0.45   1.11   1.36    1.89   1.26   1.35   2.29   1.00   0.90   0.55   0.46
        9    0.69   0.69   1.26   1.74    1.98   2.29   1.97   1.84   0.95   0.76   0.60   0.30
       10    1.05   0.49   1.24   1.73    1.58   3.30   1.46   1.41   0.85   1.05   0.46   0.29
       11    1.41   0.77   0.53   0.71    2.16   1.98   1.14   1.92   0.93   0.88   0.77   0.37
       12    1.40   1.06   0.30   1.82    1.40   1.17   1.67   1.68   1.02   0.75   0.70   0.65
       13    1.13   1.31   0.37   1.06    2.33   1.30   1.54   0.76   0.80   0.43   0.81   0.95
       14    0.69   1.13   0.64   2.24    2.63   2.39   1.76   2.04   1.06   0.33   0.64   1.61
       15    0.96   2.35   0.90   2.15    2.68   3.71   0.67   1.81   1.49   0.40   0.47   1.25
       16    1.05   2.24   1.23   0.97    3.16   1.83   1.96   1.01   1.79   0.41   0.53   1.02
       17    1.04   2.70   0.90   0.77    1.96   1.55   0.81   1.16   1.51   0.49   0.44   1.35
       18    1.14   2.61   0.77   1.00    2.05   3.47   1.89   0.95   0.97   0.49   0.76   1.65
       19    1.82   1.96   0.56   1.44    1.53   2.53   1.11   1.34   0.86   0.52   0.93   1.35
       20    1.95   1.48   0.67   1.43    1.24   1.88   1.71   1.26   0.67   0.40   1.11   1.50
       21    2.42   1.63   0.74   1.58    1.66   2.07   0.73   1.29   0.60   0.52   0.78   0.88
       22    2.25   1.19   1.09   1.15    2.51   2.11   2.52   1.54   0.74   1.00   0.64   0.80
       23    1.43   1.39   1.16   2.06    2.73   0.80   2.06   1.23   0.95   0.87   0.84   0.79
       24    0.54   1.18   0.99   1.29    2.35   1.53   1.87   1.05   1.44   0.89   0.96   0.52
       25    0.44   1.17   1.05   1.12    1.54   1.59   1.59   0.78   1.12   0.78   0.99   0.62
       26    0.50   0.71   1.43   1.90    2.11   1.68   1.32   1.23   1.56   0.65   0.55   0.48
       27    1.19   0.69   1.27   1.46    1.82   1.62   2.30   2.00   2.04   0.45   0.28   0.62
       28    1.70   0.81   2.06   1.58    1.03   3.50   1.21   1.37   1.15   0.35   0.39   0.69
       29    1.50          1.94   0.96    1.71   2.55   1.09   1.12   0.95   0.26   0.48   0.94
       30    1.36          2.15   1.34    1.33   5.24   1.75   1.05   0.93   0.29   0.35   1.04
       31    1.22          1.89           2.71          1.76   2.38          0.39          1.07
 Average     1.09   1.20   1.10   1.40    1.90   2.30   1.60   1.40   1.00   0.59   0.70   0.80
             (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)




            T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                   52 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
                   Rajasthan

Table 11A. Average daily values of Relative Humidity (%) values at Bap, Jodhpur
      Days      Jan    Feb     Mar      Apr   May      Jun    Jul    Aug    Sep      Oct     Nov     Dec
          1      60      46     29       46     28      24     61      81     67       31     37       33
          2      67      51     32       71     23      26     58      79     68       24     38       33
          3      51      58     47       63     24      27     64      81     70       29     40       32
          4      51      49     52       47     37      28     73      80     67       46     38       33
          5      54      45     51       38     48      31     74      78     64       63     35       32
          6      59      47     41       34     42      36     73      67     67       69     50       46
          7      74      41     34       36     33      41     71      58     64       61     70       24
          8      59      42     24       49     40      45     67      59     60       43     69       26
          9      54      42     36       43     38      49     64      60     59       46     61       31
         10      41      44     34       36     34      57     64      60     55       42     59       29
         11      44      43     24       28     31      56     66      61     62       38     52       52
         12      30      44     23       27     29      55     69      62     60       38     57       56
         13      43      60     28       38     36      58     72      77     55       27     62       58
         14      42      69     25       27     36      55     65      79     59       21     59       47
         15      46      76     20       23     39      52     63      71     57       22     59       41
         16      56      64     25       20     35      51     63      84     60       27     55       39
         17      50      59     28       22     33      52     63      81     59       23     65       34
         18      54      45     39       29     42      54     67      84     59       23     62       29
         19      42      46     34       32     44      56     66      78     56       33     49       27
         20      40      52     41       32     39      55     63      82     49       33     51       26
         21      44      56     47       26     21      52     61      84     45       34     48       24
         22      46      55     51       20     14      53     60      77     50       31     44       26
         23      52      50     40       20     20      51     59      74     56       27     40       26
         24      49      49     43       26     30      48     60      78     53       38     36       36
         25      46      41     30       32     54      53     59      74     50       34     36       60
         26      65      44     30       25     58      48     58      72     49       32     40       37
         27      65      37     33       30     58      56     73      71     43       32     40       50
         28      52      40     25       36     64      55     78      67     47       32     38       45
         29      52             30       36     62      55     78      65     38       34     53       43
         30      50             37       34     65      56     72      63     44       35     47       37
         31      57             33              65             69      73              28              40
   Average       51      50     34       34     39      48     66      73     56       35     50       37
                      (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)




                   T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                                                                                      Annexures

Table 12A. Average daily values of visibility (km) values at Bap, Jodhpur
     Days      Jan    Feb     Mar      Apr    May      Jun     Jul     Aug      Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec
         1      1.9    2.8     3.7     4.0     4.0      2.9    2.5      3.5     4.0   4.0   2.0   4.0
         2      1.9    2.9     4.0     3.6     4.0      2.5    3.1      3.7     4.0   4.0   3.0   4.0
         3      2.0    2.8     3.5     4.0     3.8      3.8    3.4      4.0     4.0   4.0   2.2   4.0
         4      2.0    2.7     3.5     4.0     3.1      3.1    6.0      4.0     3.4   4.0   3.2   4.0
         5      2.0    2.4     2.8     4.0     4.0      2.5    5.6      5.5     3.3   4.0   2.2   4.0
         6      2.0    3.0     4.0     4.0     2.5      2.3    3.9      3.7     3.4   4.0   2.8   4.0
         7      1.7    2.9     4.0     4.0     3.5      1.9    3.3      4.0     3.7   4.0   2.0   4.0
         8      1.9    4.0     6.2     3.4     1.3      2.2    3.6      2.3     4.0   4.0   2.2   4.0
         9      2.2    3.1     4.0     1.5     4.9      2.3    2.2      6.2     4.0   4.0   1.6   4.0
        10      2.3    3.2     4.0     1.8     5.5      2.7    2.5      3.8     4.0   4.0   3.5   4.0
        11      2.2    4.2     6.2     2.4     6.2      3.2    2.6      4.0     4.0   4.0   3.0   3.4
        12      2.3    3.5     4.7     1.9     4.2      2.5    3.5      4.0     4.0   4.0   3.7   3.0
        13      2.0    3.0     4.0     1.9     3.2      2.5    4.3      3.7     3.7   4.0   2.9   4.0
        14      2.0    3.0     4.0     3.0     2.4      2.1    2.5      3.3     3.9   4.0   5.1   4.0
        15      1.9    3.3     4.8     3.7     3.2      2.1    2.9      3.8     4.0   3.8   4.4   4.0
        16      2.0    3.7     5.5     4.0     3.0      2.7    2.8      3.5     3.6   4.0   4.5   4.0
        17      2.0    3.0     4.0     3.8     2.7      2.1    2.3      3.0     3.2   4.0   4.3   4.0
        18      2.0    4.1     6.2     3.9     2.1      2.6    2.8      3.6     3.7   4.0   3.7   4.0
        19      2.0    3.8     5.5     3.8     5.0      3.5    3.0      3.7     4.0   4.0   3.2   4.0
        20      2.0    3.4     4.7     3.7     3.4      2.5    2.8      4.0     4.0   4.0   5.0   4.0
        21      2.0    3.0     4.0     4.0     4.8      2.3    2.4      3.8     4.0   4.0   2.7   4.0
        22      2.0    3.0     4.0     3.8     6.2      2.2    2.8      4.0     4.0   4.0   3.8   4.0
        23      2.0    4.1     6.2     2.5     3.3      2.0    3.9      4.0     4.0   4.0   3.5   4.0
        24      2.0    2.4     2.8     3.2     2.2      2.7    4.0      4.0     4.0   4.0   2.5   4.0
        25      2.0    4.2     6.4     3.7     2.4      1.9    4.0      3.2     4.0   4.0   3.3   4.0
        26      2.0    4.1     6.2     3.8     2.6      1.9    3.8      4.0     4.0   4.0   3.8   3.0
        27      1.7    3.9     6.2     3.5     2.2      1.0    8.2      4.0     4.0   4.0   2.6   3.9
        28      1.9    3.2     4.5     3.4     2.4      0.6    3.2      4.0     4.0   4.0   3.5   3.7
        29      2.0            2.6     3.8     2.8      0.7    6.9      4.0     4.0   4.0   2.8   4.0
        30      2.0            5.7     2.1     2.7      1.8    4.6      4.0     4.0   4.0   4.5   4.0
        31      2.0            6.7             3.9             4.8      4.0           4.0         4.0
  Average        2      3       5        3       3       2      4           4     4    4      3     4
                      (Source: TERI analysis using TRNSYS software and METEONORM Database)




                 T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
            54 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
            Rajasthan




      Annexure II: Product brochures



Please refer the attached file Product_Specification.pdf




            T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                              Annexures




T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                 56 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
                 Rajasthan


Annexure III: MOU letters between Dalmia group and INIFINA




                 T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                              Annexures




T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                         58 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
                         Rajasthan




           Annexure IV(a): Layout of 10 MW power plant



  20 mt.
           250 mt.
                                                                                            HT Substation
                                                                                                and
           1 MW solar                                                                       Transmission
200 mt.    power plant                                                                         Station


                                                                                      350 mt.
  20 mt.
                                                 30 mt.
                                                                                              General
                                                                                            facility Zone




                                       11 kV internal Transmission Line




                         T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                              Annexures




T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                           60 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
                           Rajasthan




               Annexure IV (b): Estimation of cost of
                     electrical & civil works
Sr. No.   Particulars                        Hardware Cost        EPC Charges      Remarks
                                                      INR                (INR)
1         Power Distribution Cables              44052500             4184988
2         Power Distribution Panels              75425000             5656875
3         Power Transformers                     42500000             2337500      1.6 MVA/0.208/11 kV 10 Nos
                                                                                   & 16 MVA/11/33 kV 02 Nos
4         Transmission Line (11 kV)                 819000              102375     Total length of the internal
                                                                                   transmission line is
                                                                                   approximate 2.3 km.
5         EMIS                                    36850000             1289750     Individual generator level
                                                                                   and data communication line
6         Other Electrical Work                                        2500000     Include the panel earthling of
                                                                                   generation and transmission
                                                                                   facility, ground mat and
                                                                                   trenches.
7         Civil Works         (Electrical                              5500000     Substation rooms and
          System)                                                                  generation station along
                                                                                   with the basic equipments
                                                                                   like area lighting, safety and
                                                                                   security system, power
                                                                                   backup to the facility etc.
8         Civil Works (Generator)                                     35000000     Generators and Invertors
                                                                                   foundation
9         Land Planning and Civil                                      1500000     Land planning, contour
          Work                                                                     survey, leveling, soil testing,
                                                                                   area fencing
10        Misc. expenses                                              12275000     Included the and necessary
                                                                                   facilities for the operation
                                                                                   and maintenance team like
                                                                                   accommodation, main
                                                                                   control station and other
                                                                                   necessary civil work. land
                                                                                   acquisition, other necessary
                                                                                   construction for the project.
Total, INR                                      199646500         70346488
Grand Total, Cr                                                          27.0
Rupees twenty seven crore only




                           T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                              Annexures




T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
   62 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
   Rajasthan


Annexure-IV (c) Single line diagram of
   proposed interfacing scheme




   T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                              Annexures




T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                                        64 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur,
                                        Rajasthan




                               Annexure V: Financial sheets

Assumptions
Table 1: Assumptions and Financials of the Project

1          Project Specifications
                                                                                                                     Solar Dish
     1.1 Name of the project                                                                        Unit                Stirling
     1.2 Country where the project is situated                                                                            India
     1.3 Project Capacity                                                                           KW                  10,000
                                                                                                    MW                       10
2        Generation and sale of energy
     2.1 Annual power generation from the                                                           Lacs kWhr             222.7
     2.2 Plant Load Factor                                                                          Percent             25.42%
     2.3   Maximum field Losses                                                                     Percent               4.0%
     2.3   Net power generated                                                                      Lacs kWhr           213.79
     2.4   Net power sold                                                                                               213.79
     2.5   Tariff Required (levelised for 25                                                        Rs/kWhr               19.0
           Escalation in selling rate from 20th to
     2.6   25th year                                                                                Rs/kWhr              10.00
     2.7   Annual Degration in efficiency (%)                                                       %                     0.5%
           Operation and maintenance(incl
3          insurance)                                                                               Rs lacs/Year        287.50
           O& M Per year per centage of
     3.1   Project cost                                                                             %                    1.25%
     3.2   Annual Escalation                                                                        percentage           5.00%
4          Long term loan
     4.1   The interest rate                                                                        Percent             12.50%
7          Depreciation
     7.1   Plant life assumed for working of                                                        Year                     25
     7.2   Salvage value                                                                            %                        10
     7.3   Rate of Depreciation (1st 12 years)                                                      %                    5.28%
     7.4   Rate of Depreciation (From 13th years)                                                   %                    2.05%
8          Financial Parameters
     8.1   Debt / equity ratio                           Debt         70% Equity              30%
     8.2   Equity                                                                                 Rs. Lacs            6,900.00
     8.3   Long Term loan                                                                         Rs. Lacs           16,100.00
     8.4   Total cost                                                                             Rs. Lacs           23,000.00
     8.5   Cost Per MW                                                                            Rs. Lacs           2,300.000
     8.6   Income tax holiday                                                                     Years                  10.00
     8.7   Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT)                    10.00% Surcharge     10.00% Edu. Cess 3%Percent               11.33%
     8.8   Income tax rate after 11th year                   30% Surcharge     10.00% Edu.Cess 3% Percent               33.99%
     8.9   Project Cost                                                                           Rs in Lacs            23,000
9          Results Financial Parameters
     9.1   ROE                                                                                      Percent              16.0%
     9.2   Discounting Rate                                                                         %                    10.50
           Levelized cost of generation
     9.3   (Tariff)(25 years basis)                                                                 Rs per kWhr          19.03
           month of commissioning ph-2 in
           Financial Year                            5
           month of commissioning ph-1 in
           Financial Year                            6




                                        T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                              Annexures




T E R I Report No. 2009RT03
                                   66 Detailed-feasibility study for developing solar Dish-Sterling power plant at Jodhpur, Rajasthan




Tariff calculation for 10 MW plant
Tariff Calculation for 10 MW plant:
                               Financial Year ---->   FY-10       FY-11       FY-12       FY-13       FY-14       FY-15       FY-16       FY-17       FY-18       FY-19       FY-20        FY-21        FY-22
                                                        1           2           3           4           5           6           7           8           9           10          11           12           13
               Generation Phase-1                      10.69        21.27       21.17       21.06       20.95       20.85       20.75       20.64       20.54       20.44       20.33        20.23        20.13
               Generation Phase-2                                  112.24      191.45      190.49      189.54      188.59      187.65      186.71      185.78      184.85      183.93       183.01       182.09
                Total Generation                       10.69       133.51      212.62      211.55      210.50      209.44      208.40      207.35      206.32      205.29      204.26       203.24       202.22
            Annual Expences Phase-1                   240.34       470.63      456.79      443.04      429.37      415.79      402.29      388.90      375.61      362.42      392.76       379.81       296.20
            Annual Expences Phase-2                              2,520.20    4,224.08    4,099.58    3,975.79    3,852.75    3,730.51    3,609.09    3,488.53    3,368.89    3,250.21     3,523.31     3,406.68
             Total Annual Expences                    240.34     2,990.83    4,680.87    4,542.62    4,405.16    4,268.54    4,132.80    3,997.99    3,864.14    3,731.31    3,642.98     3,903.11     3,702.89
               Cost of Generation                      22.48        22.40       22.02       21.47       20.93       20.38       19.83       19.28       18.73       18.18       17.84        19.20        18.31
                Discounting factor                     0.905        0.819       0.741       0.671       0.607       0.549       0.497       0.450       0.407       0.368       0.333        0.302        0.273
                Discounted Tariff                      20.35        18.35       16.32       14.40       12.70       11.20        9.86        8.67        7.63        6.70        5.95         5.80         5.00
                 Levellised Tariff                     19.03

Net Annual expences in case CDM Benefit availed       237.13 2,950.77        4,617.08    4,479.15    4,342.01    4,205.71    4,070.28    3,935.78    3,802.25    3,669.73    3,581.70     3,842.14     3,642.22
     Levelised Tariff with CDM Benefit availed          18.73


                                                       FY-23       FY-24       FY-25       FY-26       FY-27       FY-28       FY-29       FY-30       FY-31       FY-32       FY-33         FY-34        FY-35
                                                         14          15          16          17          18          19          20          21          22          23          24            25          26
                                                         20.03       19.93       19.83       19.73       19.63       19.53       19.44       19.34       19.24       19.15       19.05         18.96
                                                        181.18      180.27      179.37      178.48      177.58      176.70      175.81      174.93      174.06      173.19      172.32        171.46      170.60
                                                        201.21      200.20      199.20      198.21      197.22      196.23      195.25      194.27      193.30      192.34      191.37        190.42      170.60
                                                        292.93      289.80      286.81      285.38      287.09      290.56      294.20      298.02      302.03      306.24      310.67        315.31
                                                      2,654.25    2,624.82    2,596.62    2,569.69    2,562.60    2,583.85    2,615.04    2,647.79    2,682.18    2,718.29    2,756.20      2,796.01     2,837.81
                                                      2,947.18    2,914.62    2,883.42    2,855.07    2,849.70    2,874.41    2,909.24    2,945.81    2,984.21    3,024.53    3,066.87      3,111.32     2,837.81
                                                         14.65       14.56       14.47       14.40       14.45       14.65       14.90       15.16       15.44       15.73       16.03         16.34        16.63
                                                         0.247       0.224       0.202       0.183       0.166       0.150       0.136       0.123       0.111       0.101       0.091         0.082        0.075
                                                          3.62        3.26        2.93        2.64        2.40        2.20        2.02        1.86        1.72        1.58        1.46          1.35         1.24


                                                      2,886.82    2,854.56    2,823.66    2,795.61    2,790.53    2,815.55    2,850.67    2,887.53    2,926.22    2,966.83     3,009.46     3,054.20     2,786.63




                                   T E R I Report No. 2009RT03

								
To top