UNEP PILOT PROJECT PROPOSAL
DECREASING NEAR-SHORE MARINE POLLUTION THROUGH
INCORPORATION OF APPROPRIATE SANITATION SYSTEMS IN LONG-
TERM, SUSTAINABLE INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT,
MUNICIPALITY OF CIHUATLAN, JALISCO STATE
1. Joint Contacts and Institutional Data:
Eugene C. Bricklemyer, Jr., J.D., LL.M.
Aquatic Resources Conservation Group*
Olympic Peninsula Office
1233 Van Ness
Port Townsend, WA 98368
*Federally recognized, Washington registered, nonprofit consulting firm.
M. en C. Alfredo Tomas Ortega Ojeda
Jefe del Departamento
Departamento de Estudios para el Desarrollo Sustenable de Zonas Costeras
Centro Universitario de la Costa Sur
Universidad de Guadalajara
Gomez Farias #82
Jalisco, Mexico C.P. 48980
52 315 3556330
52 317 388 5788
52 315 355 6331 fax
The purpose of this project is to develop and implement, on a pilot scale, the
technological, behavioral, educational and institutional components comprising an
AproSanidad (a program that encompasses the entire process of establishing an
ecologically appropriate sanitation system with a service sector) for the settlements
along the Bahia de Navidad. AproSanidad Melaque proposes to establish a low cost,
low maintenance, safe, alternative system to deal with human excreta in a small town
with tropical conditions. By so doing it will create a model that can be used elsewhere
to decrease a prevalent land-based source of the marine environmental pollution while
enhancing human health, conserving water and energy and preserving cultural values
(including artesinal fishing). Furthermore these actions will be fully incorporated into
an ongoing program of sustainable, integrated coastal zone management (ICZM). This
planning process is designed to maximize coastal conservation. Finally the project will
actively assist in the first goal of that plan, the restoration of a coastal lagoon polluted
by sewage and filled with water hyacinths and other plants related to eutrophic
Our basic premise is that the Western model of combining excreta with water and
sending it out of sight and thus out of mind is not an optimal way to provide good
sanitation, certainly not for the billion plus in the developing world who do not
currently have even a pit privy. As a matter of fact, Michael Rouse, the new president
of the International Water Association (with a membership of profession water
regulators and engineers), himself a former head of Great Britain’s drinking water
inspectorate, said just prior to the Third World Water Summit in March 2003: “If we
started sanitation again from scratch in Britain, we would not do it the way we do now.
Instead of flushing and piping all the waste away, we would collect the solids… like
household rubbish …and compost it…. Eventually it would be used as fertilizer.”
Here we will try to succinctly summarize information we recently presented in this
regard to the Mexico Department of Education in a report entitled: Appropriate
Sanitation and Integrated Coastal Management: An Ecological Approach to a Low
Cost Human Waste Treatment System for Coastal Protection as Part of Community-
Based, Ecologically Sustainable, Long-term Development Plans for Settlements on the
Bahia de Navidad, Jalisco State, Mexico by Eugene C. Bricklemyer, Jr., Alfredo
Tomas Ortega Ojeda, Cuauhtemoc Leon, Boris Graizbord, and Richard Kyle Paisley.
(A slightly modified version of that fully footnoted paper is supplied as an addendum,
should further information be required.)
Currently, 60-75% of the world’s population lives within 60 km of the coast. Of the
world’s 25 largest cities, 18 are on the coast. And of the 23 mega-cities (over 10 million
inhabitants), 18 are in the developing world. We know that in 1996, about 45% of the
world’s population was living in cities and that 37% of those urban dwellers were without
sanitation. And we know that today at least 2.4 billion people have no improved
sanitation facility – including 60% of the developing world.
Beyond that, the World Health Organization states “despite all the efforts made, about
66% of the world’s population has no access to safe excreta disposal” (i.e. many have
“improved” facilities that are not safe). And what may have been marginally acceptable
sanitation practices in rural inland situations in the developing world (e.g. going al aire
libre), will not work in densely populated, urban coastal situations. A recent WHO
website summarizes at least part of the problem: “Urban wastewater discharges are
considered to be one of the most significant threats to sustainable coastal developments
worldwide.” (The journal Ambio has reported that in the developing world, over 90% of
all sewage collected is discharged completely untreated.) What this leaves unsaid is how
many times that threat is multiplied by the pollution that invades coastal waters where
there is no wastewater, only waste, as no facility at all is provided for treatment or even
temporary containment of human excreta. Finally, we know that coastal ecosystems are
economically important and ecologically fragile, highly susceptible to degradation by
Coastal areas around the world, including many in North America, are severely or
moderately impacted by pollution from land-based activities, in many situations resulting
from untreated or improperly treated sewage. In 1997, approximately 43% of the U.S,
population lived in coastal counties; and in 1990, 43% of the Mexican population was in
coastal states (a figure that has certainly increased significantly since then). In two
separate, recent studies by federal agencies in the US and Mexico, near-shore marine
waters were often polluted: the more developed the coast, the worse the pollution.
Consistently found among the “soup” of pollutants were levels of fecal coliform bacteria
and other indicia of human excreta in excess of legal limits. Such pollution affects public
health, food security, economic and social well being, including traditional livelihoods
and values. It also affects the health, stability, diversity and reproductive capacity of the
This proposal is directed at using community action to decrease coastal water pollution
from human wastes. And it will illustrate how such work can form an instrumental part of
an ongoing, long-term community planning exercise that seeks to preserve a unique
quality of life and its associated environment.
Much of the natural environment of the central Pacific coast of Mexico between
Mazatlan and Acapulco remains in tact. It is currently not over-developed, although
certain cities have been world famous tourist destinations for decades and a number of
very expensive, mega-resorts built there in the last decade.
The proposal locale is mid-way along that coast in the Municipality of Cihuatlán, Jalisco
State, Mexico. While still mainly local and regional in its tourist draw, a luxury hotel and
resort (the Grand Bay at Isla Navidad with rooms to US $2500 per night) has been open
for the past several years attracting people from around the world. Furthermore, the
beaches of the two major towns (San Patricio-Melaque and Barra de Navidad) are
increasingly becoming a favorite of the residents of Guadalajara (over three million
people), only 5 hours away by car or a few hours by plane. This is truly an area where
what happens in the next few years will have a dramatic effect on its future.
The proposal involves work necessary to stop the pollution of and to restore and
designate as nature preserves, a significant part of this rich aquatic coastal ecosystem of
Pacific Mexico. This begins with Laguna del Tule, a biologically diverse, fresh-water
lagoon, 120 ha in size and immediately adjacent to the Pacific Ocean beaches of the
sheltered bay, Bahai de Navidad. At one point, the southern end of the lagoon is only 100
meters from the waters of the bay. It is also near a vital salt-water estuary, the Laguna
Barra de Navidad, which enters the southern end of the bay. For the past 15 years, the
several coastal towns that surround Laguna del Tule (San Patricio-Melaque, Jaluco, Villa
Obregon and Barra de Navidad) have used it as a sewage lagoon, pumping in untreated
human wastes. This nutrient rich mix and the introduction of water hyacinths, water
lettuce and lotus have resulted in a surface area so thickly covered in some places that
dogs can walk on the water. This has obviously degraded its water quality, allowed
polluted sediments to accumulate and poses a potential health danger.
Laguna del Tule gets it water from an aquifer that is feed by the mountains, the same
aquifer that supplies the potable water for the communities of the Bahia. In addition to
the risk of contamination this poses for the local wells, it also affects the ocean beaches.
It does this because in the rainy season, which begins in June, the lagoon begins to reach
its holding capacity. By September, through November, it can open its mouth to the
ocean and send its polluted waters into the bay. This has health implications (swimmers
have reported rashes) as well as economic impacts (tourists are reluctant to visit if they
cannot safely swim).
The frequency of direct discharge has been abated recently through creation of large
holding ponds, although the residual effects of past actions will be long running (without
intervention). And while a new treatment plant is soon to begin operation, this will not
solve the community’s problems with sewage (at least 50% of the residences will still be
unserved), and in the interim, wastes are far too frequently still flowing into del Tule.
This proposal maintains that a complete solution requires implementation of an entirely
different way to deal with human waste: utilization of an appropriate ecologically based
sanitation system or AproSanidad.
3. Overall Objectives:
The objectives of the pilot project AproSanidad Melaque are threefold:
First, after extensive consultation with, involvement from and education of the local
community, it will establish a small scale but complete appropriate sanitation system,
AproSanidad Melaque. Such a system will use one or more types of in-home
collection devices (toilets) utilizing composting or dehydration methodology to treat
human excreta safely and return its resources to the earth. It will not waste water in
that it does not dilute feces and urine with water and transport them out of sight, as
has been the preferred “western model.” This system will involve placement of the
devices in the residences and provide any required servicing; it will pick up treated
wastes and remove them to a central location for any required further treatment; and
thereafter, it will use them as fertilizer and/or soil amendment on degraded lands or
for the growing of non-consumable crops, such as forest products.
Second, it will work intimately with the already begun community-wide effort for a
long-term, integrated coastal zone management program to allow only sustainable
growth and assure conservation planning as promoted by the University of
Guadalajara at its Melaque campus. This includes involvement with the community in
decision-making as to how to restore Laguna del Tule and stop its pollution of the
Bahia and the local aquifer. Furthermore, the work on this lagoon will be a launching
platform for conservation of another neighboring lagoon, of even greater size and
diversity (the estuary, Laguna de Navidad). The fully feasible restoration of the
relatively small Laguna del Tule will spur on the community process of effectively
managing the larger one.
Third, it will make these efforts a model for how appropriate systems are an
imminently desirable way to deal with a large and important pollution issue, from
both the standpoint of human and environmental health benefits and from a purely
practical one related to their simplicity and cost effectiveness.
4 Expected Outcomes and Outputs.
First, the project will establish a fully functioning appropriate sanitation system pilot, a
new comprehensive, systematic approach to excreta management. Rather than aspiring
to create sewage (through the addition of water for transport) and then attempting to
treat or dispose of it, an appropriate, ecologically-based sanitation system would
safeguard public health and prevent pollution by using affordable, low-technology
means to destroy pathogens and reuse excreta as a resource without mixing human
waste with fresh water. This system will:
· Not waste fresh water resources,
· Prevent the transmission of disease,
· Be non-polluting,
· Recover excreta as a resource,
· Be simple,
· Be affordable,
· Be culturally acceptable,
· Be aesthetically pleasing.
Second, beyond addressing the waste of water, and the pollution and the health
problems directly resulting from inadequate excreta management, it will include the
indirect benefits that will result from the restoration of nutrient cycles through the
reuse of human excreta as fertilizer. Current agricultural and sanitation practices are
linear. They transport nutrients from rural soils, where the food is grown, to urban
areas where it is consumed and where the resulting waste products are discharged as
pollutants into fresh and coastal waters. In contrast, by avoiding the mixing of human
wastes with water for out-of-sight, out-of-mind transport, an ecologically appropriate
sanitation system is cyclical, reclaiming excreta as fertilizer and thus ultimately
returning significant resources to the soil.
Third, it will show the usefulness of appropriate sanitation methodology as integral to
any coastal zone planning process.
Fourth, it will create such a positive record that it will encourage local and regional
entrepreneurs to become involved in manufacture and servicing of the devices; and, as
has happened elsewhere, it may also create a cash or barter market for the finally
Fifth, it will lessen the potential for pollution of the near shore marine environment
and begin the restoration of Laguna del Tule
5. Project Justification and Replicability.
This project offers an excellent confluence of elements which strongly argue for its
funding, its likelihood of success here and its replication elsewhere. These include:
Great location (natural beauty not yet spoiled, but threatened);
Serious need not likely to be met in any other way (even when the new treatment
plant comes on-line, half the population will still be unserved);
General benefits derived from positive action, including good PR (decreasing
likelihood of beach pollution, reversing environmental degradation of Laguna del
Tule and beginning its restoration);
Integration within an ongoing ICZM long term planning (project for the greater
Bahia de Navidad communities);
Agreeable laws and institutions already in place (Federal Coastal Zone
Regulation; General Law of Ecological Balance and Environmental Protection;
Ecological Ordinance of Jalisco State, etc.; and the coastal-zone-focused program
of the University of Guadalajara’s campus in Melaque, including its annual
International Diploma Course on Coastal Zone Management to build up
And finally, the tremendous opportunity for project exposure, and thus increased
chance for replication (tourism in the area in general, and the high end travelers
and executives, such as those at board meetings of Nike, Pepsi and the like,
brought by the Grand Bay Hotel across the estuary).
The project is designed to be replicable. Furthermore, as described below, since it will
experiment in its first phase with several types of proven devices for in-the-home
containment and preliminary treatment, it will provide useful records of different
methodologies meeting the above-mentioned guidelines in a single environmental setting.
The immediate replication goal is that the success on the scale established in the pilot will
be expanded in later, otherwise funded AproSanidad efforts in Melaque. The ultimate
replication goal is that Melaque will encourage upsizing and application in more urban
6.Major Project Components and Activities.
The specifics of pilot project AproSanidad Melaque are as follows:
Traditional societies and recent projects in Vietnam, Pacific Island nations, several
Central American countries, Ecuador and several places in Mexico (plus commercially-
motivated innovations pioneered in Scandinavia beginning 50 years ago) have
demonstrated the viability of the “alternatives-to-flushing” approach to sanitation. A
number of devices have shown the ability to safely process human excreta through
physical dehydration or biological decomposition and to recover valuable nutrients in a
variety of environmental, social and cultural circumstances.
However, all of the various components of an appropriate sanitation system have not yet
been brought together to provide a full scale, sustainable service in an urban area. Such a
system would include an in-home, low-cost toilet for primary processing and temporary
storage of excreta. There are a number of types and models and adaptations of these. The
processes involved are generally composting of the wastes with urine flowing through the
feces and providing the necessary moisture for decomposition; and dehydration, perhaps
aided by having the urine diverted from the feces. (As urine is sterile, and generally
germ-free, and contains the lion’s share of the nutrients that are found in human excreta,
if it remained untainted by feces it immediately could be used as fertilize.) Next is the
centralized collection (without pipes) of the preliminarily treated excreta and, if
necessary, secondary processing of residuals. Finally there is the distribution of
end-products for beneficial use in urban gardens, agriculture, silvaculture or the recovery
of degraded lands. In this regard, the opportunity of increasing the fertility of degraded
land by soil conditioners (e.g. humus from composting toilets or from the elements found
in untainted urine) could have interesting implications if widely practiced. It has been
shown that increased fertility increases the soils capacity to act as a massive carbon sink;
and the more carbon it holds, the less is available to form global warming gases.
The purpose of this project is to develop and implement, on a pilot scale, the
technological, behavioral, educational and institutional components comprising
an AproSanidad (a program that encompasses the entire process of establishing
an ecologically appropriate sanitation system with a service sector) in a target
coastal community in the area of St. Patricio-Melaque. In turn, this project would
enhance the likelihood of implementation of a project on a much larger scale in a
more densely urban setting in other Pacific coastal cities.
The project will be planned and implemented utilizing a participatory process
involving local expertise and the target community, especially its women. Instead
of the imposition of “education from on high,” each member of the project team
and the community (from key stakeholders to the citizen on the street) will bring
important information to the design and implementation planning sessions. The
project will offer knowledge of the best in composting and dehydrating/urine
diversion toilet technology as developed and manufactured by a number of
companies (including the Mexican NGO Centro de Innovación en Tecnología,
A.C. [CITA]) and will encourage modification in order to construct the best-
suited device for AproSanidad Melaque. This process of local population
consideration/adaptation/acceptance (which equates with “ownership”) of
different options available to deal with a recognized problem, as guaranteed by
the project design, will allow this system to perform at its most efficient level.
The pilot project will cover a two-year period and take place in
phases. Note, however, that there is a discussion after Phase II that
describes how the project could be continued thereafter -- the pilot
will provide leverage to take AproSanidad to a much greater scale.
Phase I –
A. Community involvement. The project will establish relationships with local
community individuals, institutions and governmental entities in the
communities of the Bahia. It will use its local organizer to hold meetings and
workshops to develop all aspects of the AproSanidad (i.e. informational
awareness program, the design of the device, location and servicing protocols,
the collection and end product distribution systems, etc.) suitable for
implementation in the selected target community. Part of this will be insertion of
the element of eventual community control of a self-sufficient appropriate
B. Information dissemination. As a result of the community involvement where all
participants contribute vital information, developed information will be
C. Governmental approvals. Simultaneously with above, discussions with local,
municipal and state officials will be carried out, as necessary, to assure that all
regulatory requirements are satisfied.
D. Final design. Following from the above, prototype designs for the device, the
collection system, final treatment (if needed) and end product use will be
E. Begin setup. After all permits are in hand, system hardware and infrastructure
will be assembled, devices purchased or constructed, and organizational and
operational aspects, including residence selection and monitoring protocols, will
F. Laguna del Tule. Participate in discussions on restoration of Laguna del Tule.
G. Time. Phase I will extend for approximately 12 months.
Phase II –
A. Full implementation. AproSanidad Melaque will be implemented in
approximately 20 households in the selected community. Labor for
construction and set up will be local, as will be the service providers that will
be trained by the project. This phase will include the construction of
small-scale, community operated, secondary processing/storage/dissemination
B. Monitoring and testing. The ability of the system to prevent pathogen
transmission during use and maintenance of the household device, as well as
during the collection, secondary processing and reuse of end-products will be
monitored with the assistance of a contracted laboratory. Pathogen destruction
and nutrient values of the end-product will be analyzed. End-products would be
applied to test plots to measure agricultural benefits and their ability to build
soil carbon levels, a benefit in limiting global warming.
C. Laguna del Tule. Participate in discussions on restoration; and use testing
facilities to monitor its waters and those of the bay during fall rainy season.
Begin a small project, if permissions can be obtained, to apply end products on
a test plot of wasteland created when part of the lagoon was filled a number of
years ago to monitor any return to vitality of the soil.
D. Commercial enterprise. During this phase, an investigation of local
manufacture of devices and specialized collection equipment will be initiated.
The commercial value of end products also would be explored, and limited trial
E. Pilot system completed. An AproSanidad with all details and initially trialed
and suitably modified will be available for upsizing
F. Time. Phase II will conclude 24 months from startup.
Leveraging the project: Anticipated next phase resulting from a successful pilot.
A. Upsizing. By the end of year two and the beginning of year three, the project
will have perfected the AproSanidad and reached the point where the number
of residences served could increase to several hundred or more.
B. Community control. At this point in time the built-in capacity for the local
community to assume management of the system could be ramped up as the
numbers of residences served increases. The system is designed to become
self-sustaining through a combination of small service fees and income
generated by the sale of end products.
C. Commercial enterprise. This phase could also see a positive determination of
the potential for local enterprises to manufacture toilet devices on a large scale;
and to offer to provide collection and processing services to other locales. It
could also finalize plans to market valuable end products.
D. Completed, full-scale system. By the end of this phase an AproSanidad should
be available to any interested citizen in San Patricio Melaque. It will help
guarantee that the Tule Lagoon will never again receive human excreta.
E. Time and additional funding. This phase will extend two to three years after
successful conclusion of the pilot project and would be funded by other
A. Informational. These local communities have experienced very little technology
transfer before and therefore may find acceptance of new ideas difficult.
Furthermore, the public perception often is that the Western model of flush toilets
is the most modern and therefore the most desirable, even if the waste is
discharged untreated a short distance away, or into once pristine water bodies.
Finally, the communities have a significant illiteracy rate, which makes the
communication and education process more challenging.
B. Technical/cultural. While the technical aspects of alternative, ecologically wise
waste treatment devices has been proven over many centuries (in some traditional
cultures), and modern devices were pioneered half a century ago (in the
Scandinavian countries), each situation is a unique combination of cultural norms
and habits to which the project must be sensitive. For instance, there is no
tradition in this part of Mexico of using human excreta as fertilizer (as there is in
Viet Nam and China, for instance).
C. Organizational. Critical to success will be the role of the local operator/organizer,
who will mobilize the full community’s involvement in all stages of design and
implementation. And as this project will begin with a number of different devices
for in-home collection and preliminary treatment, there will be organizational and
technical problems to be solved; and there will also be logistical ones involved in
setting up the collection, final treatment (if required) and end product use stages.
D. Governmental. There may be resistance from the municipal, state and federal
authorities as to accepting alternative technologies for treatment and reuse of
excreta. As in the U.S., there almost certainly will be some ambiguity in
municipal health and building codes that will need to be overcome by working in
collaboration with local officials. Furthermore, the 15 million pesos investment on
the brand new treatment plant will push the municipality to seek to invest in
sewage pipelines to begin hook up (and thus charge) the more than 50% of
residents that will not be served when the plant comes on line. This need to
recoup the investment will make the municipal government more likely to argue
for traditional solutions to waste disposal on the Bahia de Navidad.
E. Economic and social pressure over the need to act on the environmental problems
associated with Laguna del Tule could force temporary solutions, which might be
at odds with the project’s more long-term time frame.
8. Liaison with Other Projects and Initiatives.
This proposal will occur within the context of a larger planning effort involving the entire
13,000 permanent community members of Bahia de Navidad who interact with and are
dependent on the coast, the bay, the lagoon and the estuary. The intention of this fifteen-
year project, organized by the University of Guadalajara Melaque campus, is to develop
and implement an integrated, sustainable coastal zone management model in order to
protect these important shore-related ecosystems and to carefully plan for the growth of
this area in light of increasing tourism. Already underway, this effort will include:
development of mechanisms to protect the estuary from degradation from filling and
pollution, and establish a regulatory master plan for tourist development; protect the bay
from pollution and overfishing; and assure that construction on or near the ocean beaches,
or adjacent to the estuary and fresh water lagoon, is done responsibly. All of this, to be
accomplished with and through active public participation, is an important device in
attempting to ensure the continuity of this unique community. Getting all the
stakeholders, and this is defined here as all Bahia-related citizens, to plan together will
create a sense of ownership over what happens to their common future.
9. Project Stakeholders, Partnerships, and Collaborators.
The organizational framework will be established and coordinated by AproSanidad
Melaque principle investigators, Eugene Bricklemyer and Alfredo Ortega, and will
include at least the following stakeholders and project collaborators:
State of Jalisco Rural Development Secretariat, Rodrigo Diez de Sollano,
Ayuntamiento Constitucional de Cihuatlan, Jalisco (Municipalito), Jesús Morett,
Consejo Consultivo de Bahía de Navidad, Jesús Morett, Presidente
Consejo de Promoción y Fomento Turístico de Costa Alegre, Humberto
Delegados Municipales de:
Barra de Navidad, Sergio Sanchez
Jaluco, Francisco Ramírez Ortega
San Patricio, Alejandro Lazaren
Delegación de Turismo de Barra de Navidad, Alfonso Espinoza, Delegado
Local Federations, Associations and Societies
Asociacion de Hoteleros y Desarrolladores de Costa Alegre,
Ricardo Zavala, President
Asociacion de Hoteles de la Costa Sur de Jalisco, Adrian Santana, Presidente
Asociacion de Restauranteros de Barra de Navidad, Pedro Morett, Presidente
Federacion de Sociedades Cooperativas de Produccion Pesquera del Estado de
Jalisco, Daniel Kosonoy, Secretario
Comisariado Ejidal de Barra de Navidad, Alejandro Trujillo, Secretario
Comisariado Ejidal de Villa Obregón
Comisariado Ejidal de San Patricio
Hotel Villa Azul, Owner, Rene Lopez Ruiz
Project Partners and Collaborators
Universities, NGOs and Private Companies:
Universidad de Guadalajara Centro, Universitario de la Costa Sur, Departamento
de Estudios para el Desarrollo Sustenable de Zonas Costeras: M.C. Alfredo
Tomas Ortega Ojeda, Jefe del Departamento, Melaque, Jalisco, Mexico
El Colegio de Mexico, LEAD-Mexico Program: M.C. Cuauhtémoc León,
Academic Director, Mexico City, Mexico.
University of British Columbia, School of Law, Natural Resource Law Program:
Dr. Richard Kyle Paisley, Director, Vancouver Canada.
University of La Rochelle, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology: Dr. Hans
J. Hartmann, Senior Lecturer and International Programs Coordinator
Aquatic Resources Conservation Group: Eugene C. Bricklemyer, Jr., President,
Seattle and Port Townsend, Washington
Center for Clean Development: Dave Rapaport, Director, Waterbury, Vermont
Centro de Innovacion en Technologia, A. C.: Cesar Anorve, Director,
Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico)
Amigos de Melaque A.C., San Patricio-Melaque)
Stone Environmental, Inc.: Michael Pottinger, PE, Vice President, Montpelier,
Local AproSanidad Melaque community organizer, To Be Selected.
10. Assessment Mechanisms to Determine Success.
A. Are the toilets in place and do they work?
B. Are they being used?
C. Are people clamoring to get on the list to become a participant?
D. Is the collection program working?
E. Are the treated excreta end products being used as soil amendments?
F. Are local entrepreneurs interested in or actually involved in the commercial
enterprise aspects, from manufacture of the devices to paying for and reselling the
G. Have testing/monitoring results shown pathogen free and nutrient-valuable end
H. Were there an insignificant number of problems in all aspect, from in home use
(functioning, cleanliness, odor) to collection (promptness, cleanliness, odor,
transport ease and efficiency) to any needed final treatment (amount on site
manageable, cleanliness, odor) to final application of end-product as soil
I. Were there no reported illnesses related to the system?
J. Is there unanimous, or nearly unanimous, consensus among stakeholders and
collaborators that the AproSanidad is ready for up scaling to serve a larger
11. Estimated Costs
Total Budget: US$ 224,000
A. Coordinators and Consultants
B. Local operator
C. Device hardware: 20 composting/desiccating toilets, some with tanks
for urine diversion (~5)
D. Transportation/collection/storage/final treatment/dissemination
E. Local labor
F. Operational expenses for two years
G. Informational and educational materials -- paper hard copy and videos
H. Travel expenses
I. Office expenses
J. Miscellaneous and unanticipated expenses