IPFN, January 2008
The 2008 scientific and technical activities of “Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear” (IPFN) will be
mainly focussed in the following projects:
   Tokamak ISTTOK;
   Participation in the collective use of the JET facilities by the EFDA Associates;
   Participation in the ASDEX Upgrade programme;
   Participation in the TJ-II programme;
   Participation in the TCV programme;
   Collaboration with the Association EURATOM/CEA;
   Participation in the COMPASS-D programme;
   Other studies on theory and modelling;
   Other activities on data acquisition and real-time plasma control;
   Participation in the Fusion Technology Programme;
   Participation in the ITER construction;
   Keep-in-touch activities on inertial fusion energy;
   Other Fusion-related activities;
   Plasma Simulation and Theory;
   High Intensity Photonics and Laser-Plasma Experiments;
   Fundamental Physics in Space;
   Mathematical Physics and Quantum Computing;
   Environmental Engineering Plasma Laboratory;
   Nonequilibrium Kinetics and Simulations of Plasmas and Afterglow Plasmas;
   Modelling of Plasma Sources;
   Plasma and Electromagnetic Propulsion;
   Quantum Plasmas,
carried out in the frame of the Contract of Associated Laboratory signed between “Fundação para a
Ciência e a Tecnologia” (FCT) and “Instituto Superior Técnico” (IST). The first thirteen projects are
also funded by the Contract of Association between the European Atomic Energy Community
(EURATOM) and IST as well as by the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA).
       The above mentioned projects are performed by staff (70 Ph.D. Researchers and 75
Researchers, Engineers and Fellows) with Ph.D belonging to six Scientific Groups:
o   Experimental Physics on Magnetic Confinement (Head: Horácio Fernandes);
o   Microwave Diagnostics for Fusion Plasmas (Head: Maria Emília Manso);
o    Theory and Modelling of Magnetic Confinement Fusion Plasmas (Head: Fernando Serra);
o    Control and Data Acquisition (Head: Jorge Sousa);
o    Lasers and Plasmas (Head: Luis Oliveira e Silva);
o    Electronics and Gas Discharges (Head: Carlos Matos Ferreira).

This project will include activities in the areas of study of fusion relevant materials, diagnostics, control
and data acquisition, and plasma physics studies.

2.1. Study of fusion relevant materials
The following tasks are planned: (i) Installation of a multi-jet gallium system to generate a 1 cm width
gallium limiter aiming at a more efficient heat removal3; (ii) Modelling of the interaction of a gallium
jet with the plasma SOL (for application in FTU); (iii) Installation, testing and calibration of a multi-
channel infra-red sensor to measure the increase of gallium surface temperature due to the interaction
with the ISTTOK plasma; (iv) Improvement of the consolidation of W-nD nanocomposided to
achieve higher densities; and (v) Detailed characterization of W-nD samples exposed to the plasma
using electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques (also at FTU).

2.2. Diagnostics
The following activities are foreseen: (i) Upgrade of the time of flight energy analyser of the heavy ion
beam diagnostic by shielding the channeltrons from the plasma radiation, which will allow an increase
of the signal-to-noise ratio; (ii) Further studies on the ISTTOK plasma emissivity reconstruction using
analytical and neural networks methods with the aim of performing fast tomographic reconstructions
methods; (iii) Measurement of the fluctuations from the HIBD and tomography diagnostics; and (iv)
Test of a heat flux sensitive detector for power deposition studies on ISTTOK.

2.3. Control and data acquisition
The following tasks are envisaged: (i) Development of a new version of the SDAS software to allow
dynamic sample rates, according to the specifications agreed with CIEMAT; (ii) Installation of a 64
input channels control system (based on the ATCA standard) on the plasma position controller to

  Heads: Carlos Varandas, Horácio Fernandes and Carlos Silva.
  Work carried out by “Grupo de Física Experimental de Plasmas por Confinamento Magnético” and “Grupo de Controlo e Aquisição de
Dados”: Carlos Varandas, Horácio Fernandes, Carlos Silva, Igor Nedzelskij, Rui Coelho, M. Peres Alonso, Rui Gomes, Humberto
Figueiredo, António Soares, João Figueiredo, Pedro Carvalho, André Neto, Daniel Valcárcel, Ivo Carvalho, André Duarte, Bruno Santos,
Tiago Pereira, João Santos, Alexandra Gouveia, Tiago Marques.
  Work in collaboration with the Institute of Physics of the University of Latvia.

provide better than 16-bit ENOB digitalization resolution and to allow the integration of the
tomography with the MHD current profile reconstructions, for a better plasma control during AC
inversion experiments; (iii) Migration of the plasma position node of the new ATCA system that will
allow the test of new concepts for the COMPASS control and data acquisition system; (iv)
Development of a new unit, based on a low-cost dsPIC microcontroller, to allow real-time density
measurements and (vi) Development of a module for low-speed event propagation that will allow the
communication between the fast timing/synchronization/event system and the slow control systems
such as the vacuum and gas injection controllers.

2.4. Plasma physics studies
The following activities will be carried out: (i) Operation of the tokamak ISTTOK in multi-cycle
alternating plasma current regime; (ii) Detailed study of the plasma parameters during the current
reversal. In particular, study how profiles evolve during the plasma current reversal; (iii) Edge physics
studies (recycling and power exhaust) in long-time AC discharges in ISTTOK; (iv) Detailed
characterization of the space-time structure of the edge fluctuation using Langmuir probe arrays; (v)
study of long-distance toroidal correlation using data from different electrical probes and the HIBD;
and (vi) Cross-correlation analysis of MHD fluctuations using ISTTOK diagnostics, with special
emphasises on magnetic probe, tomography and heavy ion beam probe data.; (vii) Data analysis from
the Joint Experiment 2007 and participation in JE-20084.

This project will include activities in the areas of operation, scientific exploitation and performance

3.1. Operation
Two members of our staff will have JOC positions. One will work in the LIDAR and Microwave
Diagnostics Group, being his activity mainly focussed on: (i) Operation and maintenance of the KG3,

  Work in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (Viena).
  Work in the frame of the European Fusion Development Agreement.
  Head: Fernando Serra.
  Work carried out by “Grupo de Física Experimental de Plasmas por Confinamento Magnético”, “Grupo de Diagnósticos de Micro-
Ondas para Plasmas de Fusão”, Grupo de Teoria e Modelização de Plasmas de Fusão por Confinamento Magnético” and Grupo de
Controlo e Aquisição de Dados”: M. Emília Manso. Fernando Serra, João P. Bizarro, Horácio Fernandes, Bernardo Carvalho, Bruno
Gonçalves, Fernando Nabais, Carlos Silva, Igor Nedzelskij, Vladislav Plyusnin, Luís Cupido, Isabel Nunes, Rui Coelho, Jorge Sousa,

KG8b reflectometry diagnostics; (ii) Data validation and analysis of the reflectometry systems and
KK3 (ECE) diagnostic; and (iii) Collaboration in the upgrade of the X-mode swept frequency KG8a
reflectometer. The other will work in the Plasma Operation Team, in the planning of the experiments
and as Session Leader during the campaigns.

3.2. Scientific exploitation
IST will proceed with an important contribution to the JET scientific exploitation mainly through an
active participation in the experimental campaigns and in analysis/interpretation and modelling of the
experimental data, with particular emphasis in the integration of transport and MHD codes.

3.2.1. Experimental campaigns and related physics studies
IST plans the participation of twenty members of its staff in the experimental campaigns C20/C25 (four
of them as session leaders). The work will be mainly focussed on developments and physics studies
related with Task Forces M, S1, T, D, E and H.
   The following main activities are foreseen in Task Force M: (i) Participation in experiments to
compare fast ion losses from core Alfven eigenmodes in several operating scenarios; (ii) Study of
sawtooth characterization at high ICRH power; (iii) Further studies of the sawteeth instability, and
analysis of the interplay between different instabilities:sawteeth, fushbones and TAEs interacting with
the same population of fast ions; (iv) Study of the changes in the fast particles distribution caused by
fishbone bursts and TAEs, using the Lost Alfa Particles diagnostics; identification of the unperturbed
orbits of lost ions (i.e. the orbits before they interact with MHD modes) using numerical codes; (v)
Study of ICRH-accelerated He3 redistribution by Fishbones; use of numerical codes (MISHKA and
CASTOR-K) to identify the particles in resonance with these modes; (vi) Study of ICHR-driven fast
ion effects on sawteeth when the heating resonance is located near the q = 1 surface; (vii) Participation
in the Momentum Braking experiments, to perform a parametric scan on plasma collisionality (both the
collisional and collisionless regimes) where the neoclassical toroidal viscous force is shown to play a
role in the toroidal momentum braking; (viii) Neoclassical tearing mode studies, to probe the intrinsic
stabilizing/destabilizing character of the ion polarisation current on the stability of NTMs; (ix)
Development of          improved mode analysis and correlation analysis techniques, namely using the
Wigner distribution for MHD mode analysis, and for correlation/coherence calculations with possible
application to correlation reflectometry.

Filomena Nave, António Batista, Jorge Ferreira, Paula Belo, Rita Pereira, Diogo Alves, Luís Meneses, João Figueiredo, André Neto,
António Fonseca, Francisco Salzedas, António Figueiredo, Santiago Cortes, Rui Igreja.

   Concerning Task Force S1 the following tasks are foreseen: (i) Participation in experiments on
pedestal identity and * scan (with AUG and DIII-D), with emphasis on the study of pedestal
characterization and MHD stability at low collisionalities at different values of the toroidal field ripple;
(ii) Participation in experiments on Hot-ion H-modes and in the use of the Pellet Pacing technique for
control of ELMs in these high temperature pedestal plasmas.
   Concerning Task Force T the following tasks will be performed: (i) Preparation of integrated
transport and MHD tools for modelling of experiments planned to study plasmas with high
temperatures pedestals, using MISHKA and CASTOR for the edge MHD stability and JETTO for
transport modelling; (ii) Continuation of modelling of Quiescent H-mode (QHM)discharges, to
understand the differences between the edge stability in JET and the QHMs in ASDEX Upgrade and
DIII-D; (iii) Simulations of impurity transport using the JETTO/SANCO transport model (with
Bohm/GyroBohm transport) , including the effects of different heating schemes, for comparison with
experimental results and theoretical models like the one included in GLF23 ; (iv) Benchmark of the
results from Argon using JETTO/SANCO code with and without the bundled states from the new
ADAS database in order to use this reference for the Tungsten; (v) Continuation of transport modelling
for ITER scenarios, including the effects of the Helium ash accumulation in the plasma core on the
fusion performance; (vi) Modelling of ITB behaviour in advanced tokamak scenarios using JETTO
and trying to match the results with GLF23; and (vii) Support to the analysis and transport modelling
of experiments on momentum transport using perturbative methods;
The following activities in Task Force D are planned: (i) Test/Calibration of the X-mode broadband
system (KG8a) with hardware improvements aiming to minimize spurious effects on the density
profiles and development of data interface for the new data acquisition system; experiments with the
diagnostic aiming to obtain edge density profiles in a wide range of plasma scenarios. (ii) Possible
operation (by the end 2008) of the advanced system (KG10) in fast sweeping time (10 s); (iii)
Scientific exploitation of data from KG8a and KG8b (correlation) systems:characterization of Alfvén
cascades, namely radial localization of different types of AE modes; study of fishbone and bi-
directional TAEs based on turbulence analysis; analysis of the correlation length of turbulence and
turbulence changes due to ITB formation; investigation of density fluctuations at both high- and low-
magnetic field sides;study of MHD and turbulence signatures of transient phenomena namely ELM and
sawtooth instability; (iv) MSE data processing : Installation in the real-time Network (if approved) of
the novel real-time APD amplitude estimation technique, based on Kalman filtering; and integration of

the real-time magnetic pitch angle estimates in a real-time plasma equilibrium reconstruction code;(v)
collaboration in the exploitation of the high resolution Thomson scattering diagnostic.
   Regarding Task Force E it is envisaged: (i) Detailed characterization of the SOL in ICRH heated
plasmas with the reciprocating probe head; (ii) Analysis of the data from the boundary plasma to
characterize the properties of the intermittent events and to obtain quantitative information on the size,
duration and velocity associated with plasma structures for different confinement regimes.
Finally, in Task Force H it is expected the participation in experiments on intrinsic rotation in Ohmic
and ICRF heated plasmas without and with enhanced toroidal field ripple.

3.2.2 Integration of transport and MHD codes
The following activities are foreseen: (i) Further improvement of the edge stability physics in JETTO,
in particular to continue to benchmark the stability criteria for peeling modes against MISHKA and
CASTOR stability, for a wide range of edge pressure and current density profiles; (ii) Preparation of a
series of standard tests for sawtooth and ELM models in JETTO, which should be run before an official
release of JAMS upgrade;(iii) Adapting the graphical interface codes EPROC_GUI and JAMS-UTC in
order to use the new ADAS database for the super charge states of Tungsten and Argon.

3.3. Enhancements
Concerning the JET-EP project, the Association EURATOM/IST will be in charge of the following
 Enhancement of the sweeping reflectometer (KG8a);
 Data acquisition for the neutron camera diagnostics enhancements (DNGG);
 Data acquisition for the gamma ray spectroscopy (GRS);
 ATCA hardware platform for the Plasma Control Upgrade project (PCU-VS);
 Development of a Digital Link for the Vertical Stabilization controller (PCU2-VS);
 Real-Time Measurement & Control Diagnostics & Infrastructure,
and will maintain an engineer in the Diagnostics Engineering Team.

3.3.1. Enhancement of the sweeping reflectometer
The following milestones are foreseen (in collaboration with CEA, the detailed splitting of tasks
depending on JET decision): enhancement of the KG8a reflectometer into a multi band system (KG10);
this advanced swept system will include three frequency bands and X mode operation in fast sweeping
time (10 s), compatible with long transmission lines;

3.3.2. Data acquisition for the neutron camera diagnostics and for the gamma ray spectroscopy
The following tasks will be performed: (i) implementation of an improved prototype of a 8-channel
transient recorder board with 400 MSPS, 14-bit resolution; (ii) Implementation of the codes for the
acquisition boards (final FPGA code and FireSignal drivers); (iii) Production of the required boards,
assembling and test of the a 24-channel@250MSPS system for DNGG and 4-channels@800MSPS for
GRS; (iv) Implementation and simulation of the real-time pulse analysis algorithms for PHA, PSD,
pile-up detection/recover/rejection and for PMT correction, as well as its comparison with previous
systems; (v) Preliminary tests of the real-time pulse analysis algorithms on the DNGG diagnostic; (vi)
Tests of the full data acquisition system in conjunction with the PMT on an accelerator facility in
Romenia; (vii) Implementation and test of the FireSignal to CODAS interface and (viii) commissioning
at JET.
   IST also provides the Project Leader for the data acquisition for the neutron camera diagnostics

3.3.3. ATCA hardware platform for the Plasma Control Upgrade
The following tasks will be performed: (i) Production and test of the complete control system hardware
which will provide 192 ADC channels sampling at 2 MSPS@18-bit (1 kV galvanic isolation), 24
channel DAC and 48 digital I/O channels; (ii) Development of the FPGA codes including the PCIe
interface, ADC interface, DDR2 memory controller and decimation IIR filters; (iii) Development and
test of codes for the host computer PCIe device drivers, hardware/data acquisition test program and
multiprocessor support; (iv) Implementation and test (latency and jitter measurements with heavy-load
processing, reliability of operation over several-day without rebooting and ability of remote diagnose of
software faults) of an RTAI-LINUX real-time operating system platform including the multi-platform
libraries BaseLib2 and MARTe; (v) Test system performance including noise, cross-talk and linearity,
through the comparison with the existing KC1/KC1D/KC1E              systems and (vi) Integration with
CODAS and commissioning at JET.

3.3.4. Digital Link for the Vertical Stabilization controller
The following tasks will be performed: (i) Specification of the Digital Link hardware and
communications protocol (T3P); (ii) Implementation of a test-bench unit and (iii) implementation of a
specification/manufacturing package for the Vertical Stabilization power supply designers.

3.3.5. Real-Time Measurement & Control Diagnostics & Infrastructure
This project will continue to expand the JET real-time diagnostics and control capabilities required to
fulfill the programmed objectives of JET in the proposed FP7 phase of operation dedicated to the
preparation of ITER. The following subtasks are still being developed: (i) Improvement of the real-time
measurement capabilities of FIR Interferometry (KG1); (ii) Improvement of the real-time measurement
capabilities of some of the Neutron Diagnostics (Total Neutron rate KN1, Hard X-ray rate KH1, 14
MeV neutron rate-KM7); (iii) Expansion of the real-time JET Network Infrastructure to accommodate
the extra real-time Diagnostics required for FP7 either by exploiting recent network technologies or by
extending existing ATM, including the development and implementation of a Real-Time Network
    IST will also provide the Project Leader.

This project has two research lines: microwave reflectometry; plasma physics studies on transport,
MHD and turbulence.

4.1 Microwave reflectometry
This research line includes activities on hardware developments, data processing and modelling,
diagnostic developments, control and data acquisition.
    The following activities related with hardware developments will be carried out: (i) Design of a new
FM-CW broadband system at the Low Field Side with a bi-static configuration including: support to the
implementation by IPP of the new system at a location away from the EC beam to allow operation during ECRH
experiments; design and prototype multi-access bi-static antennas, waveguide transmission lines and systems for
profile reflectometers; development of advanced electronics for emission and detection sections of the
diagnostic; (ii) study of an FM-CW system with inboard launch (HFS) to access the plasma core with lower
cutoff – X mode.
    On data processing for density profile analysis it is planned: (i) testing of the algorithms developed
for the automatic analysis of edge pedestal characteristics and integration of resulting data in the level-
1 AUG shotfile; (ii) integration of burst mode profiles providing data with higher quality in level-2

  Work in collaboration with the Association EURATOM/IPP (Garching).
  Heads: Maria Emília Manso and Fernando Serra.
   Work carried out by “Grupo de Diagnósticos de Micro-Ondas para Plasmas de Fusão, “Grupo de Teoria e Modelização de Plasmas por
Confinamento Magnético” and Grupo de Controlo e Aquisição de Dados”: M. Emília Manso, Fernando Serra, Vladislav Plyusnin, Luís
Cupido, Filomena Nave, Paulo Varela, Jorge Santos, António Silva, Filipe Silva, Álvaro Combo, Luís Meneses, Sílvia Graça, Tiago

density profiles on a routine basis; (iii) assessment/development of a robust ELM detection technique
in order to prevent data measured during ELMS from corrupting the reflectometry burst mode profiles;
(iv) investigation of sensitivity of density profiles to initialization and study of density profile behavior
in edge gradient and SOL regions; (v) study of a new density profile inversion technique using
algorithms based on Bayesian analysis (depending on the availability of the expert Dr. Rainer Fisher,
from IPP).
   On modelling activities it is foreseen: (i) application of advanced data analysis techniques for
turbulence and transport studies        (with IPP   Garching and CIEMAT, Madrid); (ii) modelling of
reflectometer profile behavior using 2- dimensional full wave codes (with IPP, Garching and CEA,
Cadarache) (iii) investigation of broadband reflectometer behavior and profile reconstruction accuracy using 2D
full-wave simulation code (iv) participation in the European Studies in Reflectometry Simulation aiming at the
following main objective: development of an European code to support the interpretation of reflectometry
experiments; (v) to perform simulation studies dedicated to reflectometry experiments, namely in ASDEX
Upgrade in the frame of cluster of associations.
   The following activities on diagnostic developments, for real time plasma position, are foreseen: (i)
Implementation of a real-time density profile measurement for plasma boundary position control and assess
accuracy; (ii) Development of a real time acquisition and processing system. The first complete hardware
prototype is expected to be ready for the debugging phase by the end of 2008. The development of the
integration software on the ASDEX-Upgrade real-time network is expected to start by the end of 2008 or
beginning 2009.
   Concerning control and data acquisition it is foreseen: (i) production and commissioning of a new
PCI data acquisition system able to increase significantly the density profile measuring capability of the
FM-CW system, which comprises (ii) test and production of the final version of the Transient Recorder
for the new PCI data acquisition system; (iii) development of the software for the Transient recorder
including the DSP control software, host application interface, MDSPlus Data Tree, Phython Graphical
User Interface; (iv) development of a prototype Waveform Generator including the control firmware;
(v) development of the software for the PCI Waveform Generator; (vi) development of the interface to
the Asdex-Upgrade data acquisition system.

4.2. Plasma physics studies
The following activities are envisaged: (i) analysis of the turbulence and MHD behaviour asymmetries
at HFS/LFS, when the plasma configurations change from lower single null / double null / upper single
null; (ii) study of density turbulence and fast particle/MHD modes, including correlation and rotation

using profile and fluctuation reflectometers; (iii) Investigation of HFS/LFS density profile changes
during pellet induced ELM experiments and their impact on confinement; (iv) investigation of H-mode
edge pedestal variations, i.e. width and location using W-band profile reflectometry; (v) Study of local
Alfven Wave resonances using reflectometry to estimate ion mass and q-profile; (vi) further assessment
of the minimization of the necessary additional heating power (NBI,ICRH) as part of the development
of a mitigation/amelioration scheme for disruptions in a high-Z environment; (vii) further studies on the
effect of the poloidal position of a limiter on edge turbulence, and comparison of simulations (with
single/ double limiter configurations) with reflectometry data (from SN/DN experiments); (viii)
improvement of the gyrofluid turbulence code GEM, with self-consistent equilibrium and including an
analytical model for the X-point in a global geometry with the edge/SOL combination; (ix). systematic
study on the competition between drift wave and interchange turbulence on tokamak geometry,
including the presence of an X-point near the computational domain.

This project has four research lines: microwave reflectometry, heavy ion beam diagnostic, edge
physics, and control and data acquisition.

5.1. Microwave reflectometry
The following activities will be performed: (i) Physics studies from TJ-II density profile (AM reflectometer)
and density fluctuation measurements (hopping systems developed by CFN), namely on the formation of a high
shear density layer and its impact on confinement; (ii) Enlargement of the data base of the parameters that
control the radial electric field in TJ-II .

5.2. Heavy ion beam diagnostic
The following tasks are foreseen (i) Test of different techniques to improvement of the signal-to-noise
ratio; and (ii) Participation on the scientific exploitation of the diagnostic.

5.3. Edge physics
The following activities are planned: (i) Detailed study of the edge fluctuations with and without
electrode biasing experiments for different magnetic configurations in order to evaluate the importance

   Work in collaboration with the Association EURATOM/CIEMAT (Madrid).
   Heads: Carlos Varandas and Maria Emília Manso.
   Work carried out by “Grupo de Física Experimental de Plasmas por Confinamento Magnético”, Grupo de Diagnósticos de Micro-
Ondas para Plasmas de Fusão” and “Grupo de Controlo e Aquisição de Dados”: Carlos Varandas, M. Emília Manso, Bruno Gonçalves,
Carlos Silva, Igor Nedzelskij, Luís Cupido, Luís Meneses, João Figueiredo.

of the latter on plasma confinement; (ii) Installation and optimization of a Retarding Field Energy
Analyser probe to measure the edge ion temperature.

5.4. Control and data acquisition
The following activities are foreseen: (i) Upgrade of the SDAS access layer developed at IST to allow
dynamic sample rates according to the specifications agreed with CIEMAT; (ii) Installation of the
PAPI authorization procedures developed at CIEMAT in the IST remote data access system; and (iii)
Assessment of the cost efficiency of a file system to support long data channels.

This project has two research lines: X-ray diagnostics and real-time plasma control.

6.1. X-ray diagnostics
The following activities are envisaged: (i) Scientific exploitation of the vertical PHA diagnostic, aiming
at: studying the effect of ECRH on the electron energy distribution function; impurity detection as a
function of triangularity, elongation and collisionality; resolve the discrepancy between ECE and TS at
high Te and characterization of the plasma turbulence by measuring the Te fluctuations.
(ii) Conversion of the vertical PHA into a real-time diagnostic tool based on a DSP, to provide real-
time temporal resolved measurements and continuous feedback control of the diagnostic operation: test
of the diaphragm real time control algorithm which controls the X-ray count rate and pileup;
optimization of the histogram construction algorithm, of the histograms resolution and of the X-ray
count rate; (iii) Finalization of the development, implementation , testing (with tokamak radiation) and
commissioning of the rotating crystal spectrometer.

6.2. Real-time plasma control
The following activities will be made: (i) Finalization of the phase II of the project to assist the start of
regular operation of the system controlling the TCV plasma:software maintenance of the system in case
of bugs or malfunction detection;development of software tools to run in the VME host CPU in order
to implement and test the new control algorithms ; (ii) Analysis of the performance of the system with
the architecture of the DSPs module and the DATAMOVER BUS (on regular operation) , to assess

   Work in collaboration with the Association EURATOM/Suisse Confederation (Lausanne).
   Head: Carlos Varandas.
   Work carried out by “Grupo de Física Experimental de Plasmas por Confinamento Magnético” and Grupo de Controlo e Aquisição de
Dados”: Carlos Varandas, A. Pinto Rodrigues, Teresa Madeira, Nuno Cruz, Pedro Amorim, Bruno Santos.

new requirements and          possibilities of upgrade: research and analysis of other plasma controller
implementations also based in parallel processing architectures; exploration of newer system hardware
technologies such as the ATCA bus, PCI Express and FPGA's, which allow faster control cycles and
higher number of channels.

This collaboration will include four research lines: studies on lower hybrid current drive, microwave
reflectometry, analysis of plasma rotation and studies on plasma turbulence.

7.1. Studies on lower hybrid current drive
Testing of the multijunctions and ITER-like antenna will be conducted in Cadarache, and
electromagnetic coupling codes will be improved with more realistic geometry.

7.2. Microwave reflectometry19
IST plans to continue the work in the area of developments of numerical codes to simulate
reflectometry experiments, namely to carry on simulation studies using narrow band Kolmogorov and
Gaussian spectra with identical correlation lengths and comparison with a forward scattering theoretical model.

7.3. Analysis of plasma rotation
In view of the fact that intrinsic rotation could play an important role for resistive wall mode
stabilisation in ITER, it is of prime interest to shed more light on the relevant physics. Experiments in
the 2008 Tore Supra campaigns could contribute to a better characterisation and understanding of
intrinsic plasma rotation, through a combination of further experimental work and advances in the
theoretical understanding. This new collaboration is foreseen to contribute to the following tasks
(within the Tore Supra Rotation Working Group): (i) setting up of a database for toroidal rotation in
Tore Supra from CXRS and Doppler reflectometry data, in various plasma regimes (ohmic, ICRH,
LHCD); (ii) investigation of the effect of magnetic field ripple on plasma rotation; (iii)investigation of
the fast ion loss effect on plasma rotation versus the ion thermal loss effect (H and/or He3-minority
experiments are planned, varying minority concentration); (iv) to compare and contrast experimental
results with existing theories for plasma rotation in ohmic, LH and ICRH plasmas.

 Head: João Pedro Bizarro.
  Work carried out by “Grupo de Física Experimental de Plasmas por Confinamento Magnético”, “Grupo de Diagnósticos de Micro-
Ondas para Plasmas de Fusão” e “Grupo de Teoria e Modelização de Plasmas por Confinamento Magnético”: João Pedro Bizarro, M.
Emília Manso, Rui Vilela Mendes, Jorge Belo, Filipe Silva, Fernanda Cipriano.

7.4. Studies on plasma turbulence20
This collaboration will be focussed on: (i) Generalization of the work about the exact gyrokinetics
reduction, with the purpose of providing a full characterization of the variables in the reduced space
and the incorporation of the fields generated by the particles; (ii) Continuation of the construction of
stochastic representations in configuration space for the Maxwell-Vlasov and gyrokinetics equations;
(iii) Characterization of the spectrum of fluctuations in gyrokinetic and scrape-off layer equations; (iv)
Application of non-commutative tomography techniques to the analysis of reflectometry data collected
in Tore Supra.

8.1. Introduction
The Portuguese participation in the COMPASS project will have in 2008 three research lines regarding
vacuum and gas injection systems, microwave reflectometry, and control and data acquisition.

8.2. Vacuum and gas injection systems
The control system will be redesigned and assembled in Portugal to be integrated in the first semester
of 2008 in Compass. Assessment and support from the Portuguese association is envisaged through a
mission with technicians to supervise and collaborate in the vacuum and injection system assembly.

8.3. Microwave reflectometry
A diagnostic will be developed for the study of the edge pedestal physics. The main features of the
system will be: multiply mode operation (fast broadband sweeping, frequency hopes and fixed
frequency), integrated fast DAQ and automatic data processing on a shot to shot basis. For this
development, preferential support will be asked for the construction and installation of the diagnostic at
     The following specific activities are foreseen: (i) selection of the millimetre wave components; (ii)
procurement of equipment and development of system electronics; (iii) support to the final design and

   Work in collaboration with the Poincaré University of Nancy.
   Work in collaboration with the Centre de Physique Théorique (CPT) (CNRS-Marseille) and Département de Recherche sur la Fusion
Contrôlée (DRFC) (Cadarache)
   Work in collaboration with the Association EURATOM/IPP.CR.
   Head: Carlos Varandas.
   Work carried out by “Grupo de Dignósticos de Micro-Ondas para Plasmas de Fusão” e “Grupo de Controlo e Aquisição de dados”:
Carlos Varandas, M. Emília Manso, Luís Cupido, António Silva, Luís Meneses, Horácio Fernandes, Bernardo Carvalho, Jorge Sousa,
António Batista, André Neto, Daniel Valcárcel, Ivo Carvalho, André Duarte, Bruno Santos, Tiago Pereira, Alexandra Gouveia, Tiago

construction of special equipment for the diagnostic (such as combiners/decombiners , lenses and

8.4. Control and Data acquisition
IST will participate in the final design and assembly of the COMPASS control and data acquisition
system and will develop the main hardware based on ATCA. Two ATCA data acquisition systems will
be installed, one with 192 galvanic isolated channels sampling at 2 MSPS@18-bit for the magnetics,
plasma control and real-time diagnostics, the other with up to 256 channels at 2 MSPS and up to 8
channels at 250 MSPS@12-bit for the general diagnostics. Each system will provide up to 8 processors
(40 GFLOPS) and 8 FPGAs (640 GMACS) for real-time data processing. A gigabit fiber optic timing
and event transport network will also be installed for the synchronization of all real-time control and
acquisition processes running on the nodes of the distributed system. The operation control will be
performed through the FireSignal data acquisition software, an upgrade version of the actual one on
CASTOR, to be installed on a server machine (jointly with the experiment SQL database) and on all
the control and data acquisition nodes. The following concepts are expected to be implemented and
tested: (i) remote operation of the experiment; (ii) remote maintenance/upgrade of the control software
and re-programmable hardware; (iii) automatic/interactive installation and deployment of
instrumentation hardware; (iv) formal self-description of plant systems, including diagnostic systems,
using the XML set of technologies; (v) fast, real-time multivariable (MIMO) plasma controllers; (vi)
online data reduction as an option or in parallel to raw data storage on large memories; (vii)
reliability/availability of the control and data acquisition systems when operated for long periods or in
real-time and in the presence of radiation induced events on the electronics.

This project will have four research lines: studies on plasma momentum braking, studies on magnetic
reconnection, scenario modelling studies and studies on tokamak equilibria with current density

  Head: Fernando Serra.
  Work carried out by “Grupo de Teoria e Modelização de Plasmas de Fusão por Confinamento Magnético”: Fernando Serra, João P.
Bizarro, Fernando Nabais, Vladislav Plyusnin, Rui Coelho, Filomena Nave, Jorge Ferreira, Paula Belo, Paulo Rodrigues, Francisco

9.1. Studies on plasma momentum braking
It is foreseen further investigation of the toroidal plasma angular momentum braking using a numerical
code developed for toroidal plasmas, including plasma colisionality (application for the case of the
Error Field Correction Coils at JET);

9.2. Studies on magnetic reconnection
 It is planned to: (i) proceed with the numerical study of NTMs to investigate the non-linear regime
and test some feedback stabilization schemes using ECRH in rotating plasmas; (ii) cross check analysis
between the non-linear perturbed flux evolution and the predictions from the Rutherford equation for
the time evolution of the island width (work to be carried out within the ITM TF) .

9.3. Scenario modelling studies
It is envisaged to continue the effort on the modelling of current ramp up phase for ITER scenarios. To
support this task, the following actions are foreseen: (i) assessment of the efficiency of different current
drive methods; (ii) studies on how current profile generated by NB H&CD, ECCD, LHCD and
Bootstrap depend on plasma profiles.

9.4. Studies on tokamak equilibria with current density reversal
 It is planned to carry out further development of numerical codes to compute tokamak equilibria with
the Grad-Shafranov equation, including toroidal current reversal configurations, and preliminary
stability assessment of such equilibria.

The following activities will be performed: (i) extend the FireSignal control and data acquisition
platform with a software framework for the development of real-time control applications on FPGA-
based controllers, including code generation interfaces, code transport, real-time stream channels and
event management and debug/testing facilities; (ii) extend FireSignal to support live board insertion
including programs for management/setting/test of new boards;                          (iii) finish the development and

  Head: Jorge Sousa
  Work carried out by “Grupo de Controlo e Aquisição de dados”: Carlos Varandas, Horácio Fernandes, Bernardo Carvalho, Bruno
Gonçalves, Rui Coelho, Jorge Sousa, António Batista, Rita Pereira, Diogo Alves, Miguel Correia, Yury Tashchev, Paulo Ricardo, João
Fortunato, Ana Fernandes, Carlos Correia, António Figueiredo, João Weinholte.

production of a fast timing and event management board for the PCI bus (EPN-PCI) and (iv)
development of an ATCA digitizer board with 8-bit resolution (7.3 ENOB), 2 GSPS, 4 channels.

IPFN will participate in two Tasks of the Fusion Technology Programme, in the fields of Physics
Integration and Design Support & Procurement, besides the Tasks related to ITER construction
described in the next section.

11.1. Task TW6-TVR-WHMAN2 – Design of mechanical Sub-systems for the DTP2 Manipulator
The scope of the work for this task, to be concluded in 2008, is as follows: (i) To establish (together
with EFDA-CSU RH Group and the DTP2 Operational Team) the design requirements for the CMM
manipulator sliding table and gripper; (ii) to develop the detailed designs of the above sub-systems,
including assembly drawing, parts lists, detailed manufacturing drawings and design calculations.

11.2. Task TW6-TTFF-VP75-2 – DNB Cryopump Initial Design Study
The work for this task, to be concluded in 2008, is as follows: (i) Calculation of the heat loads using
codes such as Nastran, Patran and ESARAD, and comparison with the calculations using 3D Monte
Carlo simulation (delivered by FZK); (ii) full thermo mechanical analyses of the proposed pump
design; (iii) collaboration in the final report of DNB pump design, supporting analyses and 3D model

12.1. Introduction
Portugal would like to participate in the construction of the ITER tokamak by: (i) leading the European
teams in charge with the development of the plasma position reflectometer and the systems integration
in one tokamak port; (ii)            participating in the development of diagnostics, the control and data
acquisition system and real-time plasma control tools; (iii) developing models for the operation
scenarios; (iv) promoting the participation of new research units working in areas not presently covered
by the Association Euratom/IST like, for instance, materials, remote handling, system integration,

   Heads: Carlos Varandas and Bruno Gonçalves
   Work in collaboration with AST (Active Space Technologies).
   Head: Carlos Varandas
   Work carried out by “Grupo de Física Experimental de Plasmas por Confinamento Magnético”, “Grupo de Diagnósticos de Micro-
Ondas para Plasmas de Fusão” and “Grupo de Controlo e Aquisição de Dados”: Carlos Varandas, M. Emília Manso, Carlos Silva, Luís
Cupido, Paulo Varela, Jorge Sousa, Horácio Fernandes.

socio-economics and photonics; and (v) giving technical assistance to the participation of Portuguese
firms in tendering contracts.
      In 2008, the following activities are planned: (i) participation in three ITER-related tasks of the
Fusion Technology Programme in the areas of microwave reflectometry and LIDAR Thomson
scattering; (ii) development of a prototype of an advanced reflectometer; (iii) creation of a cluster of
research units and industries in the area of control and data acquisition; (iv) organization in Lisbon of a
meeting of the EU Fusion Associations interested in the development of the ITER control and data
acquisition system (CODAS); (v) discussion with the ITER Team of the CODAS conceptual design;
(vi) organization of a visit of representatives of the Portuguese industries to JET; (vii) technical and
administrative support to other research units that will want to participate in ITER.

12.2. Task TW5-TPDS-DIARFA-Reflectometry32
This task aims the experimental investigation with a mock-up developed by the RF Partner of the
potential use of rectangular waveguides for the HFS transmission lines for ITER reflectometry as well
as the agreement between the experimental results and numerical simulations. The work to be performed
under this task was frozen in 2007 due to problems of the RF partner to export the critical components of the
mock-up transmission line that should be tested at CFN. A proposal shall be presented by IST to develop
and test those critical components if the problems of RF partner cannot be solved.

12.3. Task TW6-TPDS-DIADES - Reflectometry
The following milestones are foreseen: (i) Preparation of the Draft Final Reports (due February 15) and
the Final Report (due April 30) with intensive iteration with F4E; (ii) Preparation of new Calls-for-
Interest for the R&D tasks identified as urgent in the Project Plans submitted to EFDA by the end of
2007, beginning of 2008. This R&D tasks are already part of the full development of the Plasma-
position reflectometry diagnostic for ITER and are integrated in the Project Plan for ITER Procurement
Package 1. It is expected that, at least, a contract for the optimization of the in-vessel transmission line
is awarded to the Cluster responsible for the ITER task TW6-TPDS-DIADES since it deals with
diagnostic components that are to be installed in-vessel (classified as urgent R&D tasks).

12.4. Task TW6-TPDS-DIADES – ITER PP11 Equatorial Visible/IR Wide Angle Viewing System
The following activities are foreseen: (i) Collaboration in the implementation of the fast camera trigger
system by adding to the trigger possibilities the access to the real time ATM network; (ii) Collaboration

     In collaboration with the Russian Federation.

on the CODAS integration of the wheel filter and in the commissioning of the timing unit (TDC); (ii)
Participation in the camera commissioning and scientific exploitation during the JET campaigns.

12.5. Task TW6-TPDS- DIADEV3-LIDAR33
IST will contribute to the project plan of the data acquisition CODAC interfacing and local control
systems for the ITER core-plasma LIDAR Thomson scattering diagnostic.

12.6. Quality Assurance Programme for ITER-relevant Activities34
Following the collaboration in Task TW6-TDS-QA1, for the support in the development of the QA
system for the ITER EU Domestic Agency and implementation of a Quality Assurance Programme in
the European Fusion Associations, it is planned to develop and implement a QA system in the
Portuguese Association giving priority to ITER-relevant activities.

12.7. Development of a prototype of an advanced reflectometer
The following milestones are foreseen: (i) final development of an advanced swept reflectometer
capable to cope with the long and complex transmission such as in JET and ITER. (ii) Development of
a protoptype for the generator section of the advanced coherent reflectometry system.

The main areas to be developed in 2008 will arise from three different types of activity: (i) coordination
activities, (ii) community development, and (iii) maintain a watching brief on inertial confinement civil
research activities

13.1. Coordination activities37
The coordination activities will focus some of the key areas for fast ignition: (i) Code development and
theory for fast ignition and IFE theory; (ii) Optimization and new material for high intensity photonics;
and (iii) Waveguides for plasma accelerators and intense radiation sources based on high harmonic

   Work under leadership of UKAEA.
   Work in collaboration with ISQ (“Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade”).
   Heads: José Tito Mendonça and Luís Oliveira Silva.
   Work to be carried out by “Grupo de Lasers e Plasmas”: Luis O. Silva, J. Tito Mendonça, Jonathan Davies, João Pedro Valente, João
Mendanha Dias, Marta Fajardo, Gonçalo Figueira, Tayyab Imran, Michaela Kozlova, Nelson Lopes, David Wittaker, Elsa Abreu,
Rodolfo Bendoyro, Luís Cardoso, Nuno Lemos, João Wemans, Jorge Berardo, Nicolas Cornet, Miguel Fernandes, Celso João, Hugo
Pires, and by by Luis O. Silva, Ricardo A. Fonseca, Fabio Peano, Gianfranco Sorasio, Michael Marti, Paulo Abreu, Massimiliano Fiore,
Frederico Fiúza, Luís Gargaté, Joana Martins, Samuel Martins, Nitin Shukla, Jorve Vieira, Bruno Brandão and Luís Caroço.
   In collaboration with UKAEA, CIEMAT, IPPLM, IPP, CR, CEA

13.2. Community Development
With the goal of fostering further connections and the exchange of scientists between all the groups
involved in IFE in Europe, and to strengthen the global FE programme in Europe, with an emphasis on
IFE, we will organize one European fast ignition workshop in Lisbon (February/March 2009) and we
will participate in the International Fast Ignitor Workshop to be held in conjunction with the Plasma
Physics Division Meeting of the European Physical Society, in July 2008.

13.3. Maintain a watching brief on inertial confinement civil research activties
With the goal of informing the wider fusion community of developments in IFE, we will maintain close
connections with the groups working in this topic in Europe, in the US and in Japan, with a special
emphasis on the advances of fast ignition of fusion targets. This will allow us not only to identify
possible areas of cooperation between the IFE and the MFE communities but also to contribute to the
annual report to the CCE-FU on the IFE keep-in-touch activity.

14.1. Collaboration with Brazil39,40
This project includes activities on microwave reflectometry, Thomson scattering and data acquisition
for the TCA/BR41 tokamak: (i) The reflectometer will be equipped with ultra-fast O-mode wave
operation as well as fixed frequency capability. The following stages are foreseen until end of 2008:
assembling of the system at IST; testing of the system blocks and testing of the complete system in fast
sweeping operation, with a metallic mirror for calibration and assessment of system accuracy; (ii) The
construction (using some previous ISTTOK hardware), testing and commissioning of the Thomson
Scattering diagnostic is planned, with operation by end 2008; and (iii) The TCA/BR tokamak has been
proposed as the host of the next Joint Experiment in 2008 through IAEA support. After the recent
experience acquired by IST in ruling and coordinating the last JE, followed by the request of Brasil in
installing FireSignal and adopt FusionTalk as the remote participating tool, it is envisaged an
involvement of IST in the upgrade of TCA/BR data acquisition and control facilities. Moreover, IST
will develop dedicated data acquisition systems for the reflectometry system and the Thomson
scattering diagnostic.

   Head: Carlos Varandas
   Head: Carlos Varandas
   Work carried out by “Grupo de Física Experimental de Plasmas por Confinamento Magnético”, “Grupo de Diagnósticos de Micro-
Ondas para Plasmas de Fusão” e “Grupo de Controlo e Aquisição de Dados”: M. Emília Manso, António Silva, M. Peres Alonso, Carlos
Silva, Humberto Figueiredo.
   TCA/Br is a tokamak of the “Laboratório de Plasmas do Instituto de Física da Universidade de S. Paulo”.

14.2. Collaboration with IPP-Greifswald42,43
The following activities are foreseen on diagnostics, data acquisition and control for W7-X: (i) Further
development of neural networks for the tomography system; (ii) Development of a test-bed ATCA
prototype for data acquisition on W7-X, to show the feasibility of real-time processing for the
tomography and the magnetic diagnostics; and (iii) Development of solutions for data sampling and
real-time control of the diagnostics, integrating the trigger and timing system of W7-X.

14.3. Collaboration with the Association EURATOM/ENEA (Frascati)44,45
This collaboration will include work related with the study of fusion relevant materials. The following
activities are foreseen: (i) Modeling of the interaction of a gallium jet in FTU SOL: calculation of the
break-up-length , nozzle size and jet flow velocity required for a suitable application in FTU
experiment; estimation of the expected jet surface temperature increase and of the amount of gallium
released to the plasma due to evaporation and sputtering; (ii) Design of a Liquid Metal Loop
experimental setup suitable for installation in FTU, based on the previous study; and (iii) Study of the
interaction of the plasma with samples of copper-carbon and tungsten-carbon nanocomposites.

14.4. Collaboration with the Association EURATOM/HAS46,47
It is foreseen to start in 2008 a collaboration in the following fields: (i) Tomographic methods
developed by EURATOM/HAS to evaluate the ISTTOK bolometric measurements; (ii) Correlation
techniques between the bolometric and probe measurements; (iii) Spectroscopic measurements at
ISTTOK using a CMOS camera, (which is presently being developing by EURATOM/HAS); (iv)
Cooperation on the installation of the CMOS video camera system on COMPASS-D, with the
integration of an interface for events and timing distribution system.

14.5. Socio- Economic research48
The activities in 2008 will focus on the development, maintenance and quality assurance of the EFDA-
TIMES energy model. It is foreseen to carry out the analysis of the sustainability of the energy systems
at different scales, ranging from the buiding to the urban space regions, nations and continents.

   Head: Horácio Fernandes.
   Work carried out by “Grupo de Física Experimental de Plasmas por Confinamento Magnético” and Grupo de Controlo e Aquisição de
Dados”: Horácio Fernandes, Pedro Carvalho
   Head: Carlos Silva
   Work carried out by “Grupo de Física Experimental de Plasmas por Confinamento Magnético”: Horácio Fernandes, Rui Gomes,
Patrícia Carvalho
   Head: Horácio Fernandes.
   Work carried out by “Grupo de Física Experimental de Plasmas por Confinamento Magnético”: Horácio Fernandes, Pedro Carvalho.
   Head: Paulo Ferrão.

14.6. Participation in Education and Training Programmes 49
IST will: (i) Proceed with the collaboration with the Portuguese universities in graduation and post-
graduation programmes in Fusion Physics and Engineering; (ii) Coordinate an EFDA training
programme in microwave diagnostic engineering, involving three other Associates (CEA, CIEMAT
and IPP); (iii) Participate in the Ph. D. programme on Fusion Science and Engineering promoted by the
University of Padova, Instituto Superior Técnico and Maxmillian University of Munich; and (iv)
Expects a decision about a proposal presented on data acquisition and plasma control (for a call of the
EFDA Training Programme in November 2007).

The work to be developed in 2008 will leverage on the close interplay between plasma theory and
simulations, sustained by the technical developments to sustain our high performance computing effort,
and covering several topics:

15.1. Electron and proton acceleration in high-intensity laser-plasma interactions
We will continue the study of the optimized conditions for particle acceleration (with the specific goal
of producing accelerator grade beams) in gas, clusters and solids including: (i) the optimization of the
target properties for well defined beam properties; (ii) the detailed study of the propagation dynamics
of intense radiation; and (iii) the assessment of the role of the channels in the blow-out regime.

15.2. New tunable radiation sources and control of light in nanomaterials: relativistic harmonic
generation, metamaterials, and photon acceleration
The possibilities to use nanostructured targets and/or clusters to optimize the production of relativistic
harmonics, identifying the conditions for phase matching, will be performed. The nonlinear properties
of specially prepared arrays of nanostructures (metamaterials) will be explored with particle-in-cell
(PIC) codes. Studies on the reflection of THz radiation out of ionization fronts, for direct comparison
with experiments, and the possibility to use the magnetic mode to generate radiation will also be

   Head: Carlos Varandas
   Work to be carried out in “Grupo de Lasers e Plasmas” (Luis O. Silva, Head) by Luis O. Silva, Ricardo A. Fonseca, Fabio Peano,
Gianfranco Sorasio, Michael Marti, Paulo Abreu, Massimiliano Fiore, Frderico Fiúza, Luís Gargaté, Joana Martins, Samuel Martins,
Nitin Shukla, Jorve Vieira, Bruno Brandão and Luís Caroço
   In collaboratoin with the University of Califórnia Los Angeles (USA), University of Southern Califórnia (USA), “Politécnico di
Torino” (Italy), Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK), “École Polytechnique,” (Palaiseua, France), Max Planck Institute for Quantum
Optics (Garching, Germany), and the University of Texas Austin (USA).

15.3. Relativistic astrophysics and space physics
We will continue the exploration of the formation process of relativistic shocks, and the connection of
this process with the onset of electromagnetic beam-plasma instabilities. Special emphasis will be
given to the steady state of the shock and particle acceleration in the shock front. Furthermore, particle
acceleration (via a modified surfatron model) will also be explored in coronal mass ejections driven
shocks (in the solar wind), resorting to hybrid simulations. This model will also be used to understand
the kinetic features of the formation of jets.

15.4. Massively parallel codes for plasma physics, visualization and optimization with novel
The infrastructure for plasma simulations will be further developed, through (i) the introduction of new
features in our massively parallel codes (fully relativistic PIC and hybrid) e.g. boundary conditions,
new physics, extended particle-based diagnostics, post-processing numerical and visualization tools (ii)
the deployment of our codes into the EGEE grid, (iii) the exploration of the techniques required to
optimize our algorithms resorting to computing with GPUs, (iv) the development of the infrastructure
to perform Lorentz boosted simulations in PIC codes, (v) the assessment of alternative
strategies/codes/resources to perform visualization of large date sets, and (vi) the upgrade of our
existing computer clusters in terms of memory and interconnect.

The main work to develop in 2008 will be devoted: (i) high intensity laser research, (ii) experiments on
relativistic mirrors for THz radiation; (iii) experiments on the formation/production of plasma channels
by field ionization and specially designed targets; (iv) technical developments of the plasma waveguide
facility; and (v) design of an FEL structure for plasma based accelerators.

16.1. High intensity laser research
The work on diode-pumped laser amplifiers will be extended by the experimental study of innovative
and efficient light coupling schemes, avoiding lenses and movable elements. A new, high energy diode
stack will be installed, allowing chirped-pulse amplification to the 200 mJ level in ytterbium-doped

   Work to be carried out in “Grupo de Lasers e Plasmas” (Luis O. Silva, Head) by João Mendanha Dias, Marta Fajardo, Gonçalo
Figueira, Tayyab Imran, Michaela Kozlova, Nelson Lopes, David Wittaker, Elsa Abreu, Rodolfo Bendoyro, Luís Cardoso, Nuno Lemos,
João Wemans, Jorge Berardo, Nicolas Cornet, Miguel Fernandes, Celso João, Hugo Pires
   In collaboration with Imperial College (UK), University of Strathclyde (UK), “École Polytechnique” (Palaiseu, France), PALS (Czech
Republic), Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK), and University of Califórnia Los Angeles (USA)

media. Such pulses will be frequency-doubled and used as a high spatial- and temporal-quality pump
for optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification of ultrabroadband picosecond pulses generated in
photonic crystal fibres, in an optically-synchronised setup.
A new, compact pulse compressor will be installed after the current regenerative amplifier, at the
millijoule level. This will allow the use of sub 200-fs pulses for a range of new experiments and tests,
including studies of pulse propagation, filamentation and spectral broadening inside bulk media and gas

16.2. Relativistic mirrors for THz radiation
This next step in this activity is the experimental demonstration of the relativistic mirror for THz
radiation by ionization fronts (the characterization of the front and the THz source have been concluded
in 2007) focusing on the final key aspect of the experiment i.e. the collision of the ionization front with
the THz pulse and the detection of the reflected radiation. This activity will be developed in close
collaboration and at the facilities of the group TOPS of the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow

16.3. Plasma channels by field ionization and plasma waveguides
The goal of the experimental activity on plasma channels by field ionization in 2008 is to use of fully
ionized light gases (He or H) in a set-up similar to the one where the concept was tested before, to
explore the channel length dependence with respect to the focusing beam profile, and to guide of a
second high power laser pulse.
The activity on plasma waveguides for intense lasers will continue the development and test of devices
and high-voltage technology to produce plasma targets adequate for laser-plasma accelerators. The
goals are to reduce the plasma channel diameter, to increase the channel length, and to improve the
plasma quality and reproducibility. These devices will be used with the L2I laser system at maximum
power in order to produce relativistic electron bunches using plasma channels. The main goals of these
experiments will be the development of an electron beam with quality for applications, test the plasma
channels and electron beam diagnostics.

16.4. Upgrade of the plasma waveguide test facility to high-power
The test facility will be upgraded such that high-power beams can be focused and propagated though
the plasma channels at high-intensity. This upgrade includes vacuum laser beam delivery and focusing,
increased mechanical stability, active pointing correction, and interface with diagnostics for laser,
plasma and electron bunch.
16.5. Free-Electron-Laser for Laser-Plasma Accelerators
A new research program on Free-Electron-Lasers (FEL) will be initiated. The goal of this program is
the development of a new FEL technology adequate for using with compact laser-plasma electron
accelerators. In 2008 we will design a new FEL compact structure to be built and tested during 2009.

In 2008 we aim to continue our research on problems related with the following research topics on
fundamental physics in space:

17.1. Pioneer spacecraft anomalous acceleration
After the submission of two proposals in the context of the Cosmic Vision 2015 - 2025 call for
missions of ESA last summer, we aim to focus our attention on the problem of constructing a realistic
thermal model of the Pioneer spacecraft. We hope to realistically estimate the contribution of thermal
effects to the anomalous acceleration. The Knowledge acquired in this research can also bring
important insights on whether, for instance, the Cassini spacecraft is also affected by an anomalous
acceleration due to thermal effects.

17.2. Alternative gravity models
We aim to continue our research on alternative models of gravity, with particular emphasis on their
astrophysical implications. Our studies on the effect of these models to the stellar stability can be
extended, for instance, to compact astrophysical objects.

17.3. Dark energy and dark matter
We intend to further investigate unified models of dark energy and dark matter, with special emphasis
on their observational implications. These studies include cluster dynamics and interactions with
neutrinos and the Higgs sector. The latter is a particularly relevant line of research given that the Higgs
sector will be very soon available for experimental scrutiny by the LHC at CERN.

17.4. Putative violations of fundamental symmetries of nature
We aim to continue investigating the role of fundamental symmetries such as Lorentz invariance, CPT-
symmetry and the Equivalence Principle in the context of higher dimensional brane-bulk models as

  Work to be carried out in “Grupo de Lasers e Plasmas” (Luís O. Silva, Head) by Orfeu Bertolami, Tiago Barreiro, Carla Carvalho,
Jorge Páramos, Catarina Bastos

well as to study potential observational implications. We will also continue investigating models with
noncommutative phase space.

The work to be carried out in 2008 will also cover several topics of mathematical physics and quantum

18.1. Macroscopic noise-free dynamic equations for the nonlinear three-wave interaction
Projection operator techniques are used in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics to derive macroscopic
transport equations from a microscopic models. A noise term is presente in the macroscopic equations
due to the information lost in the process of projection. With the goal of deriving noise free
macroscopic evolution equations, we are going to apply the techniques developed in the context of
Quantum Computing [1] to the the three-wave nonlinear interaction, a paradigmatic problem of
nonlinear optics and plasma turbulence.

18.2. Integrability and Exact Solutions
The research on the questions of integrability and construction of exact solutions will be centered in
some of the special solutions of of nonlinear wave equations, solitons, some of which with applications
in Plasma Physics.

18.3. Cardinality minimization of a quantum automaton
In order to understand computation in a quantum context, it might be useful to introduce as many
concepts as possible from the classical computation theory to the quantum case. One of these basic
concepts concerns the functioning of finite quantum automata (QA). Using our new model of the QA,
and assuming it is already working with the minimum number of qubits, we will derive a set of
conditions that the unitary evolution operators should obey in order to minimize the cardinality of its
state set.

  Work to be carried out in “Grupo de Lasers e Plasmas” (Luis O. Silva, Head) by Ana M. Martins (18.1 and 18.3) and Filipe Romeiras

19.1. Decontamination of biological agents and of hazardous gases by microwave induced plasma
Microwave generated plasma torches at atmospheric pressure using air and water as working media
will be studied and applied for environmental issues to achieve “green” decontamination processes.
The novel plasma source developed in our laboratory will be applied to “kill” bacteria and their spores
as well as abatement of air pollutants (SO2, VOCs, etc.). This work will incorporate experimental and
theoretical investigations. Namely, infrared, visible and UV spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry will
be applied using the available facilities developed in our laboratory. “Hot” oxygen atoms as main
precursors of the decontamination process will be searched for. Complex kinetic models and numerical
codes, which include a detailed description of the elementary processes in air and water plasmas, will
be used as a tool to optimising the decontamination processes as regards the production of reactive
species (O, N, and H atoms, O3, and other radicals) and maximizing the produced UV and VUV
radiation. In order to ensure further international connections and knowledge exchange, the
Environmental Engineering Plasma Laboratory (EEPL) will organize a special session on “Plasmas for
Environmental Issues” in the framework of the International Workshop and Summer School on Plasma
Physics (Kiten, Bulgaria). Results will also be presented at the ESCAMPIG 2008 (Granada, Spain) and
the GEC 2008 (Dallas, Texas, USA).

19.2. Extraordinary phenomena in hydrogen plasmas 58
Experiments will be performed on surface wave sustained microwave plasmas containing hydrogen in
order to reproduce the extraordinary plasma behaviour previously observed by different research
groups. Investigation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra (9 – 50 nm) emitted by helium-hydrogen
and water vapour plasmas sustained by surface wave discharges operating at microwave frequencies
(2.45 GHz) will be carried out. Novel spectral lines in the shortest wavelength range (9 – 30 nm)
emitted by helium-hydrogen plasmas will be searched for. The existence of line intensity inversion of
the Lyman and Balmer series, which indicates an inversion of population of atomic hydrogen, will
experimentally be investigated in low-pressure water vapour plasmas. Further work on Balmer line
broadening in the microwave discharge will be carried out in order to explain the observed increase of
the kinetic hydrogen temperature with the principal quantum number of the emitting state. The effect of

   Work to be carried out in “Grupo de Electrónica e Descargas em Gases” (C.M. Ferreira, Head), C.M. Ferreira, F.M. Dias, E. Tatarova,
E. Felizardo, V. Guerra, J. Henriques, and M. Pinheiro.
   Work to be carried out in collaboration with the Lebedev Physical Institute (Moscow, Russia), Sofia University (Sofia, Bulgaria) and
Cordoba University (Cordoba, Spain).
   Work to be carried out in collaboration with the Eindhoven University of Technology (Eindhoven, The Netherlands).

selective transfer of energy to the hydrogen atoms, when hydrogen is admixed to helium or oxygen,
will be further investigated. A numerical code for the simulation of the detected spectra, including fine-
structure effects, will be further improved.

19.3. Advanced Plasma Diagnostics
19.3.1. Coaxial TALIF59
In order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, TALIF diagnostics have been carried out keeping
perpendicular directions between the optical path of the incoming excitation and that of the
fluorescence to be detected. Yet, the above procedure cannot be applied to experimental arrangements
having one single optical port as is the case of our low-pressure, surface wave driven discharge. As a
result, we shall have to develop a new optical arrangement to apply TALIF techniques in our on-going
research on atomic detection in the framework of the EEPL.

19.3.2. Numerical processing of Langmuir probe data60
Electrical probes are powerful diagnostic tools but the data obtained from probes are often useless due
to the lack of appropriate numerical processing. Typical examples arise when time-resolved
measurements, though required, are not achievable due to the technical impossibility to get acceptable
trigger signals. The above situation is not limited to the obvious case of magnetised plasmas because
non-coherent fluctuations also appear at frequencies as low as 50 Hz whenever data acquisition relies
on a PC with a non-real time operating system.

20.1. Kinetic study and simulation of discharges and post-discharges in molecular gas mixtures
A self-consistent model for Ar-O2 discharges and their afterglows will be built. The model will
describe the most important excited states of Ar, O2 and O, the ion chemistry, as well as radical
formation. The aim of this investigation is to gain a deeper understanding of the elementary processes
governing Ar-O2 discharges. Since some plasma sterilization reactors use the active species surviving
the afterglow of Ar-O2 discharges, the most direct purpose is to provide a tool to optimise these

   Work to be carried out by F.M. Dias and E. Tatarova.
   Work to be carried out by F.M. Dias in collaboration with the Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, and the Institute of Electronics,
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria).
   Work to be carried out in “Grupo de Electrónica e Descargas em Gases” (C.M. Ferreira, Head), by J. Loureiro, V. Guerra, K. Kutasi,
C.D. Pintassilgo, P.A. Sá, and M.L. da Silva.

20.2. Modelling of N2-O2 and Ar-O2 afterglow plasmas for plasma sterilization62
Modelling of a large afterglow reactor chamber, placed downstream a flowing discharge used for
plasma sterilization, will be pursued in N2-O2 and initiated in Ar-O2. The density distributions of O(3P)
atoms and NO(A) and NO(B) molecules responsible for the emission of the NO and NO bands will be
determined in an N2-O2 post-discharge for different discharge input parameters and reactor
configurations. Special attention will be paid to NO(A), since there exists some evidence that it plays a
role in the sterilization process, comparable to that of NO(B) previously studied. In an Ar-O2 post-
discharge system, both VUV and UV radiation are experimentally detected from 1P1 and 3P1 resonant
levels and from excited NO* molecules, the latter due to the presence of N2 impurities. In fact, the Ar-
O2-N2 system needs to be studied for this purpose. The evolution of Ar* and NO* densities will be
investigated in the post-discharge reactor using the initial concentrations obtained from the collisional-
radiative model for the Ar-O2 discharge referred to in 20.1.

20.3. Modelling of N2-CH4 discharges and afterglow plasmas for planetary atmospheric studies
and surface treatments
A numerical simulation of N2-CH4 discharges and post-discharges will be conducted for studying
Titan’s atmosphere. The concentrations of the most populated species from methane dissociation, such
as hydrocarbons and the most abundant nitriles, will be obtained and compared with measurements
conducted in the Voyager and Cassini spacecrafts. Moreover, the conditions for the formation of the
thick N2-CH4 haze observed in Titan will also be evaluated by modelling. The studies of nitrogen
discharges and post-discharges with methane and other hydrocarbon additions will also be conducted
for nitrocarburizing treatments63.

20.4. Kinetic and aerothermodynamic studies of high-speed planetary entries in N2 and CO2
The study of non-equilibrium nitrogen kinetics for extremely high temperatures occurring in hyperbolic
entries in Earth’s atmosphere will be pursued by considering the dissociation-recombination balance
and the rotational effects. The physical-chemical processes encountered behind atmospheric entry
shockwaves occur under extremely non-equilibrium conditions, in which translational temperatures as
high as 100,000 K may be reached immediately behind the shockwave. Such challenging conditions
require the development of adequate state-to-state models based on accurate databases of V-V and V-T

  Work to be carried out in collaboration with the Group of Plasma Physics (University of Montreal, Canada).

rate coefficients, from which the dissociation rates can be obtained. A computational fluid dynamic
validation of shock tube tests in a CO2 environment will also be carried out64. The aim of this work is
to investigate the thermochemistry of high enthalpy CO2 flows to support pertinent design for a capsule
taking into account the various phenomena occurring during a Martian atmospheric entry.

20.5. Simulation studies of surface atomic recombination
A dynamical Monte Carlo method to study heterogeneous recombination will be developed. The
kinetic scheme comprises physisorption, thermal desorption from physisorption sites, chemisorption,
Eley-Rideal recombination, surface diffusion of physisorbed atoms and Langmuir-Hinshelwood
recombination. The effect of collisions between physisorbed atoms, often neglected in recombination
studies, will be now investigated. The results will be compared with experimental data and with the
calculations from a mean-field model previously developed, which does not take into account these

This project will focus on the modelling of different plasma sources used in various applications
(mainly, for materials processing and environmental control). The goal is the development of
sophisticated simulation tools describing the operation of these sources, in view of their optimisation.
The scientific output of this research activity will be presented at ESCAMPIG 2008, (Granada, Spain),
PSE 2008 (Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany), and GEC 2008 (Dallas, Texas, USA).

21.1. Microwave-driven plasma reactor operated by an axial injection torch66
We will continue the study of a microwave-driven (2.45 GHz) plasma reactor (cylindrical chamber
55mm in radius and 150mm in height) operated by an Axial Injection Torch 67, used for the destruction
of industrial sub-products (VOC’s and BEXT aromatic hydrocarbons). In 2008, the characterization of
this device will focus on the development of a hydrodynamic model for the gas-plasma flowing system
(including its thermal description) and on a discharge model for the atmospheric helium plasma
produced by the AIT.

   Work to be carried out in collaboration with LSGS (Nancy, France).
   Work to be carried out in collaboration with LSGS (Nancy, France).
   Work to be carried out in “Grupo de Electrónica e Descargas em Gases” (C.M. Ferreira, Head), by L.L. Alves, R. Álvarez, L. Marques,
C. Pintassilgo, J. Gregório, and J.S. Sousa.
   Work to be carried out in collaboration with the Physics Department (University of Cordoba, Spain).
   AIT, Spanish patents P200201328 and P200302980.

21.2. Micro-plasma reactors68
The team will continue the study of atmospheric pressure micro-plasmas created by electrical
discharges in very small geometries (100’s m), in view of developing portable devices for flue gas
treatment, biological decontamination or detection of heavy metal gaseous traces in ambient air or

21.2.1. Microwave Micro-plasma (MWMP)
We will characterize a recently built device that uses a microwave strip-line to produce high-density
(>1015 cm-3), low-power (~10 W) micro-plasmas in atmospheric air. The study of this device will
involve experimental diagnostics based on spatially-resolved emission spectroscopy measurements and
simulations using a fluid-type code. Operation tests will be made for a controlled atmosphere of argon
and/or nitrogen.

21.2.2. Micro-Cathode Sustained Discharge (MCSD)
We will continue the study of this device, which uses a micro-hollow cathode discharge, running in
oxygen and rare gas/oxygen mixtures at high power densities (up to 100 kW cm-3), to generate a
downstream plasma (MCSD) with intense fluxes of O2(a1) metastables and oxidative radicals (O, OH,
O3). The device will be characterized as a function of the discharge flux, current and composition,
using optical and mass spectroscopy diagnostics. Measurements will be compared with the simulation
results of a 0D kinetic code for oxygen and oxygen/argon mixtures.

21.3. Capacitively-coupled radio-frequency reactors69
We will continue the study of capacitively-coupled radio-frequency (CCRF) discharges in nitrogen and
nitrogen / methane mixtures (with concentrations up to 2%), aiming the simulation of Titan’s
atmosphere. We will adapt and update a modelling tool, by coupling a 0D kinetic code for N 2/CH4
plasmas with a 2D fluid-type code for the transport of charge particles. Simulation results will be
compared with both electrical and (optical and mass) spectroscopy diagnostics.

21.4. Surface-wave plasma reactors70
We will continue the study of low-pressure (< 1 Torr), microwave-driven (2.45GHz) discharges with
cylindrical geometry, produced by TM00 surface-waves, in view of optimising the functionalisation of

   Work to be carried out in collaboration with LPGP (Orsay, France) and Laplace (Toulouse, France).
   Work to be carried out in collaboration with the Service d’Aéronomie (Vérrières, France).
   Work to be carried out in collaboration with ICMSE (Sevilla, Spain).

materials (PET) using nitrogen plasmas. We will adapt and update a modelling tool, by coupling a 0D
kinetic code for N2 with a 1D fluid-type code for the transport of charged particles. Simulation results
will be compared with emission spectroscopy diagnostics.

In 2008 we aim to pursue and develop the research initiated a few years ago in the following directions:
plasma propulsion, electromagnetic propulsion, and the study of fundamental questions in plasma and
statistical physics.

22.1. Plasma propulsion
We will continue to refine the Code EHD that we developed to characterize the main physical
properties of a plasma accelerator device, the One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma
(OAUGDPTM). We will focus on the optimization of the code and will pursue the study of the
fundamental mechanisms responsible for the transfer of momentum to the neutral gas and the control of
the boundary layer.

22.2. Electromagnetic Propulsion
There is a growing interest in academia and industry in electromagnetic thrusters as a source of
propulsion. The quest for this type of thrusters may revolutionize space exploration and the energetic of
spacecrafts in the near-future. In order to solve a number of difficulties, we were led to propose a
modification in the set of Maxwell’s equations for electric systems in motion [Physics Essays, 20(2)
2008]. Our findings enabled us to suggest the electromagnetic origin of inertia and mass. Presently, our
work is directed to the development of what we now call “Fluidic Electrodynamics”, aiming at finding
useful analogies between the hydrodynamic and the electromagnetic fields. The results obtained so far
have deepened our knowledge about electromagnetic systems in a perspective of their use as sources of
propulsion. We will participate in the Space Technology International Forum (STAIF-2008), to be held
in February in Albuquerque, N.M., USA, organized by the University of New Mexico and the Institute
for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, in order to present and discuss our ideas with experts in this

     Work to be carried out in “Grupo de Electrónica e Descargas em Gases” (C.M. Ferreira, Head), by M.J. Pinheiro and A.A. Martins.

22.3. Study of fundamental questions in Plasma and Statistical Physics
The “circuital model” for anomalous diffusion in cold magnetized plasmas, which we have published
in J. Phys. D, will be extended to collisional regimes. We plan to carry out the study of
“electromagnetic turbulence” by exploring and extending the fundamental ideas of “Fluidic
Electrodynamics” and to formulate an information-theoretical approach to the determination of
Electron Energy Distribution Functions in glow discharges. We will apply the technique we created,
based on an information-theoretical formulation of physical problems, to the study of out-of-
equilibrium thermodynamic systems, with the aim at understanding the onset of a possible breakdown
of the action-equals-reaction force law (the canonical momentum is expected to be conserved,
according to Noether’s theorem).
In July 2008, we will conclude the project entitled “Electron kinetics in gas mixtures used for
Analytical Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy”72 (GRICES / ITCP financing).

23.1. Introduction
This new project includes experimental and theoretical activities that will be most probably integrated
in the National web called CALT (Cold Atoms Laboratory and Technology), involving researchers
from three Portuguese institutions (Universidade do Minho, Universidade de Aveiro, and IST). The IST
activities will involve IPFN and “Centro de Física das Interacções Fundamentais”76

23.2. Experimental work
23.2.1. Installation of a cold atoms laboratory.
Our experimental work will focus on the creation of a large magneto-optical trap, where a small cloud
of Rubidium will be cooled down and confined by an appropriate laser system and 6 pairs of magnetic
coils. After installation of the experiment, the system will operate with a neutral gas. The collective
modes of oscillation of the neutral atomic cloud will be studied using optical diagnostic and correlation
techniques. In a future stage, a second laser system will be used to ionized the gas and a very cold

  Work to be carried out in collaboration with the Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics (Hungary).
   Head: José Tito Mendonça.
   Work carried out by José Tito Mendonça, David Resendes, Ana Maria Martins, H. Terças and Sérgio Mota.
   Invited Researchers: P.K. Shukla (University of Bochum), R. Bingham (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory) and A. Serbeto
(Universidade do Rio de Janeiro).
   Official approval of this web by FCT is being currently prepared.

plasma will be formed. Expansion of the cold plasma will be controlled by an additional magnetic
confinement system. The estimate cost for this laboratory can be estimated as nearly equal 250 000
Euros for 2008, where 150 000 corresponding to the Rubidium trap, and an additional amount of 100
000 Euros will be necessary for the basic diagnostics.

23.2.2. Electromagnetic diagnostics.
The reflectometry/interferometry technique for flowing plasmas will be advanced. This will include
plasma interface design and further development of a compact broadband FMCW microwave
reflectometer/interferometer. Special attention will be paid to testing, data interpretation, and
comparison of microwave diagnostic measurements with theory/simulations. This is a continuation of
activity in collaboration with ESA.

23.3. Theoretical work
23.3.1. Quantum plasma theory.
We will focus on collective phenomena in ultra-cold gas. Both neutral and ionized atomic clouds will
be considered. We intend to establish the basic frequencies and wave mode structure of a cloud of
ultra-cold neutral atoms, confined in a magneto-optical trap. Hybrid oscillations, Tonks-Dattner
resonances and Mie oscillations in both neutral and ionized ultra-cold gas will be established, in the
classical and quantum regime. Landau damping and resonant neutral atom-density wave interactions
will also be considered. Finally, free expansion and ambipolar diffusion regimes for a cold ionized
cloud will be studied. This will be compared with similar collective processes in Bose Einstein

23.3.2. Quantum theoretical methods.
Projector operator techniques will be used to derive noise free macroscopic evolution equations. The
case of nonlinear three-wave interactions will be used as a paradigmatic problem for quantum plasma
turbulence. The same techniques will be applied to quantum computing problems. We will focus on
quantum automata, and derive conditions to minimize the cardinality of the corresponding state set.

23.3.3. Weakly ionized plasmas.
Research will focus on theory and experimentation of electromagnetic wave diagnostics for weakly
ionized plasma flows. Theory will develop models and simulation capability for diagnostics,
principally microwave FMCW reflectometry and interferometry, using both differential and integral
equation approaches. A macroscopic coupled hydrodynamic-electrodynamic approach will be pursued.
The hydrodynamic description is a limiting situation of a description using correlation functions. These
are of interest because the correlation functions determine both the system thermodynamic derivatives
and transport coefficients and are of direct experimental interest. They thus may lead to novel
diagnostic techniques.


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