Docstoc
EXCLUSIVE OFFER FOR DOCSTOC USERS
Try the all-new QuickBooks Online for FREE.  No credit card required.

Urban Transportation Infrastructure – Integrating Strategies for

Document Sample
Urban Transportation Infrastructure – Integrating Strategies for Powered By Docstoc
					   Urban Transportation Infrastructure
    – Integrating Strategies for Local
           and Global Issues
   THE FIRST ASIA-PACIFIC MAYORS’ FORUM ON ENVIRONMENTALLY
       SUSTAINABLE URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT
             21-23 April 2008, Ulsan City, Republic of Korea



                  Prof. Sudhakar YEDLA
                    University of Ulsan
                        South Korea

Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research (IGIDR), Mumbai, INDIA
Asia is “Growing” and Urbanizing

More than half of it lives in China and India                                            Population in the year 2005



Almost 2/3 of world population lives in Asia
                                                                                  7000
                                                                                  6000




                                                         Population in Millions
                                                                                  5000
                                                                                  4000
                                                                                  3000

                                                                                  2000

                                                                                  1000
                                                                                    0




                                                                                           al s
                                                                                                    C
                                                                                        i li di a




                                                                                       Vi si a
                                                                                      Sr and




                                                                                           la n
                                                                                                   ld




                                                                                       Th s ia



                                                                                        do a


                                                                                       P am


                                                                                                  sh
                                                                                                  ia




                                                                                      M in e




                                                                                      n g ta
                                                                                     In ank
                                                                                               PR
                                                                                                 or
                                                                                               As




                                                                                              de
                                                                                              ne
                                                                                              ay
                                                                                               In




                                                                                                n
                                                                                   Ba ak is
                                                                                                l
                                                                                             pp
                                                                                             W




                                                                                             ai




                                                                                             et
                                                                                            iL
                                                                                    Ph
                                       Currently 35% of Asian population is URBAN
                                       Expected to reach 50% by 2025



 Number of mega cities is growing fast in Asia
                                                               No. of



                                                     {
                                                               Mega

 Seven out of top 10 “BIG” cities are in Asia                  Cities                         1950           1975      2000
                                                               World                               1               5    17
                                                    Asia                                           0               2    11
 Population densities are 50% higher compared
 to world averages
                    Asia is growing and urbanizing rapidly
Asia is “Growing” and Urbanizing

Number and importance of cities is on rise

Their economic contribution is increasing

                                              Urbanization and Economic Output


Country      Malaysia    Thailand   Philippines   PRC    Indonesia   Sri Lanka                         Bangladesh           India      Vietnam           Pakistan
Urban
Share of
GDP (2004)          90         90            86     85          83                            83                       79      78                78               77




Contribution of service sector is on rise                                                                Global GDP and Share of different sectors

   which is essentially “urban centric”                                                           70                                                       66.3

                                                                                                  60                                              55.5

Increasing services sector results in

                                                                           Percent of world GDP
                                                                                                  50


   increased transport activity in urban                                                          40
                                                                                                                               38


   centers                                                                                        30
                                                                                                                                      20.8
                                                                                                  20

                                                                                                  10     6.5

Therefore, development of transportation
                                                                                                                3.9

                                                                                                  0

   infrastructure in urban areas is of high                                                              Agriculture            Industry              Services



   priority in Asian cities
                                                                                                                               1980   2000
Urban Transportation Infrastructure in Asia
                                            Transportation infrastructure development is
                                            prioritized in the Asian developing countries

                                                             Summary of infrastructure access indicators

                                                                      Road density              Road density
                                                                           (population)              (area)

                                               PRC                                        1.4                   189

                                               India                                      3.2                  1115
                                               Indonesia                                  1.7                   203

                                               Vietnam                                    1.2                   287
                                               Pakistan                                   1.8                   334

                                               Bangladesh                                 1.6                  1594



Urban Transportation infrastructure needs        Infrastructure investments and Maintenance in East Asia, 2006-2010
huge investments                               Sector          Investment (%GDP)     Maintenance (%GDP)        Total (%GDP)
                                               Electricity                     2.4                         1            3.4

Road transport is only second to electricity   Telecom                         0.5                     0.4              0.9
                                               Roads                           0.9                     0.4              1.3
                                               Rail                              0                     0.1              0.1
South Asia’s new investment needs for the      Water                           0.1                     0.2              0.3
period 2005-10 are 28.1 billion USD            Sanitation                      0.1                     0.2              0.3
@3.06% GDP                                     Total                             4                     2.3              6.3
Urban Transportation Infrastructure in Asia

 Car ownership is growing disproportionately

 In spite of increasing road length, cars/km road
 length is increasing which leads to severe
 congestion in urban centers of this region




                                             Cars per kilometer of road length                                                                  Cars per kilom eter of road length


                            14                                                                                             120

                            12                                                                                             100



                                                                                                  Number of cars/Km road
   Number of cars/Km road




                            10                                                      Bangladesh
                                                                                                                           80
                                                                                    China                                                                                            Japan
                             8
                                                                                    India                                  60                                                        Republic of Korea
                                                                                    Indonesia
                             6                                                                                                                                                       Thailand
                                                                                    Pakistan                               40
                             4                                                      Philippines
                                                                                                                           20
                             2

                                                                                                                            0
                             0
                                                                                                                             90

                                                                                                                                    92

                                                                                                                                           94

                                                                                                                                                   96

                                                                                                                                                   98

                                                                                                                                                              00

                                                                                                                                                                     02

                                                                                                                                                                            04
                              90


                                     92


                                            94


                                                   96


                                                          98


                                                                 00


                                                                        02


                                                                               04




                                                                                                                           19

                                                                                                                                  19

                                                                                                                                         19

                                                                                                                                                 19

                                                                                                                                                 19

                                                                                                                                                            20

                                                                                                                                                                   20

                                                                                                                                                                          20
                            19


                                   19


                                          19


                                                 19


                                                        19


                                                               20


                                                                      20


                                                                             20
Urban Transportation Infrastructure in Asia

 About 40% urban population in this region lives in
                                                                                                                       Share of Population Living in Slums


 Slums (540 million)                                                                                           Country                            Percentage
                                                                                                               Malaysia                                        2
                                                                                                               Thailand                                        2
                                                                                                               PRC                                           38
                                                                                                               Philippines                                   44
 In South Asia 31% population (2002) lives
                                                                                                               Sri Lanka                                     14
 at a daily income less than a dollar and                                                                      Indonesia                                     23
 77% at less than 2 US$                                                                                        India                                         56
                                                                                                               Vietnam                                       47
                                                                                                               Pakistan                                      74

                                        Estim ates of Regional Poverty in Asia
                                                                                                               Bangladesh                                    85

                            90
                                                                                          77.8
                            80
    Percentage Population




                            70
                            60
                            50
                            40
                                                                          40.7     41.6          Major modes of mobility for these sections
                                                    31.3
                            30
                            20   14.9     16.6                                                   of people are public transport and
                            10
                             0
                                                                                                 “walking”
                                         <1 US$                                  <2 US$

                                              % population w ith daily income (2002)

                                           East Asia and the Pacific   PRC   South Asia
Infrastructure Development – Is it Sustainable?
Typical characteristics are -

 Infrastructure is motor vehicle oriented (no footpaths, NMT facilities)

 Lack of long term urban planning

 Lack of integration with important domains such as land use pattern,
 urban transportation planning and city planning

 Car-centric infrastructure development results in in-sufficient and in-
 efficient public transport leaving “weaker sections” of the societies
 unattended of their mobility needs (issue of equity)

 Completely marginalized non-motorized modes of transportation in
 infrastructure development plans
Infrastructure Development – Is it Sustainable?
It is not sustainable for the reasons …

Infrastructure provides foundation for the present and future production and
consumption patterns

Infrastructure determines the energy consumption and environmental emissions
(including green house gases) from various sectors including transportation

It determines the degree of human vulnerability to various disasters

It effects directly by means of intensive resources use and indirectly by locking into
consumption patters of people for longer periods. Thus the choice is very important
for efficient delivery of services to people and also to have control over
environmental impacts

Asian developing countries with rapid economic growth patterns have been pooling
up for infrastructure development  with the present approach of infrastructure
development, Cities which are responsible for 75% energy use and GHG emissions
and housing 40% populations in slums can chock themselves into un-sustainable
patterns of energy consumption and pollution and GHG emissions
Infrastructure Development – Is it Sustainable?

Lack of integrated planning and investment in public transportation can result in
high social and economic costs




Transportation is an important sector for economic activity of cities and traffic
congestion costs influence competitiveness of urban areas  Many Asian cities
suffer from high traffic congestion costs, which can be as high as 10% of GDP



 Lack of attention to environmental and social aspects in infrastructure development
 reduces the profitability of investments in infrastructure as well as opportunities for
 contributing to economic growth and improving quality of life




      Poor planning and development of infrastructure can turn Asian cities into
                          “centers of un-sustainability”
Infrastructure Development – Is it Sustainable?
                                               Improved infrastructure along with other factors
 Environmental deterioration increases
                                               results in the control of environmental deterioration
 with economic development
                                                         Turning Point Income         Due to high intensity growth in Asia, the environmental
 Infrastructure develops with the                                                     deterioration could be faster resulting in higher peak
 ascending development path                                                           value before the necessary infrastructure is developed
                                                                                      to control environmental deterioration
                       Deterioration

                                       Environmental Decay                      Environmental Improvement




                                                                                                                Therefore, infrastructure
                                                                                                                development in Asian
                                                                                                                cities needs to be
                                                                                                                inclusive and quicker




                                                  Per capita Income

                   Typical Environment Kuznet’s Curve
 Infrastructure Development – How to make it
                 Sustainable?
Build Infrastructure for sustainable mobility rather than for mobility of cars
                                                       Promote NMT, Augment public
                                                       transport, and facilitate “walking”

Integrate transportation infrastructure development with city planning and changing
land use patterns
                                                    De-centralization, de-
                                                    congestion, urban forestry etc.

Ensure equity in investment
                                Increase the share and quality of public transport while
                                avoiding “free riding” by personal vehicle owners


Apply economic instruments to control the use of personal modes of transport
and also to raise funds to augmenting public transport infrastructure

       Significant funds can be                        Development of paid parking
       raised by charging all cars in                  lots; proper pricing of public
       Ulsan for their parking – they                  transport services, auctioning of
       free ride on public roads                       licenses, toll, congestion tax etc.
 Infrastructure Development – How to make it
                 Sustainable?

Integrate energy conservation and climate change concerns into infrastructure
planning and development
                                  Develop infrastructure in a way to control travel
                                  activity; promote efficient technologies; develop
                                  infrastructure for cleaner and climate friendly
                                  fuels and engine technologies; develop
                                  infrastructure to ensure proper O&M of vehicles

Consider long terms energy, environmental and climate implications while planning
for long term infrastructure investments in urban transportation

Inefficient Urban transportation infrastructure can lead to higher GHG emissions,
negative effects on economic growth; contribute significantly to air and noise
pollution; result in inefficient use of resources
                                                                 Sustainable mobility;
 Infrastructure to –                                             Contributions towards Eco-
  Promote NMT                                                    efficiency of cities;
  Control travel activity                                        Control of GHG emissions;
  Improve engine efficiency                                      Augmenting economic
  Improve fuel quality
                                Co-benefits approach
                                (Evaluate all ancillary and      growth
                                co-benefits)
                                                              With least incremental cost
  Infrastructure Development – An Integrated
                   Approach

Long term planning includes integrated infrastructure development for sustainable
mobility

Short term measures !!!
                             Assess co-benefits and conduct complete Benefit-Cost Analysis
                             of various retrofitting measures to the existing projects


                             Incorporate NMT specifics in the road construction (marking of
   Existing/ongoing urban    lanes for NMT; making intersections bicycle friendly; designing
   and transportation        and providing sufficient footpaths etc.
   infrastructure projects
                             Augment with NMT support elements such as bicycle parking at
                             public transport points; rent a bike schemes etc.



                             Can lead to substantial GHG benefits at a very low marginal
                             abatement cost (MAC) – which is an encouraging fact for global
                             carbon market


      Such short term measures were assessed in the case of Mumbai
  Infrastructure Development – An Integrated
                   Approach
                                                                       Efficient Mass Rapid Transit System         Primary Leg
 12 million population                          severe space
                                                                       with a well spread network of metro rail
 48% in slums                                   limitations
                                                                       and bus catering for the Primary Leg
                                higher per
           severe               capita income                                Walking, bus and other
           congestion                                       Mumbai           modes of transport cater for          Access and
                                                                             the Access Leg (avg. 2.3 km)          Regress Leg
                                   Poor quality
Predominant
                                   service
quasi-public
mode                                                                        Mumbai Urban
                                                                            Infrastructure
                             Bombay Urban             Mumbai Urban          Project (MUIP)
                             Transport                Development
                             Project (BUTP)           Project (MUDP)                              Mumbai Urban
                                                                                                  Transportation
                                                                                                  Project (MUTP)


           Percentage Share of Various Modes for Access
                         Legs in Mumbai
                   5%
             6%



                                            Walk                       With very insignificant share of daily trips coming from the
                                            Bicycle
                                                                       bicycles, the Access Leg (and to an extent Egress Leg)
                                            Two wheelers

30%
                                      45%
                                            Car                        provides a wide scope for furthering NMT usage in Mumbai
                                            Walk and Car
                                            Bus
                                            Walk and Bus and Walk
                                            Auto Rickshaw/Taxi
                                            Walk and Taxi and Walk
      2%
            1%
             2%         7%
                  2%
  Infrastructure Development – An Integrated
                   Approach
Incremental cost analysis of initiatives such as
       - making all roads NMT complaint
       - replace all 3-wheelers with NMT (catering for access leg)
       - providing bi-cycle stand at all rail stations
       - Capacity building measures

  .

Indicative estimation of cost benefits of initiatives to promote NMT viz. capacity building and
provision of infrastructure revealed that promotion of NMT has substantial benefits both in
the form of GHG and local emissions control


Initiative to provide basic infrastructure like converting the existing roads into NMT friendly
ones, bicycle stands at all rail stations and modernizing road intersections for NMT usage
was found to be costing in the range of US$ 15 to 136 million


Marginal Abatement cost was found to be in the range of US$ 2-7 per ton of carbon reduced
  Infrastructure Development – An Integrated
                   Approach
Both MUTP and MUIP considers only “moving vehicles”  promoting NMT by targeting Access
Leg and Egress Leg would make these infrastructure initiatives more sustainable

Providing separate (painted) bicycle lanes and bicycle parking places at all metro (rail) and
bus stations can be included with least marginal cost

Due to the fast moving nature of Mumbai and predominance of urban poor, inter-model
integration was found to be a better solution under which various policy combinations
covering different travel modes are clustered to develop a policy package

Inter-model integrated system needs to be assessed for their benefits (and Co-benefits) in
terms of
         - affordability of transport for low income urban groups (as % income
           spent);
         - reduction in congestion
         - energy saving
         - control of CO2 and other emissions


                      Global Environmental Facility (GEF) projects can be
                      encouraged as this would involve substantial GHG
                                         reductions
    Points to Make !!!

Re-orient UT infrastructure development for MOBILITY rather than for “MOTORS”


Integrated approach towards sustainable mobility


Apply Economic Instruments to control travel activity by personal vehicles and
also to generate financial resource to augment infrastructure development

Adopt “Co-benefits approach” to attract more international funding for UT
infrastructure development


Infrastructure development for Inter-model transport system may be considered for
long-term planning



Simple but effective measures to control motorized traffic may be incorporated in
the ongoing infrastructure projects subjected to their minimal incremental costs
Thank You




               Email: sudhakar@igidr.ac.in
   Home: http://www.igidr.ac.in/~sudhakar

				
DOCUMENT INFO