Land Reform and Poverty Reduction by oft14212

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									                   Land Reform
               and Poverty Reduction
                                   ó



                     A Haroon Akram-Lodhi
      Institute of Social Studies, The Hague, The Netherlands


9 March 2006              ICARRD STS Presentation               1
The presentation investigates the land policies of ten countries
               •   Armenia
               •   Bolivia
               •   Brazil
               •   Egypt
               •   Ethiopia
               •   Namibia
               •   The Philippines
               •   Uzbekistan
               •   Vietnam
               •   Zimbabwe
The work was done for UNDP’s Bureau of Development
  Policy

The investigation is both comparative and analytical

9 March 2006                         ICARRD STS Presentation       2
In the countries, there has been:
 modest but significant achievements in redistributive land
   reform in Brazil, the Philippines and Zimbabwe
 the establishment of peasant family farming in Armenia and
   Vietnam
as a result of diverse strategies by state and civil society actors
There has also been:
 comparative stasis in Bolivia, Ethiopia and Namibia
 a comparative retreat from the gains of redistributive land
   reform in Egypt and Uzbekistan
again as a result of diverse strategies by state and civil society
   actors

9 March 2006               ICARRD STS Presentation                    3
Four comparative themes emerge:

1. Neo-liberal globalization
A previous emphasis on building the home
   market has been replaced by the doctrines of
   comparative advantage, international
   interdependence and a ‘level playing field’


9 March 2006      ICARRD STS Presentation         4
This context has shaped the re-emergence of
 land reform in the 21st century
               • the collapse of the Soviet Union
               • the potential role of land reform in constructing political
                 stability, especially in South Africa
               • the need for access to land by agro-food transnationals and local
                 capitalists
               • the failure of neo-liberalism in developing and transition
                 economies
                    – the lack of a supply response
                    – the rediscovery of the inverse relationship
                    – the need for private property rights
                    – the need to build markets


9 March 2006                        ICARRD STS Presentation                          5
2. Land and agrarian production
Barring Armenia and Ethiopia, processes of neo-liberal
   re-enclosure of land are witnessed, but subject to
   substantial differences

Re-enclosure reconfigures a ‘bifurcated’ agrarian
  structure
               • one sub-sector: export oriented, more capital intensive, with linkages to
                 TNCs but less extensive domestic forward and backward linkages
               • one sub-sector: more diverse domestic production, more labour
                 intensive, with more extensive forward and backward linkages, but not
                 homogenous

9 March 2006                          ICARRD STS Presentation                                6
Three phenomena are witnessed:
               1. expanded commodification
                        to promote exports
                        to promote productivity and profits
               2. de-agrarianization
               3. expanded privatization

Thus, significant trajectories of variation within
   similar processes of agrarian transformation



9 March 2006                      ICARRD STS Presentation      7
3. Agrarian accumulation
 Export-driven
Brazil and Vietnam: asymmetrical but important
   complimentary linkages between two production
   sub-sectors
Bolivia, Egypt, Namibia, the Philippines, Uzbekistan
   and Zimbabwe: significantly weaker linkages
   between two production sub-sectors
 Deepening inequality in all 10 cases
 The impact of accumulation on poverty negligible,
   with the exception of Vietnam
9 March 2006         ICARRD STS Presentation           8
4. Rural politics
 The transformation of everyday politics into
   collective action goes the furthest in Bolivia,
   Brazil and the Philippines, although
   elsewhere collective action does take place
 The character of the rural elite differs in these
   3 cases
 The role of the state differs in these 3 cases

9 March 2006        ICARRD STS Presentation       9
Thus: the 10 case studies demonstrate a set of
 common themes, in that neo-liberal re-
 enclosure alters rural production, affects
 accumulation, and politics

The common themes are embedded within
 substantive diversity and differential
 trajectories of variation

9 March 2006       ICARRD STS Presentation       10
Thus, we have a perspective on the role of
 agriculture in modern economic development
 that emerges from the comparative analysis
               • transnational capital dominates the reshaping of world
                 agriculture in an era of neo-liberal globalization
               • within this, national differences still matter
               • the resolution of the constraints to agrarian development in large
                 developing and transition economies would facilitate increased
                 global accumulation
               • In many small developing and transition economies,
                 transnational capital does not care about the rural economy, but
                 there remain stark contradictions between local capital, the state
                 and peasant classes that can only be resolved by developing the
                 productive forces

9 March 2006                        ICARRD STS Presentation                       11
Thus, internal and international dynamics interact to
  promote the global deepening of capitalist relations
  of production even as national specifics—including
  the possibility of disarticulated development—
  remain

The development of the forces and relations of
  production are shaped by and shape each other, and,
  in this interactive process, the critical variable is the
  balance of forces, locally, nationally, and
  internationally, between capital and labour

9 March 2006           ICARRD STS Presentation           12

								
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