DRAFT TECHNICAL PROPOSAL TO
ESTIMATE SURVIVAL AND CONDITION
OF FISH PASSING THROUGH A NEWLY
INSTALLED VOITH SEIMENS HYDRO
DESIGNED KAPLAN TURBINE AND
EXISTING TURBINE AT WANAPUM DAM
Grant County Public Utility District No. 2
P. O. Box 878
Ephrata, Washington 98823
1921 River Road, P. O. Box10
Drumore, Pennsylvania 17518
Center for Quantitative Science
University of Washington
1325 Forth Avenue Suite 1820
Seattle, Washington 98101-2509
TECHNICAL PROPOSAL TO ESTIMATE SURVIVAL AND CONDITION
OF FISH PASSING THROUGH A NEWLY INSTALLED VOITH SEIMENS HYDRO
DESIGNED KAPLAN TURBINE AND EXISTING TURBINE AT WANAPUM DAM
NAI Job Number
Grant County Public Utility No. 2
P. O. Box 878
Ephrata, Washington 98823
This proposal represents Normandeau Associates’ integrated approach to its business as applied to the
specifications of this proposal. This proposal and all information contained herein is confidential
commercial information proprietary to Normandeau Associates, Inc. Disclosure of any information
contained in this proposal could substantially harm Normandeau’s ability to compete in the presentation
of future proposals for the performance of similar work scopes. The contents of this proposal shall not be
disclosed outside of Grant County PUD and shall not be duplicated, used or disclosed, in whole or in part,
for any purposes other than to evaluate this proposal. If a contract is awarded to Normandeau Associates,
Inc. as a result or in connection with the submission of this proposal, Grant County shall have the right to
duplicate, use or disclose the data to the extent provided in the resulting contract, unless explicitly
provided in a contract awarded as a result of or in connection with the submission of this proposal which
pertains to pricing, technical capabilities, technical and logistical plans and/or Normandeau Associates’
including but not limited to price and cost. These restrictions do not limit Grant County’s rights to use
information contained in this proposal if it is obtained from source, without restriction.
NORMANDEAU ASSOCIATES, INC.
1921 River Road
P.O. Box 10
Drumore, Pennsylvania 17518
TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Tables
Table 1. Proposed sample size allocation for balloon tag/sensor fish comparison of turbine
passage survival between existing Wanapum turbines and proposed Advanced Turbine.
Table 2. Description of survival and clean fish estimates by flow, slot, and release depth to be
obtained for existing and Advanced Turbine proposed for installation at Wanapum
List of Figures
Figure 1. Location of Priest Rapids Projects on the Columbia River, WA.
Figure 2. Wanapum Dam before and after modernization.
Figure 3. Cross section of turbine at Wanapum Dam showing planned fish injection locations
for one of the 3 intake bays.
1.0 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
The aging turbines at many hydroelectric stations in combination with declining runs of anadromous fish
has provided an opportunity for finding solutions to increase efficiency and new designs to afford safer
fish passage. The turbines at the Public Utility District No.2 of Grant County (GCPUD) Wanapum
Development have been in place 40 years and are reaching the end of their useful machine life.
Additionally, these units have some structural and hydraulic problems. Therefore GCPUD is proposing
to replace the existing 10 Kaplan turbines with a turbine designed by Voith Seimen’s for the Department
of Energy Advanced Hydro Turbine Program (Advanced Turbine). Initially one unit at the Wanapum
Development will be replaced with the Advanced Turbine and based on its satisfactory performance all
10 units will be replaced. The Advanced Turbine design improves power output, increases efficiency and
includes design features that should improve survival of fish passing through this turbine. GCPUD
proposes to conduct juvenile salmon survival evaluation of the Advanced Turbine relative to one of the
existing Kaplan turbines. One aspect of the evaluation is to compare direct injury and mortality for these
two units using the HI-Z Turb’N Tag (HI-Z) recapture technique (Heisey et. al 1992). Additionally,
turbine passage hydraulic conditions will also be evaluated using Pacific Northwest National Laboratories
(PNNL) sensor fish equipped with HI-Z tags. Installation of additional Advanced Turbines at the
Wanapum Project will be based primarily on the survival comparison tests. Should the comparison test
fail to meet pre established criteria further examination of the test data, source of fish mortality, and
possible remedies will be considered.
1.1 Site Description
The Priest Rapids Project consists of the Priest Rapids Development (head – 78 feet, cpacity –
788.5 megawatts) and the Wanapum Development (head – 80 feet, capacity – 831.25 megawatts)
(Figure 1- to be provided later). The dams of each development are located at river miles 397.1
and 415.8 respectively, on the Colombia River. The Columbia is 1,210 miles long; 460 miles
extends into Canada and 750 miles in the United States. The river originates in British Columbia,
Canada, flows northward and then southward into the United States continuing southward to its
confluence with the Snake River. Downstream of the confluence with the Snake River, the
Columbia flows westward, flowing along the Washington-Oregon border for 320 miles to its
outlet in the Pacific Ocean. Commission-licensed projects upstream of the Priest Rapids Project
includes Wells (river mile 515.5), Rocky Reach (river mile 473.7), and Rock Island (river mile
453.4). The Wanapum station has 10 Kaplan turbines each with a runner diameter of 285 in,
output of 89.5 mw, hydraulic capacity of 17.8 kcfs and 20 wicket gates. GCPUD will be initially
upgrading one of these turbines with a new Advanced Turbine that is expected to be fish
friendlier. The new Advanced Turbine is larger with a runner diameter of 305 in, output of 111.8
mw, hydraulic capacity of 18.5 kcfs and 32 wicket gates.
The Advanced Turbine design includes features believed to reduce fish injury and mortality: the
reshaped stay vanes, the new smaller wicket gates that are in line with the stay vanes to eliminate
any overhang at the discharge ring, the spherical runner and discharge ring to eliminate the gaps
at the hub and blade tip and the reshaped draft tube to improve hydraulic conditions by reducing
re-circulation and turbulence in the draft tube.
2.0 STUDY OBJECTIVES
The primary objectives of the study are to test the hypothesis that survival estimates of fish passing
through the newly installed Advanced Turbine are greater or equal to survival of passage through an
existing turbine; evaluate and compare the effects of discharges (operating flows) of the two turbines on
fish survival; and evaluate and compare the effects of release locations and turbine passage routes in each
turbine on fish survival and injury (Figure 2).
The proposed study will: 1) estimate1 h and 48 h survival probabilities (within +3%, 90% of the time), of
juvenile salmonids upon turbine passage; and 2) evaluate the potential effects of 4 different operating
conditions on survival of fish entrained at two depths, 10 and 30 ft below the intake ceiling, through 3
intake slots for both the Advanced turbine and the adjacent existing turbine (Figure 3). The two turbine
release depths are chosen to encompass the passage route of emigrating fish; most emigrating salmonid
smolts enter within 20 ft of the turbine intake ceiling. The greater the depth that fish enter the system, the
higher the probability of passing near the blade tip and being injured (Normandeau Associates, Inc. et al.
2000). The four turbine operating conditions represent the range of flows that would be seen through a
turbine. Turbine operating conditions have been linked to fish survival; high survival has been
hypothesized to coincide with peak efficiency of large turbines. However, higher survival has also been
observed at operations beyond peak efficiency (Skalski et al.2002)
2.1 Precision and Sample Size
We have allocated 150 fish for each treatment (48 treatments times 150 fish equals 7,200 fish)
and 150 control fish (16 control releases times 150 equals 3,600 fish) to match two simultaneous
treatment releases; for a grand total of 10,800 fish. We plan to release 150 treatment (50 each at a
specified location for each turbine unit at a given discharge) and 50 control fish each day (Table
Although the temporal and logistics constraints limit the selection of the sample size to
approximately 150 fish per treatment, results from similar studies indicate that the precision level
(ε) of +3%, 90% of the time for the survival estimate can be achieved with this release scheme
and also this sample size should be sufficient to assess whether the Advanced Turbine survival is
better than or equal to that of the existing unit. Much higher precision would be expected in this
evaluation as compared to the previous Wanapum turbine survival testing (Normandeau
Associates et al. 1996) because the combined sample sizes for each depth estimate would be three
times larger. This study would generate a total of 24 individual survival estimates for each
turbine (Table 2). The selection of 150 fish per treatment, results primarily from the side by side
comparison of a standard Kaplan turbine and a new minimum gap (MGR) turbine at Bonneville
First Powerhouse (Normandeau Associates et al.2000). A sample size of approximately 200 fish
per treatment condition was sufficient to obtain 24 survival estimates with a precision of less than
+0.03, 90% of the time. The allocated sample size was deemed sufficient to answer the broader
question of whether the MGR unit survival was better than or equal to that of an existing unit.
Since the data will be analyzed on a daily basis to test the adequacy of the sample size of
fulfilling the objectives of the study, the number of fish released can be adjusted accordingly.
This strategy had often been successfully employed in previous studies (Normandeau Associates
et al. 2000, Normandeau Associates 2004). If fewer fish fill the objectives for a given test
condition, the remaining fish can be allocated to other test conditions. Additionally, the number
of control fish can be reduced and re-allocated to test conditions if control recapture and survival
rates are high (>99%).
2.2 Test Fish
Approximately 10,000 hatchery-reared juvenile Chinook salmon will be acquired by GCPUD and
transported to the project site. Size range of the study fish is expected to average approximately
150 mm TL.
Fish will be held a minimum of 24 h prior to tagging, to acclimate to ambient river conditions. If
the fish show symptoms of gas bubble disease (e.g. bubbles in the gill filaments, fins, or eye
membranes), water pumped from the river will be piped through a degassing unit prior to being
discharged into holding tanks.
2.3 Tagging and Release
This study will involve releasing HI-Z tagged juvenile salmon at two specific release depths (10
ft and 30 ft. below the intake ceiling.) per each of the three intake bays for the Advanced Turbine
and the adjacent existing turbine (Figure 3). Each of the 2 depths releases through the 3 intake
slots for each turbine unit would be tested at 4 different flows (cfs); 9,000, 11,000, 15,000, and
17,000. In addition, the Advanced Turbine will have additional tagged fish released into it for
testing a flow of 18,500 cfs.
Fish handling and tagging techniques will follow those used elsewhere (Heisey et al.1992;
Mathur et al.1996; Normandeau Associates and Skalski, 1997, Normandeau Associates et al.
1995, 1996, 2000). Lots of 5 to 10 fish will be taken (randomly) from holding tanks to the
adjacent tagging site with a water sanctuary equipped net. Fish displaying abnormal behavior,
severe injury, fungal infection, or descaling (>50% per side) will not be used. The same fish
selection criteria will be applied for both the treatment and control groups. Fish will be
anesthetized in 0.5% MS222 (<5 min) and then equipped with two uninflected HI-Z tags and a
miniature radio tag. Tags will be attached by a stainless steel pin inserted through musculature
beneath the dorsal and adipose fins. The radio tag will be attached in combination with the dorsal
HI-Z tag. A uniquely numbered VI tag (Visual implant, Northwest Marine Technology, Shaw
Island, WA) will also be inserted in the post ocular tissue for use in tracking 48 h survival of
individual recapture fish.
Prior to release through the induction apparatus fish will be allowed to recover from anesthesia.
Recovery time generally lasts 30 to 70 min. (minimum 20 min). Fish will be placed individually
into the induction system holding tub, tags activated, and fish released. The inflation time of the
tags may be regulated to a certain extent by varying the temperature and amount of water injected
into the tags prior to release. All procedures used in handling, tagging, release, and recapture of
both treatment and control groups will be identical. Turbine operating conditions at the time of
release will be recorded.
Control fish will be released primarily to evaluate the effects of handling, tagging, induction, and
recapture, as well as to provide additional data on recaptured probabilities. A single matching
control release will be paired with two simultaneous treatment releases. Thus, if two groups of 50
treatment fish are released per day then a release of 50 fish downstream of the turbine discharge
would constitute the control group for both treatment groups. Because the draft tube of the
Advanced Turbine will produce different hydraulic conditions in the immediate tailrace, there
will be a separate control release pipe corresponding to each test turbine for the control fish to be
released through. The release of control fish will allow estimation of absolute survival
probabilities. Survival estimates are based on the assumption that capture probabilities are the
same for the treatment and control fish. This assumption will be assessed using two empirical
sets of observations. First, mean time to buoyed fish recapture will be compared for the treatment
and control releases. It is anticipated that unequal capture probabilities might be manifested by
different recapture times. In addition, GPS coordinates will be recorded for fish and dislodged
tag recapture locations. It is further anticipated that unequal recapture probabilities might be
manifested by different spatial distributions for the recapture locations across treatments. Chi-
square test of homogeneity can be used to compare the distributions of recapture locations after
GPS data have been categorized into mutually exclusive and exhaustive recapture zones.
Treatment fish will be released via a combination of smooth walled steel and plastic pipes that
direct the fish to six specific release points within the turbine (Figure 3). The fish will be released
via the standard induction system used by NAI turbine passage tests conducted on juvenile
salmon in the Northwest. Control fish will be passed through a 6 in diameter steel pipe mounted
on a frame and lowered into the draft tube gate slot. The terminus of the hose will be positioned
approximately 4 ft below the ceiling of the draft tube exit at both existing and advanced units
Soon after the fish is released (and after it passes the turbine) the HI-Z tags will inflate, buoying
the fish to the surface where it will be recaptured in the tailrace. Fish will be tracked (radio tag)
and recaptured by four tracking boats. To minimize gull predation, if needed, an individual from
the U. S. Department of Agriculture will haze gulls frequenting the retrieval zone. The retrieval
location of the fish will determine by Global Position System (GPS) technology. Upon recapture,
injuries will be evaluated and then later during detailed examination after expiration of the 48 h
holding period. Injury and descaling will be categorized by type, extent, and area of body
(Normandeau Associates and Skalski 1997; Normandeau Associates et al. 1996, and 2000).
Photographs of the injuries will also be taken and presented in JPEG digital format on CD ROM
disks. The first disk, if more than one is required, will include a text file cross referencing the
numerical ID assigned each fish and corresponding image file.
The immediate status of an individual fish will be designated as alive, dead, predation, dislodged
deflated tag (s) recovered, or unknown. The following criteria have been established to clearly
define these designations; (1) alive-recaptured alive and remains so for 1 h; (2) alive—when the
fish does not surface but radio telemetry signal indicates movements patterns typical of
emigrating juveniles; (3) dead—recaptured dead or died within 1 h of release; (4) dead—when
only inflated tag(s) are recovered without the fish and telemetric tracking or the manner in which
the tags surfaced is not indicative of predation; (5) unknown—when neither tags nor fish are
recovered and radio tag signals are not received or received briefly and fish status cannot be
ascertained; and (6) predation—when fish are either observed being preyed upon, the predator is
buoyed to the surface, distinctive bite marks are present, or subsequent radio telemetric tracking
and/or dislodged tag recovery indicate predation (I.e. rapid movements of tagged fish in and out
of turbulent waters or sudden appearance of fully inflated dislodged tags). In estimation of
passage survival these fish are treated as dead, unless they actually survive the attack.
Mortalities of recaptured fish occurring after 1 h will be assigned 48 h post-passage effects
although fish are observed at approximately 12 h intervals. Specimens will be examined for
descaling and injury, and those that die will be necropsied to determine the probable cause of
death. Additionally, all specimens alive at 48 h will be re-anesthetized and closely examined for
injury and descaling. The re-examination of immobilized fish minimizes the need for extensive
handling and associated stress upon immediate recapture. The initial examination allows
detection of some injuries, such as bleeding and minor bruising that may not be evident after 48 h
due to natural healing process (Normandeau Associates et al.1996, and 2000). Injury and
descaling will be categorized by type, extent, and area of body.
Fish without visible injuries that are not actively swimming or swimming erratically at recapture
will be classified as “loss of equilibrium”. This condition has been occasionally observed and
often disappears within 10 to 15 min after recapture if the fish is not injured. A malady category
will be established to include fish with visible injuries, scale loss (greater than 20% on either
side), or loss of equilibrium. Dead fish without any of these systems will not be included in this
category. Fish without maladies will be designated “clean fish”.
This clean fish metric was established to provide a standard way to present a rate depicting how a
specific route affects the condition of passed fish. Clean fish, the absence of maladies, was
chosen so that this metric may be more comparable to survival; however, the clean fish metric is
based solely on fish physically recaptured and examined. Additionally, the clean fish metric in
concert with site-specific hydraulic and physical data can provide insight into what passage
conditions may provide safer fish passage.
Visible injuries will also be categorized as minor or major, based on laboratory studies by PNNL
et al. (2001) and Normandeau’s field observations. These are as follows:
• Minor – Injuries are visible but not life threatening and tented to heal and disappear over
the post-exposure observation period. Hemorrhages that cover less than half an eye or small
bruises (approximately 0.5 cm in diameter) with minor discoloration (most commonly observed
at dorsal insertion of the operculum) will be given minor injury rating because fish quickly
recover from such injuries and/or display no apparent effects.
• Major – Any injury that is life threatening, or persists throughout the post exposure
observation will be rated major, except eye hemorrhages of less than 50%. For example, a large
bruise (>0.5 cm in diameter), damage to the spinal column, cuts with visible bleeding, injured
eyeballs (bulging, hemorrhaged, or missing), gill damage (inverted gill arches severe enough to
result in bleeding).
2.4 Release Schedule
To yield 24 separate estimates the study is designed as a 4x3x2 factorial design for each turbine.
These conditions are similar for both turbines. These 24 conditions will be tested randomly so
that after 24 days each treatment will have been studied once (Table 1). We anticipate pairing
fish releases on the same day for the same passage route and discharge in the Advanced and
existing turbines. Thus, as an example, fish will be released 10 ft below the intake ceiling at
intake bay B in both turbines on the same day and at the same discharge.
Each test day will be performed using a variation of randomized block design. A total of 150 fish
are anticipated to be released 50 for one matching treatment condition in each turbine and
controls. Logistics preclude randomizing the order of all 150 fish per day. Instead, 10 to 20 fish
of each treatment group and the control group will be released sequentially, however, each day
the order in which these lots of fish are released will be randomized.
2.5 Analysis of Test Results
Statistical analysis will follow that utilized to compare survival and condition of fish passed
through a new minimum gap runner (MGR) and an existing Kaplan runner at the Bonneville First
Powerhouse (Normandeau Associates et al. 2000).
Briefly, passage survival probabilities ( τ ) for each treatment will be estimated relative to the
control fish survival. As in the case of the Bonneville turbine study the treatment condition and
common controls will be simultaneously analyzed and modeled by joint likelihood (Normandeau
Associates et al.2000).
A likelihood ratio test will be used to determine whether recapture probabilities are similar for
alive (PA) and dead (PD) fish. The statistic tests the null hypothesis of the simplified model
(HO:PA= PD) versus the alternative of the generalized model (HA:PA≠ PD). Depending upon the
outcome of this analysis for the 1 h survival the parameters and their associated standard errors
will be calculated using that model.
A separate chi-square analysis will be performed to test for homogeneity (P=0.05) between daily
treatment and control releases with respect to recapture frequencies of alive, dead, and non-
recovered fish. Homogeneity (P>0.05) between daily control trials will allow pooling of all
The clean fish estimate (CFE) will be calculated separately for each test condition. It will be
based on recaptured fish without maladies (i.e., no visible injuries, scale loss, or loss of
equilibrium) or that display maladies not attributable to passage, i.e., injuries solely attributed to
predator attack or tag induced (tear at tag site). Clean fish estimates will be made relative to the
probabilities of control fish that are free of any maladies.
The 90% confidence intervals on the survival and clean fish estimates will be calculated using the
profile likelihood method which is deemed superior to confidence intervals based on the
assumption of normality (Hudson 1971).
In order to ensure that the performance of the Advanced Turbine is at least as good as that of the
existing turbines, a statistical comparison of survival and clean fish estimates will be made.
Analysis of Deviance (ANOVDEV) techniques would be used to compare the Advanced Turbine
with an existing turbine under the null hypothesis that SExisting Turbine=SAdvanced Turbine versus the
alternative hypothesis that SExisting Turbine≠SAdvanced Turbine. An alternative analysis technique will be
to present the data by turbine operating condition through flow vs. survival curves for each
turbine. A statistical comparison will also be made to ascertain whether differences in survival
and clean fish exist at each comparable operating condition.
To gain additional insight on mechanisms associated with fish injury, sensor fish, fish injury data,
possibly acoustical tag generated passage routes will be correlated with expected flow and
pressure condition differences between the existing and Advanced Turbines. Expected flow and
pressure condition will be calculated by Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling of the turbine
water passage. Additional analysis will be conducted from data gathered to gain further insight
into the effects of turbine operation on fish passage survival for the Advanced Turbines (Fisher et
2.6 Sensor Fish
In addition to the release of alive fish we plan to release 1,000 sensor fish to record pressure and
acceleration time histories. Each sensor fish will be equipped with 2 HI-Z tags and a radio tag to
aid in recapture after passage. PNNL will conduct this study with the same release system used
for fish tests (Figure 3). Sensor fish are instrumented packages with probes to measure hydraulic
parameters of pressure and acceleration changes which may be impinging fish during passage.
The sensor fish data will be presented as a separate report, however, pertinent results will be
incorporated into the biological report.
2.7 Acoustic Tag
Should a pilot study prove that tracking acoustic HI-Z tagged fish through the turbine intake up to
the stay vane and wicket gate is feasible, a portion, to be determined, of the HI-Z tagged fish may
possibly be equipped with acoustic tags and tracked through one or both of the test turbine
intakes. Also, the passage route through the turbine will be partially known, which can then be
correlated with injury type and rate observed on the recaptured fish. This information may also
prove useful in surmising the “free will” of fish passing through turbines. It is anticipated that the
acoustic tagged fish may allow (through triangulation) fish position to be determined as they pass
through the turbine.
3.0 EXPECTED RESULTS AND APPLICATION
Information collected in this investigation will be used as part of the turbine survival program to evaluate
and compare performances of the newly installed Advanced Turbine with that of an existing Kaplan
turbine. This study will help identify areas within the two turbine environments and operational
conditions that cause injury and mortality to juvenile salmonids. The data from this study will be closely
coordinated with data from sensor fish, CFD and other model studies to develop fish
passage/distribution/injury databases that will be used to evaluate the fish friendliness of the Advanced
Turbine. The results will be used to determine whether the Advanced Turbine design provides equal or
better fish passage conditions, which if met, will permit the replacement of the existing turbines at
Wanapum with the Advanced Turbine design.
4.0 WORK SCHEDULE
We anticipate that all the necessary piping for the induction systems will have been installed by Grant
County PUD prior to February 2005 so that fish release can begin near mid-February. A day or two of
“shakedown” pre tests will initially be performed and four contingency days have been included to
account for severe weather.
A total of 78 (2 pre test, 4 contingency and 72 test) days of testing have been allocated to conduct tests
through the Advanced and existing units.
Testing of the two turbines is scheduled for beginning mid-February of 2005.
All activities conducted by NAI and its subcontractors in successfully completing the study at Wanapum
Dam will be in accordance with the requirements set forth by Grant County PUD’s safety and health
requirements and Normandeau Associates Health and Safety Manual. NAI has prepared a Job Safety
Analysis for potential hazards to our crew to make them aware of the potential hazards (Appendix to be
NAI also requests a safety meeting with station operators prior to placing boats in the tailrace to establish
notification procedures when a change in generation or spill occurs. This meeting should take place prior
to releasing any fish.
6.0 STUDY COORDINATION AND PLANNING
NAI’s overall program manager for this study is Dr. Dilip Mathur. Mr. Paul Heisey will manage the set-
up and conduct this study. He will be assisted by Ms. Joanne Fulmer and Mr. Steve Adams.
Dr. John Skalski, University of Washington, will advise and review in all data analysis.
NAI will attend a minimum of two coordination meetings with Grant County PUD personnel to discuss
planning and project personnel and to assure that the study goes forward as planned. Potential issues
include, but are not limited to, placement of holding tanks, fish release systems, and other equipment,
electrical supply, boat activity in the tailrace, safety, test specimen procurement and handling and study
coordination. NAI and all interested parties will also meet 2 times (1/3 and 2/3 through the testing)
during the conduct of the study. The main purpose of these meetings will be ascertain if the testing
procedures are meeting the desired criteria and modify fish sample sizes if needed.
6.1 Expertise and Materials Supplied by the Contractor
NAI will supply all HI-Z and radio tags, visual implant tags, and any other materials used in the
attachment or implantation of these tags. NAI will supply radio tracking equipment, fish
induction systems and nets to recapture fish.
6.2 Materials and Services Supplied by Grant County PUD
Test fish will be obtained and transported to the test site by Grant County PUD. Grant County
PUD will fabricate and install the release pipes for both treatment and control fish. These pipes
can be either smooth walled, 4 in diameter, steel or PVC pipes or 6 in diameter steel pipes with a
4 in diameter, flexible, smooth walled plastic pipe threaded through the steel pipe. All release
pipes will be constructed and installed prior to the start of the study. Boats for retrieval of fish in
the Wanapum tailrace and holding tanks for initial and delayed assessment will be provided by
Grant County PUD.
6.3 Impacts to Grant County PUD or Other Proposed/Ongoing Research
Equipment installation will include release pipes in the intake areas of Units 8 and 9 and a single
release pipe near the draft tube exit of both units 8 and 9 for the tailrace releases. Units will need
to be shut down for pipe installation.
Project assistance prior to the study will include installation of the release structures in the turbine
Assistance during the study will include the availability of water and electricity to the forebay
deck and control release location for operation of release equipment. GCPUD will have to alter
operations to maintain the pre determined flow and/or operating geometry through the Advanced
Turbine (W-8) and existing Kaplin test turbine (W-9) during the study (daylight hours).
Project assistance post study will be removal of the release structures from the turbine intakes
No known impacts to other research are identifiable at the present time.
The investigation is expected to provide the following: 1 h and 48 h survival estimates of fish passing
through the Advanced Turbine and the adjacent existing turbine at 4 designated discharges (operating
flows); 90% profile confidence intervals for each of the 1 h and 48 h survival estimates; test of hypothesis
that fish survival in passage through the Advanced Turbine is greater than or equal to that of an existing
turbine; delineation of statistical differences (> +3%), along with the power to detect such differences;
delineation of relationships between survival rates and turbine discharges (operating flows) for each
turbine; probable source of injury to each fish recaptured along with appropriate field photographs; and
data listing of the disposition of each fish used in the experiment.
Information collected in this investigation will help evaluate and compare performances on the newly
installed Advanced Turbine with an existing Kaplan turbine in regards to injury and mortality to juvenile
salmonids. The data from this study will be present in a form that can be incorporated in fish distribution
and flow modeling of the turbine environment.
During the field testing, NAI will provide daily summary reports to Grant County PUD’s Point of Contact
(POC) Curt Dotson. The daily reports will include fish releases, pertinent project operating information,
weather information, preliminary daily and sequential survival estimates along with adequacy of sample
size and any problems or concerns about the day’s activities.
NAI will submit 20 printed copies of the draft final report, along with two electronic copies in MS Word
format 90 days after the field tests are completed. Following the review of the draft report, NAI will
make revisions to reflect integration of comments and submit the final report 30 days after receipt of the
final comments. The final report will be submitted as 20 printed copies, two electronic copies in MS
Word format, and digital images (JPEG) of each injured fish. The electronic and digital files containing
the ID submitted on CD ROM disks. The JPEG images will be cross referenced in text file name.
Dr. John Skalski will provide a statistical review of the study while “in progress: and during the report
preparation. Dr. Skalski will also provide statistical review of each experimental block of fish releases. 3
separate experimental blocks are planned. NAI will present cumulative summaries for each experimental
block upon its completion, in addition to daily summaries of study results. In-progress study deliverables
requiring statistical review include the precision of cumulative estimates of turbine passage survival for
all treatments, and evaluation of sample sizes required to meet study precision targets for each treatment
turbine passage survival estimates.
The draft and final reports are classified as deliverables in this delivery order and so priced.
8.0 LITERATURE CITED
Fisher, R. K., Brown, S., and Mathur, D. 1997. The Importance of the Point of Operation of a
Kaplan Turbine on Fish Survivability; Proceedings of Waterpower Conference.
Heisey, P. G., D. Mathur, and T. Rineer. 1992. A reliable tag-recapture technique for estimating
turbine passage survival; application to young-of-the-year American shad (Alsoa
sapidisima). Can. Jour. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 49:1826-1834.
Hudson, D. J. 1971. Interval estimation from the likelihood function. J. R. Stat. Soc. B. 33:256-
Mathur, D., P. G. Heisey, E. T. Euston, J. R. Skalski, and S. Hays. 1996. Turbine passage
survival estimation for chinook salmon smolts (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at a large
dam on the Columbia River. Can. Jour. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53:542-549.
Normandeau Associates, Inc. 2004. Juvenile salmonid direct survival/injury in passage through
the Ice Harbor Dam Spillway, Snake River. Report prepared for the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers, Walla Walla District, Walla Walla, WA.
Normandeau Associates, and J. R. Skalski. 1997 Turbine passage survival of Chinook salmon
smolts (Oncorhynchus tshawyscha) in passage through a modified Kaplan turbine at
Rocky Reach Dam, Columbia River, Washington. Report prepared for Public Utility
District No. 1 of Chelan County, Wenatchee, WA.
Normandeau Associates, Inc., J. R. Skalski, and Mid Columbia Consulting. 1995. Turbine
passage survival of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at Lower
Granite Dam, Snake River, Washington. Report prepared for U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers, Walla Walla, WA.
Normandeau Associates, Inc., J. R. Skalski, and Mid Columbia Consulting, Inc. 1996d. Fish
survival investigation relative to turbine rehabilitation at Wanapum Dam, Columbia
River, Washington. Report prepared for the Grant County Public Utility District No. 2,
Normandeau Associates, Inc., J.R. Skalski, and Mid Columbia Consulting, Inc. 2000. Direct
survival and condition of juvenile Chinook Salmon passed through an existing new
minimum gar runner turbine at Bonneville Dam First Powerhouse, Columbia River,
Report prepared for Department of the Army, Portland District, Corps of Engineers,
Skalski, J.R., Mathur, and P.G. Heisey. 2002. Effects of turbine operating efficiency in smolt
passage survival. N.A. Jour. Fish.Mgt. 22:1193-1200.
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Bio Analysts, ENSRInternational, Inc., and
Normandeau Associates, Inc. 2001. Design guidelines for high flow smolt bypass
outfalls: field, laboratory and modeling studies. Report prepared for the U.S. Army Corps
of Engineers, Portland District, Portland, OR.
Proposed sample size allocation for HI-Z balloon tag/sensor fish comparison of turbine passage survival
between existing Wanapum turbines and proposed Advanced turbine
Existing Turbine Advanced Turbine Common
Depth Flow (kcfs) Slot A Slot B Slot C Slot A Slot B Slot C Control
10 ft 9 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 450/5
10 ft 11 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 450/5
10 ft 15 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 450/5
10 ft 17 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 450/5
30 ft 9 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 450/5
30 ft 11 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 450/5
30 ft 15 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 450/5
30 ft 17 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 150/20 450/5
Total 1200/160 1200/160 1200/160 1200/160 1200/160 1200/160 3600/40
*Control fish will be divided between both turbines.
Description of survival and clean fish estimates by flow, slot and release depth to be obtained for existing and
Advanced Turbine proposed for installation at Wanapum Dam.
Existing Turbine Advanced Turbine
Depth (kcfs) Slot A Slot B Slot C Avg. Slot A Slot B Slot C Avg.
10 ft 9 SA 10-9 SB 10-9 SC 10-9 S 10-9 SA 10-9 SB 10-9 SC 10-9 S 10-9
10 ft 11 SA 10-11 SB 10-11 SC 10-11 S 10-11 SA 10-11 SB 10-11 SC 10-11 S 10-11
10 ft 15 SA 10-15 SB 10-15 SC 10-15 S 10-15 SA 10-15 SB 10-15 SC 10-15 S 10-15
10 ft 17 SA 10-17 SB 10-17 SC 10-17 S 10-17 SA 10-17 SB 10-17 SC 10-17 S 10-17
10 ft 9-17 SA 10 SB 10 SC 10 S 10 SA 10 SB 10 SC 10 S 10
30 ft 9 SA 30-9 SB 30-9 SC 30-9 S 30-9 SA 30-9 SB 30-9 SC 30-9 S 30-9
30 ft 11 SA 30-11 SB 30-11 SC 30-11 S 30-11 SA 30-11 SB 30-11 SC 30-11 S 30-11
30 ft 15 SA 30-15 SB 30-15 SC 30-15 S 30-15 SA 30-15 SB 30-15 SC 30-15 S 30-15
30 ft 17 SA 30-17 SB 30-17 SC 30-17 S 30-17 SA 30-17 SB 30-17 SC 30-17 S 30-17
30 ft 9-17 S A-30 S B-30 S C-30 S 30 S A-30 S B-30 S C-30 S 30
Pooled Survival Turbine SAdvanced Turbine
Figures 1 and 4 to be added later
Figure 2: Wanapum Dam before and after modernization.
Figure 3: Cross section of turbine at Wanapum Dam showing planned fish injection locations for
one of intake bays.