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The Brain and Central Nervous System Diseases and Disorders

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The Brain and Central Nervous System Diseases and Disorders Powered By Docstoc
					The Brain & Central Nervous
     System Diseases
                 Thalamus

   Receives nerve impulses from the sense
    organs of the body and relays it to the
    proper section of the brain.
   Directs impulses from the cerebrum and
    cerebellum to other areas of the body.
              Hypothalamus

   Controls blood pressure by increasing or
    decreasing blood vessel diameter.
   Maintains normal body temperature.
   Regulates appetite by signaling hunger
    pangs or feeling full.
   Regulates water by causing thirst
   Contracts the uterus during labor
              Hypothalamus

   Controls intestinal movement and
    secretions.

   Influences the display of some emotions.

   Helps maintain wakefulness during the
    day.
                   Cerebellum

   Stimulates muscles that maintain balance.
   Maintains muscle tone.
   Coordinates groups of muscles needed for
    complex movements such as walking or
    writing.
       Raising your hand to cover your face requires
        the coordination of 50 muscles.
                    Brain Stem

   Pons
       Conducts nerve impulses within the brain.
       Controls respiration.
   Medulla oblongata
       Conducts nerve impulses from the brain to
        the spinal cord.
       Influences heart rate, breathing rate, blood
        pressure, swallowing, and vomiting.
Disorders of the Central Nervous
             System
                     Meningitis
   Inflammation of the
    linings of the brain (the
    meninges)
   Usually causes headaches
    and fever, may result in
    paralysis.
   May be caused by a virus
    or bacteria.
   Can be treated with
    antibiotics
                  Encephalitis
   Inflammation of the
    brain
   Usually caused by a
    virus.
   Results in fever and
    weakness.
                    Epilepsy
   Repeated excessive
    electrical discharge
    from neurons in brain.
   Causes hallucinations,
    seizures, and loss of
    consciousness.
   Can be controlled by
    medications.
                 Cerebral palsy
   Brain damage
    disrupts voluntary
    muscle action.
   Cause unknown.
   May cause paralysis
    of all the limbs, and
    difficulty in speech
    and swallowing.
                 Hydrocephalus
   Excessive fluid within
    the brain due to a
    blockage.
   A shunt must be put
    in to allow the fluid to
    drain.
         Multiple sclerosis (MS)
   A disease where the
    immune system
    attacks and destroys
    the myelin sheaths
    around axons of
    certain neurons.
   Slows down or stops
    nerve impulses.
   Cause is unknown.
                         Dementia
   A loss of at least two areas of complex
    behavior:
       Language
       Memory
       Visual and spatial abilities
       Judgement


   Example: Alzheimer’s Disease
           Alzheimer’s Disease
   Nerve endings in the
    brain degenerate and
    block signals.

   Results in loss of
    short-term memory,
    high anxiety, and
    poor judgement.
         Tumors and Hematomas
   Brain tumors
       Very dangerous
       Require chemotherapy
        or surgery.
   Hematoma
       Mass of blood
        collected between the
        meninges
       Caused by a blow to
        the head.

				
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Description: This is a very simple straightforward series of Powerpoint slides I made to cover some of the disorders that affect the central nervous system.