Sex Offender Supervision in the 21st Century Future Vision by edk10782

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									Sex Offender Supervision in the 21st
      Century: Future Vision

        Case management

             Bill Whyte
                2006

                          www.cjsw.ac.
                          uk
most recorded offences are committed by men
many commit multiple crimes against multiple
types of victims
offences are carefully planned rather than
impulsive
involve a major breach in trust and an abuse of
power
most victims are women or children though not
exclusively
most offences are committed by people known to
their victims
random attacks by strangers remain relatively
rare                               www.cjsw.ac.
                                uk
people socialising and grooming children in
preparation for sexual abuse online and to
contact other sex offenders
(Davidson, 2004)

people using children’s computer language
and learning about their hobbies and interests
                     (O’Connell, 2003, Chase and Stratham,
2005)

people using the Internet to access indecent
images               (          www.cjsw.ac.
Martellozzo, 2006)                     uk
        Browsers’
  ‘Private fantasisers’
        ‘Trawlers’
‘Non-secure collectors’
   ‘Secure collectors’
       ‘Groomers’
  ‘Physical abusers’.
       ‘Producers’
      ‘Distributors’
       (Krone 2004)
                      www.cjsw.ac.
                      uk
www.cjsw.ac.
uk
Sunday, 23rd July 2006

Top Stories
Expert's stay out of jail card for sex crimes

KATE FOSTER CHIEF REPORTER


SEX offenders should be allowed to avoid jail…………….….


                                                www.cjsw.ac.
                                                uk
•   Community Justice Authorities
•   National Advisory Board
•   National Practice Development (Champions)
•   National Offender Accreditation Panel
•   Risk Management Authority

• VISOR – violent and sex offenders registration
• MAPPA – Multi disciplinary Public Protection
  Arrangements

• RM 2000
• C-SOGP
• ITSO                              www.cjsw.ac.
                                    uk
         • Public Protection Arrangements
                                  (MAPPA)

• Level 1 – where a single agency can manage
  the risk at a local level – most offenders will
  be managed by social work
• Level 2 where there is need for involvement
  of other agencies through regular multi
  agency meetings
• Level 3 the critical few – often require
  specialist resources to manage the risk with
  multi-agency meetings twice monthly
                                       www.cjsw.ac.
                                       uk
• Virtual Global Task Force (VGTF) - law
  enforcement -Australia, Canada, US, UK and Interpol
• Internet Watch Foundation (IWF)-
• Child Exploitation and Online Protection
  Centre (CEOP)
• Police High Technology Crime Units- (PHTCU)




                                          www.cjsw.ac.
                                          uk
                    Effectiveness Principles

                         Risk-need
                         Criminogenic
            Listening
Assessme                 Responsivity --
            Communicatio
nt                       Service Modality
            n
Planning                 Community
            Relationship
Evaluatio                based
            Recording
n                        Programme
                         Integrity
                             www.cjsw.ac.
                             uk
        • Quality = ‘Fit for purpose’

        • SMART objectives
• specific, measurable, achievable,
      relevant, and time limited
      • SMARTER objectives
• specific, measurable, achievable,
  relevant, time limited, evaluated,
               recorded
                             www.cjsw.ac.
                             uk
                       • Emerging themes
Resettlement - combination of facilitating
  access to social resources relevant to
  needs alongside steps to address their
  thinking and motivation
• We are unlikely to see a major impact
  on re-offending rates, as promised by
  the ‘What Works?’ literature, from
  accredited programmes alone.
• Good targeting for programmes does
  appear to be linked to successful
                                    www.cjsw.ac.
  results
                                    uk
                                    •   C-SOGP
•    Module                             Duration
1.   INDUCTION                          11 weeks
2.   CYCLES & COGNITIVE DISTORTIONS     13 weeks
3.   RELATIONSHIPS AND ATTACHMENT STYLES
                                        13 weeks
4.   SELF MANAGEMENT AND INTERPERSONAL SKILLS
                                        15 weeks
5.    THE ROLE OF FANTASY IN OFFENDING
                                 11 weeks
6.   VICTIM EMPATHY              12 weeks
7.   RELAPSE PREVENTION & LIFESTYLE CHANGE
                                 12 weeks
•                                         www.cjsw.ac.
     [1                                   uk
                                  •   C-SOGP
•   group work based for males over 18 in the
    normal IQ range.
•   delivered through a modular structure
•   for mixed sex offence types
•   normally court mandated either community
    disposal or release on licence
•   duration of between 100 hours for low
    need/risk to 240 for high need/risk
•   takes on average 12- 18 months to complete.
•   intended to be compatible with prison STOP
                                       www.cjsw.ac.
                                       uk
                •   Case management Tasks
                         • Pre-Programme Work
•   Liaise with the Treatment Manager
•   Be familiar with the Programme
•   Re-enforce the expectations of the
    Programme
•   Use the Workpack to increase motivation
    Life Timeline exercise … sent to the Group
    Facilitators
•   screen for any literacy difficulties
•   support the completion of homework tasks
                                         www.cjsw.ac.
                                         uk
               •    Case management Tasks
                •   Tasks during the Programme

•   weekly feedback
•   liaise re acceptable absences
•    reporting requirements
•   information disclosure
•   observed changes
•   compliance with supervision
•   supervision plan
•   reviews
                                      www.cjsw.ac.
                                      uk
                •       Case management Tasks
                    •    Tasks after the Programme

•   review relapse prevention strategies
•   final programme report
•   behaviour deterioration
•   relapse prevention




                                           www.cjsw.ac.
                                           uk
       • Case management and Desistence

• Human Agency – the active participation
  of individuals in structuring their own
  lives.
                        • (Laub and Sampson, 2004)
• Building Capacity - productive
  investment
• Human capital – personal change
• Social Capital –changes in social
  relations
• Cultural Capital – change social www.cjsw.ac.
  opportunities                    uk
                                                                              .
                  • Multi-level, Desistance-focused
                                            Practice
Case Management                 Offending
Structured assessment           Behaviour Programmes
                                Cognitive skills foundations
Targeting                       Programmes targeted at specific offence or risk
Supervision planning                factors
Risk Management                 Associated personal factors
Co-ordinated Service Delivery   Substance misuse
Motivation                      Mental health
Reinforcement                   Relationship problems
Application                     Re-integration factors
Surveillance                    Accommodation
                                Basic life skills
Compliance                      Education/Employment
Enforcement                     Budgeting/debt counselling
Evaluation                                                    www.cjsw.ac.
                                                              uk
                            • Case -Manager
•
• ‘the referrer and the enforcer’
• ‘the motivator and the re-inforcer and the
  person who holds onto the longer-term aims
  of social re-integration and reducing re-
  offending’ (p. 23).

                                • Knott 2004
                                  www.cjsw.ac.
                                  uk
                                • Core Practice
• effective use of authority
• modeling and reinforcing anti-criminal
  attitudes and behaviours
• concrete problem-solving skills
• effective use of community resources
• relationship factors
                  • Andrews and Kiessling (1980)
                                    www.cjsw.ac.
                                    uk
                                   • Core Practice
•   Relationship factors
•   Skill factors
•   Effective reinforcement
•   Effective disapproval
•   Problem solving
•   Structured learning
•   Effective modeling
•   Effective use of authority
•   Advocacy/brokerage
                                 • Dowden et al 2004
                                      www.cjsw.ac.
                                      uk
                                               • Core Practice
• Quality of interpersonal relationships (5)
• Effective use of community resources (4)
       • a. Evidence of advocacy
       • b. Skills factors
• Appropriate modelling and reinforcement (2).
• Effective use of authority (1)
       • a. Effective reinforcement
       • b. Effective disapproval
       • c. Structured learning procedures
• Problem solving (3).


                                               • Dowden et al 2004

                                                   www.cjsw.ac.
                                                   uk
                                        •   Compliance
                                                      ..

• incentive-based compliance - education,
  employability , early revocation, the relaxation of
  conditions.
• trust-based compliance - sense of obligation,
  working alliance
• threat-based compliance - fear of future
  consequences
• surveillance-based compliance - awareness of
  immediate, here-and-now regulation
• incapacitation-based compliance the actual
  deprivation not just the restriction, of liberty
                                              www.cjsw.ac.
                   • Effective Case Management
                                  • What Works?
•   Networking facilitating collaboration
•   Information sharing and resources
•   Establishing clear roles and responsibilities
•   Having time and appropriate venue to meet
•   Good facilitator
•   Contracts, procedures and protocols
                                      www.cjsw.ac.
                                      uk
                   • Effective Case Management
                                      • Barriers
• Lack of Time
• Practitioners overburdened with work or caseload
  too heavy
• Lack of resources and services themselves
• Lack of commitment on part of partners to
  contribute despite protocols if they exist
• Differences in philosophical stances or ways of
  working with offenders –
• Egos, attitudes, and turf issues.        www.cjsw.ac.
                                           uk
    • Models of Case Management
•
       • Generic
      • Specialist
        • Hybrid
                • (Partridge 2004)



                          www.cjsw.ac.
                          uk
                       • Models of Case Management
                                          • Generic

• continued contact .. enabling them to see the impact of
  their work
• avoiding fears about deskilling associated with carrying
  out one set of tasks
• ensuring practitioners retain a knowledge and overview of
  the various supervision stages and processes of working
  with offenders
• avoiding the stress associated with the intensive demands
  of working solely with high-risk-of harm offenders
• allowing practitioners to work with a mixed caseload of
  offenders
                                                www.cjsw.ac.
                                                uk
                    • Models of Case Management
                                     • Specialist

• target scarce staff resources on high- risk-of -
  harm offenders at certain stages of the
  supervision
• focus resources on priorities (short-and long-
  term)
• monitor delivery of priorities and National
  Standards,
• create efficiency gains by allowing practitioners
  to concentrate on specific case management
                                           www.cjsw.ac.
  functions
                                           uk
                                 • Drawbacks

• create resource intensive boundary
  management issues
• territorial about their specific functions,
  reducing the flexible
• boundaries .. create communication
  barriers
• offender confusion
                                      www.cjsw.ac.
                                      uk
               • Models of Case Management
                                   • Hybrid
• balance between generic and specialist
  elements
• integrated team approach,
• one team member knew what was happening to
  an offender at each stage and was able to
  update other team members.
• regular contact with a small team of people
• alleviate some of the effects of staff turnover,
  shortages and sick absences                www.cjsw.ac.
                                             uk
          • Principles of Effective Case Management
•   need to acknowledge offenders’ experiences
    and needs;
•   continuity of contact with the same case
    manager and other staff essential to building
    confidence and rapport
•   the greater the level of task separation, the more
    offenders were confused
•   face-to-face contact with a small case
    management team was beneficial for both staff
    and offenders;
•   openness, flexibility and support were key
    motivating factors for offenders

                                              www.cjsw.ac.
               • Effective Case Management
                 • Human Service Approach

•   Single Concept of Implementation
•   Differentiated Approaches
•   One plan – one manager baseline
•   Variable concept of team
•   Whole System Approach

                                       www.cjsw.ac.
    Consistenc
                 Continuity
    y                         Commitmen
                              t         Consolidation
Managemen
t
         Plan    Ensure Plan Implementation
Asses                                      Review
                                                     Evaluate
s       Allocate      Monitor Progress     Re-Assess
        Resources                          Re-plan
                     Continuous             Risk              Maintain
                     Assessment
Commence                                 Terminate

Asses Service Plan Implement Review Evaluate
s
                                                     www.cjsw.ac.
BEHAVIOUR OF INDIVIDUAL               CRIME RELATED
                                      (CRIMINOGENIC)
                                                         .
                                                         .




         HIGH             OFFENDING        NEEDS
                          BEHAVIOUR

                         BEHAVIOUR
   MEDIUM
                    LINKED TO OFFENDING


                  SPECIFIC PROBLEM FOCUS
LOW

                REINTEGRATION INTO COMMUNITY


             USE OF COMMUNITY RESOURCES
                                               www.cjsw.ac.
                       Summary Plan
             Priorities: reducing risk to others
                         reducing re-offending
Stages    Relevant   SMARTER      How will   What will     What    Who      What is the
          domain     Objective    you        be done to    are     will      timescale for
                     What are     measure    achieve the   the     do        the work and
                     you trying   progress   objectives    gaps?   the      for review?
                     to do?                                        work?
Phase 1

Phase 2

Maint-
enance




                                                                           www.cjsw.ac.uk
                                                                             .
Consistency
                   Continuity
                                   Commitment
                                                      Consolidation
Supervision
          Form and Maintain Trusting Relationship
                 Model Pro-social Behaviour
    Motivate Offender                Consolidate new behaviour
    Broker            Liaise                                Prevent
    placements                                              relapse
                           Coach
                 Prepare


Commence                                        Terminate



                                                                      www.cjsw.ac.uk
 Consistency
                        Continuity                                                    .
                                          Commitment
                                                               Consolidation
Administration
                       Fix appointments in line with Standards and Plan
                     Monitor compliance
Begin case
                                                                            Archive
database              Maintain records
                                             Schedule                       file
      Make up file                                           Arrange
                        Administer           reviews
                                                             reviews
                        breach




Commence                                                        Terminate


                                                                               www.cjsw.ac.uk
                                                                        .
   End to End Case Management
   Manage - Supervise - Administer

SHARE              ENGAGE        MOTIVATE               LEARN



    Offender interacts with sequence of interventions


        Face to face work

                              Interventions 1..2…3 …… Maintain Change
         Teamwork
                             Partnerships

   Commence                                        Terminate

                                                                www.cjsw.ac.uk
                                                                .
   High
          PUNITIVE             RELATIONAL
            Confrontation           Consistent
               Rules                Responsive
             Win-Lose                Flexible
              Punitive             Co-operation
                                   Accountable
 LIMIT                             Responsible
SETTING
                                      Chaotic
              Uncaring              Inconsistent
               Tired             Blurred boundaries
             Burned Out               Rescuing
              Given up               Nurturing
          NEGLECTFUL           PERMISSIVE
    Low                     SUPPORT                      High
                                                      www.cjsw.ac.uk
                                        • Case-management
                                 • Practice what you preach!
•   personal/professional efficacy
•   plan for change,
•   provide learning opportunities
•   develop well structured service pathways
•   effective supervision and compliance.
•   opportunities to apply learning
•   outcome oriented
•   power and authority
•   providing rewards

                                                 www.cjsw.ac.uk
  Continuous Improvement Cycle & Repeated Process




                            Year 3
           Year 2
Year 1




                                       www.cjsw.ac.uk

								
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