Proposal of a Fishery Restricted Area Continental Slope of

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					      9th SCMEE, Antalya, Turkey. 13-16 October, 2008



           Proposal of a Fishery Restricted Area:


    Continental Slope of the Eastern
       Gulf of Lions (CoSEGoL)

   Lleonart, Salat, Olivar, Puig. ICM/CSIC Barcelona, Spain
             Moranta. IEO, Balearic Islands, Spain
          Le Corre, Sacchi. IFREMER, Sète, France
Franquesa GEM, Faculty of Economics, U. of Barcelona, Spain
          Tudela. WWF Mediterranean Programme
                 Background
• What do we know about the Gulf of Lions
  demersal fishery?
  – Hake assessments
    • Two countries. Four gears competing.
    • Hake is the target species. Other species also
      important but not assessed.
    • Clear growth overfishing (EMSY about 40% of current
      effort)
    • Suspected recruitment overfishing (standing biomass
      less than 5% of estimated virgin biomass)
  – No other assessments
                 Background
• What do we know about the Gulf of Lions
  demersal fishery?
  – Hake assessments
    • Two countries. Four gears competing.
    • Hake is the target species. Other species also
      important but not assessed.
    • Clear growth overfishing (EMSY about 40% of current
      effort)
    • Suspected recruitment overfishing (standing
      biomass less than 5% of estimated virgin biomass)
  – No other assessments
Source: Stock assessment of the French-Spanish shared stock of hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the gulf of
Lions. French-Spanish Working Group IFREMER-IEO Sète (France), 4-5 July 2006 Jadaud, Mellon, Farrugio,
Guijarro, Valls, Massutí, Ordinas and Quetglas (SCSA 2006)
        Background (contd.)
• Four fleets:
  – French and Spanish trawlers targeting
    juvenile hake
  – Spanish longliners and French gillnets
    targeting large hake
• Despite the heavy fishing pressure on all
  classes and the evidences of overfishing
  (both growth and recruitment), historical
  series of catches appear to be rather
  stable.
• Where do the recruits come from?
Source: Stock assessment of the French-Spanish shared stock of hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the gulf of
Lions. French-Spanish Working Group IFREMER-IEO Sète (France), 4-5 July 2006 Jadaud, Mellon, Farrugio,
Guijarro, Valls, Massutí, Ordinas and Quetglas (SCSA 2006)
Source: Aldebert, Y., L. Recasens & J. Lleonart.- 1993. Analysis of gear interactions in a hake fishery:
The case of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean). Sci. Mar., 57(2-3):207-217.
                                  Other species
    • Bottom trawl:                                     • Gillnet:
        – European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus)            –   Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus)
        – European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus)         –   Tub gurnard (Trigla lucerna)
        – Soles (Solea spp.)                                –   Poor cod (Trisopterus minutus capelanus)
        – Striped mullet (Mullus barbatus)                  –   Megrims (Lepidorhombus spp.)
        – Red mullet (Mullus surmuletus)                    –   Small-spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula)
        – Angler (Lophius piscatorius)
        – Black-bellied angler (Lophius budegassa)      • Longline:
        – Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata)                 –   Rockfish (Helicolenus dactylopterus)
        – European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)           –   Silver scabbard fish (Lepidopus caudatus)
        – Seabreams (Pagellus spp.)                         –   Conger eel (Conger conger)
        – Blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou)           –   Red sea bream (Pagellus bogaraveo)
        – Poor-cod (Trisopterus minutus capelanus)          –   Fork-beard (Phycis blennoides)
        – Horned octopus (Eledone cirrhosa)




Source: Stock assessment of the French-Spanish shared stock of hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the gulf of
Lions. French-Spanish Working Group IFREMER-IEO Sète (France), 4-5 July 2006 Jadaud, Mellon, Farrugio,
Guijarro, Valls, Massutí, Ordinas and Quetglas (SCSA 2006)
                     Pilot action
               RAI/AP-26/2007
Experimental trawl survey in the Gulf of Lions

  • Executer IEO
  • Dates 24 Oct – 18 Dec, 2007
  • 67 hauls
                            Main species
SPECIES                     Rel. Abundance                               Rel. Abundance
                            % In biomass     SPECIES                     % In biomass
Galeus melastomus                   16.42%   Trachyrincus scabrus                 2.23%
Micromesistius poutassou            12.92%   Capros aper                          2.19%
Lophius piscatorius                 11.88%   Conger conger                        1.86%
Nephrops norvegicus                  7.56%   Caelorinchus caelorhincus            1.74%

Lepidopus caudatus                   5.16%   Lepidorhombus boscii                 1.58%
                                             Centrophorus granulosus              1.56%
Trachurus trachurus                  5.06%
                                             Trachurus picturatus                 1.01%
Aristeus antennatus                  5.03%
                                             Lophius budegassa                    0.55%
Merluccius merluccius                4.44%
                                             Pagellus bogaraveo                   0.16%
Helicolenus dactylopterus            3.98%
                                             Palinurus mauritanicus               0.06%
Chimaera monstrosa                   3.07%
                                             Mullus surmuletus                    0.01%
Trigla lyra                          2.70%
                                             Parapenaeus longirostris             0.01%
Phycis blennoides                    2.39%
                                             Eledone cirrhosa                     0.01%
              GFCM priority species
SPECIES                     Rel. Abundance                               Rel. Abundance
                            % In biomass     SPECIES                     % In biomass
Galeus melastomus                   16.42%   Trachyrincus scabrus                 2.23%
Micromesistius poutassou            12.92%   Capros aper                          2.19%
Lophius piscatorius                 11.88%   Conger conger                        1.86%
Nephrops norvegicus                  7.56%   Caelorinchus caelorhincus            1.74%

Lepidopus caudatus                   5.16%   Lepidorhombus boscii                 1.58%
                                             Centrophorus granulosus              1.56%
Trachurus trachurus                  5.06%
                                             Trachurus picturatus                 1.01%
Aristeus antennatus                  5.03%
                                             Lophius budegassa                    0.55%
Merluccius merluccius                4.44%
                                             Pagellus bogaraveo                   0.16%
Helicolenus dactylopterus            3.98%
                                             Palinurus mauritanicus               0.06%
Chimaera monstrosa                   3.07%
                                             Mullus surmuletus                    0.01%
Trigla lyra                          2.70%
                                             Parapenaeus longirostris             0.01%
Phycis blennoides                    2.39%
                                             Eledone cirrhosa                     0.01%
Lophius piscatorius
Aristeus antennatus
Nephrops norvegicus
Merluccius merluccius
         What is the problem?
A zone
   Slightly exploited
   With a mature demersal community
   A refugium of significant biomass of large
   spawners …
   …. of species of commercial interest …
   …. likely supplying recruits to the nearby fishery
Is in danger of being exploited
                                Area definition
A       43º00’N    4º20’E
B       43º00’N    5º00’E
C       42º40’N     4º20’E
D       42º40’N     5º00’E                                         A                 B


Depths: 100 – 1500 m
                                                                   C                 D
Surface       598 n   miles2
            2 051 km2
          205 100 ha


Distance to the coast (in NM)
        To Spain   To France
                                   Comparative surface with the approved FRAs (in km2)
    A       60.4        24.1
                                     Santa Maria di Leuca                      976
    B       85.0        19.8
    C       49.5        43.2
                                     Eratosthenes Seamount                  10295

    D       77.5        36.1         Nile delta cold hydrocarbon seeps       4374
20 NM   < ~ 30 NM
                Objective

To protect this zone, in order to conserve:
  – A demersal community that is currently only
    slightly exploited
  – Populations of spawners and “mega spawners”
    of some species of commercial interest
  – Biotic and abiotic habitats where these
    communities live
  – Trophic webs
               Justification
• Protect juveniles or spawners?
  – Equilibrium between the two Caddy’s
    paradigms
  – The three Froese’s “simple indicators”
                    Caddy’s paradigms




Source: Caddy, J.F. 1990. Options for the regulation of Mediterranean demersal
fisheries. Natural Resource Modeling, 4: 427–475.
             The Froese’s
       “three simple indicators”

       • Let them spawn
       • Let them grow
       • Let the mega-spawners live




Source: Froese R.- 2004 Keep it simple: three indicators to deal with overfishing. Fish and
Fisheries. 2004, 5, 86-91
Source: Froese R.- 2004 Keep it simple: three indicators to deal with overfishing. Fish and
Fisheries. 2004, 5, 86-91
             Why mega spawners?
• large females are much more fecund because the
  number of eggs increases exponentially with length in
  most species; their eggs also tend to be larger, thus
  giving a greater chance of survival to larvae

• reaching old age is usually a sign of overall individual
  fitness and thus these mega-spawners are reservoirs
  and distributors of desirable genes; and

• extending longevity and prolonging the reproductive
  phase can be viewed as a natural safeguard against
  subsequent recruitment failure


   Source: Froese R.- 2004 Keep it simple: three indicators to deal with overfishing. Fish and
   Fisheries. 2004, 5, 86-91
                    Justification
Effect of protecting the spawners in the
proposed FRA on coastal fishing (system of
currents in the G of L)
  – Supply of recruits of main target species:
     •   Merluccius merluccius,
     •   Lophius piscatorius,
     •   Nephrops norvegiculs,
     •   Aristeus antennatus
  – Conserving accompanying species (maintaining
    the trophic web)
     • Micromesistius poutassou
     • Lepidopus caudatus
Currents in the Gulf of Lions
                Justification
• In accordance with EAF, a total protection
  of the demersal environment will maintain:
  – Biotic and abiotic habitats
  – Trophic webs
Consequences of the protection
• Since the area is currently only slightly
  exploited, fishermen would not lose catch
  (both short and long term). This represents
  the status quo strategy.
• Ensure the protection and thus, persistence
  of spawning stocks
  Consequences of no protection
• The community of large spawners is under risk of
  being rapidly exploited as soon as fishermen are
  able reach it easily and legally
• Very high risk of increase of recruitment overfishing
  affecting the subregional fishery with danger of
  collapse of several very valuable species
• A few fishermen would get huge short term gains,
  but the whole fishery would be at stake at medium
  and long term periods
                        Legal status
International waters: outside of the Spanish fishing protected area (1997)




      Distance of point C (42º40’N 4º20’E) to the Spanish coast: 49.5 NM,
                                           to the French coast : 43.2 NM
             Legal status
Inside of the French “zone de protection écologique”
 Management measures proposed
Prohibit any kind of demersal fishing, towed or not,
including trawl gears, bottom and midwater
longlines, bottom nets (gillnets, trammelnets),
traps, etc.

				
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