The Life Cycle of an HST Proposal by knowledgegod


									                   The Life Cycle of an
                     HST Proposal
                          Diane Karakla
                          INS User Support Coordinator

Wednesday, February 11,                                  1
made to community

  Policies Document

                             Instrument Capabilities

   Wednesday, February 11,                             2
                      Many branches at STScI involved in soliciting proposals,
                      their implementation, planning and scheduling,
                      to execution and the preparation of final data products

                            Phase I Proposals
• Questions from potential PI’s start to come in through
  STScI Help Desk ( or personal contact:
    feasibility,
    instrument capabilities/modes,
    ETC’s
    policy question
• Staffed by DA’s in INS
• Questions routed to appropriate experts

  Wednesday, February 11,                                                        3
    Tool                             QuickTime™ and a
                                 TIFF (LZW) decompressor

    APT                       are neede d to see this picture.

• PI creates &
submits proposal
using APT
- developed and
maintained by the
Astronomical Planning
& Support Branch in
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                            APT Visit Planner -
                          scheduling constraints

  PI Constraint

CVZ opportunities
56 day intervals due to orbital precession

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                      Proposal Submission Activity

“gold rush”

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                          Phase I Proposal Contents

 •   Abstract
 •   Scientific justification
 •   Target list
 •   Instrument configurations
 •   Orbit request (primary and parallel)
 •   Approximate scheduling constraints

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  Phase I
  pdf file                           QuickTime™ an d a
                                 TIFF (LZW) decomp resso r
                              are need ed to see this picture .

database of all
Phase 1s

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                                     STIS failed
                   ACS, NIC cryocooler
                          Peer Review

Cycle 17 Telescope Allocation Committee (TAC)
      – Meets on-site in mid-May
      – 12 Panels, each with 10-12 astronomers
      – Panels meet first, then TAC (panel chairs & a few
        at-large members)
      – Awards orbits (typically just approves orbit request)
       GOALS: objectivity, programs of broad interest,
        balance small, med, large programs

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                           Director’s Review

• TAC presents recommendations to Director
• Technical reviews performed for special cases
   – Those with scheduling concerns:
        • resource-intensive ToOs, Moving Targets, Large and
     – Outsourced Calibration programs internal review
     – Large archival demands
• Director consults other STScI staff
• Approves cycle with any noted modifications
  (comments to PI and internal database for later review)
• Successful proposers are notified     On to Phase II !
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                          The “Odds”

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                              Special Cases

•     Guaranteed Time Observer (GTO). Phase II only.
•     SNAPs. Improve telescope observing efficiency.
•     Pure Parallel
•     Joint Chandra/NRAO/Spitzer etc. (GO)
       – Pre-defined # orbits awarded for HST by TACs of
         these other telescopes
•     Multi-Cycle GO                                   ns made to TAC
•     Outsourced CAL GO
•     Targets of Opportunity (ToO) GO or GTO
•     Director’s Discretionary (DD) programs submitted at
      any time; special review process. Time critical.
    Wednesday, February 11,                                   13
     Phase II
Proposal Processing
                          Proposal Processing

 •   Principle Investigator (PI) submits Phase II proposal using APT.
       – within 6 weeks of notification of acceptance. Deadline is early July.
       – Programs contain detailed information in exposures and visits.
 •   Program Coordinator (PC) in Observation Planning Branch loads
     Phase II into Proposal Library (PLIB) and begins preliminary ground
     system processing.
 •   Program Verification performed by PC:
      – has TAC approved orbit allocation
      – has same targets and instrument configurations as were approved
         by TAC
      – must conform to any TAC-mandated changes
      – must not duplicate other observations.
 •   Minor differences (target changes or filter changes) are resolved by an
     Instrument Scientist.
 •   Major differences (# orbits, instrument usage, or duplications) must be
     reviewed by the Telescope Time Review Board (TTRB).
Wednesday, February 11,                                                          15
                           Pattern_Number: 1

                                                                                                                         Dither Box
                           Pattern_Purpose DITHER
                           Number_Of_Points 4
                           Point_Spacing     0.559017
                           Line_Spacing     0.559017
                           Coordinate_Frame POS-TARG
                           Pattern_Orient   26.56505
                           Angle_Between_Sides 143.130102
                           Center_Pattern    NO

Phase II                   -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                           Visit: 05
                               Visit Priority:       <none>                                                  Visit Level
Proposal                       Visit Requirements: SAME ORIENT AS 04
                               On Hold Comments: <none>                                                      Special
                               Additional Comments: <none>
formatted                  Exposures
  listing                  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                           Exp | Target | Instr | Oper. | Aper                            | Spectral | Central |               Optional                        | Num | Time |
                           Num | Name | Config | Mode | or FOV | Element | Waveln.|                                          Parameters                       | Exp |               |
Available from             1 NGC-5053-N WFPC2 IMAGE WFALL F814W                                                ATD-GAIN=15,CR-SPLIT=NO                        1 1100 S
                           PATTERN 1 1
program info               ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                           2 NGC-5053-N WFPC2 IMAGE WFALL F814W                                                ATD-GAIN=15,CR-SPLIT=NO                        1 1100 S
web page                   PATTERN 1 2

                           Sub Exposures
 Individual                Target
                                               | Exp | Instr         | Oper. | Aper             | Spectral | Primary | Secondary | Iteration |CR-SPLIT |Orbit

                           Name                | Num | Config | Mode | or FOV | Element | Pattern Pos | Pattern Pos | Num                                        |Num           |Num |
 Exposures                 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                           NGC-5053-N                1 WFPC2 IMAGE WFALL F814W                                      1           none            none          none            1
                           NGC-5053-N                1 WFPC2 IMAGE WFALL F814W                                      2           none            none          none            1
 Wednesday, February 11,   N/A                                                                                                                                              16
 2009                      NGC-5053-N                1 WFPC2 IMAGE WFALL F814W                                      3           none            none          none            2
                           PDF of Phase 2

Info Web

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                          PDF of Phase 2

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                                     Proposal Implementation
                                                                   Program Coordinators

                                                                   Long Range Planning Group
                                                                   Short Term Scheduling Branch

Pure                                                                                      Phase 2
Parallels     POPS                                                          ASSIST        Reviews
                                   Visits & targets
 links       CASM                   TRANS                 SPIKE

                                     MOSS         Moving targets
GSs                                                                                       Proposal
              SPSS                                                          PMDB          Mgmt DB

                                                                         Process flow
             PASS                                                        Data flow
         Wednesday, February 11,                                                             19
                        Planning & Scheduling Steps -
                              Making Sense of Alphabet Soup

•      PLIB and APT: store the proposal (every version!) and check for syntax
       errors, illegal instrument configurations; create input files for TRANS.
•      Transformation (TRANS): converts proposal into database insertion files
       containing visit structure information (# orbits, visit #, exposure times,
       instrument and filters used, targets observed).
•      Proposal Management Database (PMDB): observation information used by
       schedulers in Science & Mission Scheduling Branch (SMSB).
•      ASSIST Database: proposal processing and status tracking for INS & PCs.
•      New Guide Star System (NGSS): guide star searches and bright object
       alerts. (PI has performed bright object check with APT/Aladin).
•      SPIKE: evaluates scheduling constraints of individual programs.
•      Science Planning and Scheduling System (SPSS): combines proposal
       information, guide star information, spacecraft constraints, and instrument
       management for onboard execution. Produces a test calendar.

    Wednesday, February 11,                                                      20

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                          More Processing Steps

•   Confirmation Charts: for target coordinate confirmation; made by PC.
•   Moving Object Selection System (MOSS): for Solar System targets only.
      – calculates viewing constraints and orbital information of target so SPSS can
        determine tracking parameters.
•   *NEW* Parallel Observation Processing System (POPS): finds pure
    parallel opportunities from COS primary proposals. Pure Parallel
    program PI’s will use this system in APT when constructing Phase II
    program. Will be done after ingest of normal GO programs.
•   INS reviewers are assigned by expertise to all GO, GTO & SNAP
    proposals, some get Contact Scientist (CS) e.g. Large and Treasury
      – GOALS: safe, feasible, science is optimized
•   Plan windows produced by Long Range Plan (LRP): needed for planning
    analysis. Windows are no longer than 2 month intervals.
•   Galley proof created by PC and approved by PI.

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                             Field of View


FOV for
sanity                            WFPC2


   NIC observation

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                                      Spike report

                                                     Planned Observation

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                          Possible Problems…

• No guide stars: PI must change constraints (ORIENT,
  BETWEEN) or choose a new target. (Guide stars are more
  restricted under 2-gyro ops.)
• Scheduling conflict with another proposal(s): adjust scheduling
  requirements on all or one proposal to best retain scientific
• Infeasible orbit structure: need too many consecutive orbits in a
  visit, or too many CVZ orbits in a cycle. One visit may have to be
  broken into 2 or more visits. CVZ orbits may have to execute in
  non-CVZ time.
• Changes in instrument performance: follow advice of INS.
• Bright object concerns: change target or filters, add ORIENT (to
  avoid bright field objects)

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                           Iterations with PI

   Proposals are re-submitted and re-worked throughout the
   cycle for many reasons, in consultation with PC and CS:
         Changes to observations to improve science (coordinates, exposure
         times, filters, timing links).
         Changes in instrument behavior require observation adjustments.
         Changes in our understanding of instrument behavior or calibration.

   Scheduling Issues:
         Conflicts in LRP require adjusting scheduling constraints.
         Changes in HST ephemeris affect scheduling constraints.
         ToO activations may disrupt other GO programs, especially those with
         timing constraints or links.

   When all problems resolved - program is made Flight Ready

Wednesday, February 11,                                                   26
                          INS Reviews
                                Weekly Status

                                    CS Toolbox

Wednesday, February 11,                          27
                          Observation Failures -
                              File a HOPR!

     •   Guide star acquisition failures
     •   Target acquisition failures (coronagraphy)
     •   Telescope or instrument safing
     •   error in target coordinates or exposure time calculation (PI error)
     •   Implementation errors (our fault!)

     Causes of re-scheduling:
     • ToO activation
     • Servicing mission (SMOV) observations
     • Telescope or instrument safing

Wednesday, February 11,                                                28
HST Long Range Planning
                                   Proposal Implementation
                                                          Program Coordinators

                                                          Long Range Planning Group
                                                          Short Term Scheduling Branch


              POPS                                                 ASSIST

              CASM                 TRANS          SPIKE

SMSs          SPSS                                                 PMDB
& Data Mgmt                                                     Process flow
             PASS            Mission Schedule &
                                                                Data flow
                             Command Loads
         Wednesday, February 11,                                                   30
                The Challenges of Planning HST

• Create a balanced, efficient, feasible Long Range Plan (LRP)
  for HST (Science Mission Scheduling Branch, (SMSB)).
• Keep the LRP as stable as possible
• Allow for the “unplanned”
• Manage Supply vs. Demand

Cycle boundaries are not as clean as you might think!
Only about 80% of visits are completed during the defined Cycle.

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                          The New Cycle LRP Build
  • Begins after majority of Phase II programs are processed
    through guide stars (NGSS) by PCs - usually a week or two
    after proposal deadline.
  • LRP covers about 18 months of observations
  • SPIKE software used to add visits on top of the current
    operational LRP. Assigns plan windows.
  • Attempt to assign visits in order from most to least tightly
  • Attempt to distribute visits across planning interval (for
    efficiency, and conflict resolution).
  • Allow room for visits that are not ready at the time of the build
    (calibrations, HOPRs, DDs, ToOs)
        – ~2 orbits per day (out of 72 schedulable orbits per week).
  • Plan windows of different observations overlap.
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                          SAA Impacted Orbits

                                         Earth rotates under HST

                                        ~15 orbits a day;
                                        only 5-6 SAA-free

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                    The Battle for SAA Free Orbits

• Demand for SAA-free orbits is higher than the
  number available
      – E.g. Many NICMOS programs request SAA-free
      – signal to noise
• All visits schedule well in SAA-free, but not SAA-
  impacted orbits, so efficiency increases when more
  SAA-impacted orbits can be used.

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                          Beloved SAA-hiders

• An SAA-hider is a visit that can schedule in its estimated
  number of orbits entirely or partially during the SAA-
  impacted orbits of the day.
• The target is occulted by Earth at the same time the
  telescope is passing through the SAA.
• SAA-passages are “hidden” by occultation so full target
  visibility window is available for scientific use.
• The more SAA-hiders we have: more efficient LRP!
• Limited resource due to the structure of available visits.

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                            LRP Resource Plot

                               Cycle 16 ends

                                                                     North Point
                                                                     towards Sun

Total Orbits                          QuickTime™ and a
                             TIFF (Uncompressed) decompre ssor
                               are neede d to see this picture.

                                                                  Fewer SAA hiders

  Wednesday, February 11,                                                            36
                   Daily and Weekly Monitoring -
                            A Juggling Act

Ever-changing supply of observations:
• Calendars (SMSs, built with SPSS) are built weekly
• Unschedulables suddenly schedule
      – DDs, ToOs are activated
      – HOPRs are filed and approved
      – Cal observations come in
• Telescope performance changes
   – safings, better instrument calibrations
• PIs make changes
• Software updates are made

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                     Daily and Weekly Monitoring
                          For Smooth Operations

• Maintain stability as much as possible at visit and
  overall plan level
• Keep Plan Windows current and available to PI and
  PC for timely processing
• Provide schedulers with appropriate list of available
  candidates to build efficient calendars quickly
• Anticipate over- or under-subscribed regions in
  advance and try to resolve before a problem arises

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                          Spacecraft Efficiency

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HST Science and Mission
 Scheduling Operations
                    Scheduling Operations Timeline

•Reserve attitude independent TDRSS contacts               •Update TDRSS schedule
                                                           based on actual spacecraft
                •Update TDRSS schedule for
                rejected contacts/services

Fri             Mon           Thu                          Mon          Wed                             Mon
t-17            t-14          t-11                  Sat/   t-7          t-5                    Sat/     t-0
                                                    Sun                                        Sun

                Verify         • gather visits                   • CMD signoff
                LRP            from LRP/other                    • MS/CL product distribution to
                               sources                           Flight Operations
                                     •Science                    • populate data processing
                                     •Calibration                  support DB
                              • build calendar
                              • select guide
                              stars                        •Process ephemerides
                Process ephemerides
                              • generate SMS               •Generate MS/CL                 SMS start
   Wednesday, February 11,                                                                         41
       t-11: calendar building (STSB)

1.   Gather visit information from LRP. Thursday am.
2.   Summarize/review scheduling issues.
3.   Assign scheduling priorities.
4.   Look for linked visits.
5.   Analyze individual visit scheduling opportunities.

Begin calendar build (layered approach):
        •   MUSTs (highly constrained)
        •   SHOULDs
        •   CANs (as many as you can)
        •   Supersnaps (regular GO with no constraints, plan
            windows in future)
        •   SNAPs
                                 t-7: PASS products
                          PASS = POCC Applications Support System
                          POCC = Payload Operations Control Center

Mission Schedule (MS)
•    After final ephemeris, TDRSS schedule built…
•    expands Science Mission Schedule (SMS) statements and adds:
       – Solid-State Recorder (SSR) management
       – communication management: antenna and transponder usage
       – FHST, guide star acquisition details

Command Loads (CL)
• binary executables
• separate command load (CL) files for NSSC (instrument) and 486
(spacecraft) computers
• CL files are packaged into “loads” for up-link to HST
       –   NSSC every 12 hours
       –   486 once per day

    Wednesday, February 11,                                          43
                            t-5: product distribution

• Distribute products to HST Flight Operations
  (Wed):                         No More Changes!
   – HST engineers review and approve loads before uplink
   – Flight Ops Team (Goddard):
         •   Uplinks command loads
         •   Monitor executing activities
         •   Command Solid State Recorder playback/downlinks

  Wednesday, February 11,                                      44
                              t-0: execution of SMS

•    Database population of observation records for ground
     system data processing (Data Processing & Archive
     Services branch (DPAS))
     – OPUS converts telemetry stream to usable FITS data files.
       Includes pipeline processing of data, and archiving of data.

•    Data retrieved by PI using MAST

    Wednesday, February 11,                                           45
                 Executing Timeline interruption

• SI/Spacecraft Anomaly Recovery:
     Health and Safety SMS’s
     SI/Science recovery SMS’s
• Targets of Opportunity
    Can intercept executing timeline at CL boundaries
• Turnaround time constrained by 2 NSSC CL loads/day
• in principle: 24-hour turnaround!
• in practice: quickest accomplished is ~36 hours

Wednesday, February 11,                             46

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