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Bone Injuries, Fractures, and Disorders Powerpoint

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					Bone Injuries, Fractures, and
Disorders


  Anatomy & Physiology
  Lecture Outline by James Dauray
  www.aurumscience.com
      Greenstick Fracture
 Simplest type of
  fracture
 The bone is
  partly bent but
  does not
  separate.
 Most common
  with young
  children because
  their bones are
  more flexible.
  Closed or Simple Fracture
 The bone is
  broken but the
  ends do not
  pierce through
  the skin.
Compound or Open Fracture
 The most serious
  type of fracture.
 Broken bone
  ends pierce
  through the skin.
 Prone to
  infection.
    Comminuted Fracture
 Bone is shattered
  and broken into
  many pieces.
 The bone shards
  can become
  embedded in the
  surrounding
  tissues.
   Bone and Joint Injuries
 Dislocation
   Occurs when a
    bone is removed
    from its proper
    position at the
    joint.
   This can result in
    ligament damage.
   Bone and Joint Injuries
 Sprain
   Ligaments in a
    joint are torn due
    to a sudden or
    unusual motion.
   The joint is NOT
    dislocated.
     Diseases of the Bones
 Arthritis
   An inflammation of the joints.

   Causes pain when the joint is used.

   Two types: osteoarthritis and
    rheumatoid arthritis
               Arthritis
 Rheumatoid
   The immune
    system destroys
    the cartilage in
    joints.
   The joints
    become stiff and
    immobile, and
    their muscles
    shrink.
   Cause is
    unknown.
                   Arthritis
 Osteoarthritis
   The cartilage in
    joints gradually
    degenerates due to
    old age.
   May be treated by
    anti-inflammatory
    drugs, surgery, or
    acupuncture.
     Diseases of the Bones
 Gout
   Accumulation of
    uric acid crystals in
    a joint.
 Rickets
   Bones become soft
    due to a lack of
    Vitamin D.
   May produce
    deformities such as
    bowed legs.
     Diseases of the Bones
 Slipped Disc
   One of the cartilage
    discs in the back
    slips out of place.
   Usually occurs in
    the lower back.
 Whiplash
   Abrupt change in
    speed whips the
    head backwards,
    damaging the
    cervical vertebrae.
 Abnormal Spine Curvatures
 Hunchback
   Outward curvature
    in the thoracic
    area.
 Swayback
   Inward curvature of
    the lumbar area.
 Scoliosis
   Sideways “S”-
    shaped curvature of
    the spine.
       Other Bone Disorders
 Osteoporosis
   Weakening of
    bones due to loss of
    calcium.
   Typically occurs in
    women age 55 and
    over.
   Usually caused by a
    calcium-deficient
    diet during the ages
    of 15-30 years.
     Other Bone Disorders
 Osteomyelitis
   Infection of a bone.




 Osteosarcoma
   Bone cancer.
             Dental Problems
 Cavities
   Bacteria naturally
    found in the mouth
    begin feeding on
    food particles left
    over from a meal.
   The bacteria
    produce an acid
    waste product that
    dissolves tooth
    enamel.
                Cavities
 Fillings
   Cavities must be
    filled with an
    amalgam (silver)
    or resin (white)
    material so no
    more bacteria
    can grow inside.
            Root Canals
 When a cavity goes
  untreated for a
  long time, the
  tooth pulp can
  become infected.
 The pulp must be
  removed and
  replaced with
  filling material.
               Extraction
 A tooth has
  become so decayed
  and infected that it
  cannot be saved
  and must be
  removed.

				
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Description: This is a short lecture powerpoint on the major types of bone fractures and injuries. Includes x-ray images of actual bone fractures, as well as a section on teeth.