Plagiarism by Levone


									 Plagiarism: A Practical
Guide for Academic Staff
     Learning & Teaching
      Enhancement Unit
            Session Structure
•   Fundamental principles
•   Online resources
•   JISC project
•   Designing out plagiarism
•   Auditing your own practice
       Fundamental Principle:
          Inform Actively
• ‘No one told me’: the most common, successful legal
• Present information actively and on more than one
• It isn’t enough to provide students with a definition of
  plagiarism and leave it at that: Induction sessions
  aren’t enough
• Spell out penalties for students
• Discuss forms of plagiarism in detail
• Set students exercises –use Turnitin on webct to
• Explain academic context and practice
       Fundamental Principle:
• Variation in practice undermines confidence in
  the system and makes institutions vulnerable
• Staff must be made aware of the Academic
  Regulations/institutional practice and must act
• Staff who give students preferential treatment
  must be warned against doing so: Compassion
  towards one is discrimination against another
  (natural justice notwithstanding)
Put another way

     Don’t make assumptions
• Students have very vague notions of:
   – Learning outcomes (what they are and what they
     are for)
   – The link between learning outcomes and
   – Assessment criteria
• By discussing these with students you can introduce
  positive notions of scholarship and originality. Unless
  students are inducted how will they understand
  conventions and practice?
• Will help to counteract the negative messages about
  plagiarism (and your students will understand more
  about their module)
                The legal test
• Civil not criminal: ‘Thus a case brought
  without the ability to cite an original text
  should be strong enough to satisfy the
  requirements of civil law’
           [JISC report, p29]

• ‘On the balance of probabilities’ not
  ‘beyond reasonable doubt’
The developmental process
                              Raise awareness
                     Document plagiarism policies
       Run exercises with students to reinforce understanding

    Use more sophisticated techniques to develop understanding
                Do it before an important submission
                Spell out the penalties - give examples

              Represent information in different contexts
                   [Practical work/Dissertations]

                       Revisit in subsequent years

                         A student plagiarizes

         Intentional Plagiarism         Unintentional Plagiarism

      Apply advertised penalties         Offer learning support
           A suggested minimum
• Year 1, Semester 1: 1 hr initial workshop (using staff from LTE Unit
  and their materials, perhaps; see later slide) in a compulsory module
  and Turnitin software on webct
• Year 1, Semester 1: Short top-up session before the first major
  assignment: remind students about the basics (bibliographies,
  referencing, quoting etc… so that core information is fresh in their
  minds). Someone from LTE Unit can come and give a talk
• Year 1, Semester 2: 1 hr workshop on plagiarism and penalties
  (using LTEU material perhaps; see later slide)
• Year 2: Top-up session
• Year 3: Session dealing with lengthier submissions and plagiarism
• All years: Sessions on different forms of plagiarism (source code,
  composition, choreography etc…)
• LTE Unit contact Adrian Chapman
Sessions devised by the LTE Unit for
           general use
Session 1 (1 hour)                   Session 2 (1 1/2 hours)
                                     •   Any year
•   Year 1
                                     •   More sophisticated session
•   Awareness-raising                    discussing actual case
•   Interactive                      •   Mock Student Review Committee
•   Forms of plagiarism (a               comprising students
    definition/detection exercise)   •   Students must agree on action and
                                         justify their action
•   Active plagiarism
                                     •   We provide generic handouts and a
•   Plagiarism and the Academic          Powerpoint slideshow
•   Case Studies                     Under development
•   We provide generic handouts      • Specific dissertation session
    and a Powerpoint slideshow       • Session for non-native English
            Internal documents
• Don’t forget to use How
  to…: there’s a section on
  plagiarism (and citations,
  essay writing and
• Guidelines for the
  Student Review Board
  when hearing cases of
  Academic Misconduct
  (Paul Hodges)
• Guidelines for staff on
  dealing with plagiarism
        Reading more widely
• Evan and Gill,
  Universities &
  Students. Read
  Chapter 6 ‘Keeping
  the Rules’. Generally
  a good introduction to
  the legal basis on
  which universities
  (should) operate.
         Software for detecting
• Google search is simplest
• Cross checking essays
  with a wordbank on webct:

Follow the link on webct
                          PAS (Plagiarism Advisory
•   URL:
•   Started in September 2002
•   Generic advice but won’t get involved
    in particular cases
•   Educational development material for
    use with students in preparation (will
    be on website)
•   Plagiarism detection software is part of
•   31 institutions/1/2 million students
    registered (inc. Oxford, Aberdeen and
    the OU)
•   Enquiries from the US, Australia, New
    Zealand, the Russian Federation
 Exactly what does the software
• Document submission and comparison software
• Compares all documents submitted and compares them
  all with the unrestricted Web
• In theory could compare every essay submitted in the
  UK with every other essay (dissertations can be
  submitted too)
• Originality report: Grades submissions from Hot (heavily
  plagiarised) to Cool (not plagiarised) and provides
  original sources for comparison
• Will be free to UK HEIs for the first two years then a
  charge will be made (c. 5k max)
      Web resources for aspiring
•     List of 150 sites at:
•     Popular sites are:
•     Authoring services
    –      Jim, the friendly research
•     But…honey pots are predictable
   Designing out plagiarism 1
• Changing assessment frequently is the
  best method
• Reconsider learning outcomes:
  – Analysis, evaluation and synthesis not
  – Make information gathering/literature review a
    learning outcome
    Designing out plagiarism 2
• Create individualised tasks:
  – Assess process and contribution
  – Use formative tasks as checks (but you don’t
    have to assess them): i. short submissions in
    advance, ii. literature reviews in advance, iii.
    student learning logs, iv. plans, v. drafts
  – Group work: i. signed logs, ii. online
    collaboration with audit trail
   Designing out plagiarism 3
• Integrate assessment tasks
  – If assessment tasks are cumulative and linked
    it’s more difficult to use material from
• Set a range of tasks within an assignment
  to test process
Original assessment for       Revised assessment
  Baroque Performance         • Read three position
  Practice (Music Year 2/3)     papers on ‘authenticity’
• Essay ‘To what extent         (so there’s no mystery
  can one perform               about the theoretical
  ‘authentically’?              sources)
• Problem: Limited number     • Attend concert or listen to
  of sources and                CD (personalise data)
  intentional/unintentional   • Write review discussing
  plagiarism. Also it’s         the concert/CD from an
  tedious to read the same      ‘authentic’ perspective
  essay 30 times
 Designing out plagiarism 4
– The Meta Essay (under control conditions)
  •   ‘Why I structured the essay in this way’
  •   ‘Which sources were particularly useful’
  •   ‘How I would do it differently next time’
  •   ‘What I learnt from writing it’
– Random vivas
– In-class tasks
     Audit your own practice:
       Student awareness
• What information is given to students?
• Is it presented actively?
• How often is it presented?
• Is it presented in different situations?
• Are they aware of the consequences of
  their action?: publicity aids prevention
• Report on plagiarism through the
  Programme Annual review
      Audit your own practice:
         Staff awareness
• Are staff aware of the Academic
  Regulations/institutional practice?
• Is there evidence of inconsistency? What have
  you done about it?
• What are your strategies for embedding
  plagiarism awareness in programme design?
• Related issues: the needs of particular student
  groups - ‘plagiarism is part of ‘their’ culture’ -
  what are you going to do to address problems?
Appleton, J. and J. Carroll (2001) Plagiarism: A Good Practice Guide, JISC/Oxford
   Brookes University. Download from
Carroll, J. (2002) Handbook for Deterring Plagiarism in Higher Education, Oxford:
   Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development. Just published. There is a
   companion website: Order the
   handbook directly from the OCSLD:
Carroll, J. and L. Steffani (2001) A Briefing on Plagiarism. Goto, click
   on ‘Projects’ then ‘Assessment’
Evans, G. R. and J. Gill (2001) Universities & Students, London: Kogan Page.
   Chapter 6 ‘Keeping the Rules’ is relevant
JISC Plagiarism Project:
JISC submission site:
JISC Plagiarism Advisory Service:

To top