Chapter 6 - Application software used for presentation and - KTC

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					Resources for Teaching Ltd       

                             OCR AS ICT

          Information, Systems and Applications

Applications software used for presentation and
            communication of data
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                    Overview of Content

  •   characteristics of documents
  •   mail merge
  •   reformatting documents to meet the needs of an application
  •   clip art and thumbnail images
  •   vector and bitmap graphics
  •   graphic libraries
  • features of presentation software
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  Characteristics of Documents: character, paragraph,
  page and section
  • Character
      – Single item on a page, may be letter, number, space or symbol (wingdings).
      – Each character can be formatted separately
  • Paragraph
      – Text which continues until a hard carriage return is met.
      – All the text in a paragraph can be manipulated as a single unit
  • Page
      – One side of a sheet – can be A4, A3 etc
      – Created by text flowing onto new page or by creating page break
      – Set up with margins and has headers and footers
  • Section
      – Breaks up a document into different parts by the use of section breaks.
      – Allows you to format each section independently
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 Characteristics of Documents: frame, headers, footers
 and footnotes
  • Frame
      – An area of the page that can contain text of graphics
      – Can be positioned anywhere on the page and layered
  • Headers and Footers
      – Appear at the top or bottom of every document – can be limited to sections.
      – They can be used to contain page numbers, titles and date last modified
        amongst other things
  • Footnotes
      – Allow a reference within the text to be expanded upon in the footer
      – Referenced by number or symbol
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  Mail Merge

  • Requirements
     – Main Document
          • This is the standard letter with gaps for user specific information
          • Into the gaps, field identifiers are placed - <First_Name>, <Surname> for
      – Data
          • Tables of data to be placed into main document
          • Can come from word processor, database or spreadsheet
          • Tables set out with headings of field identifiers
      – Form Letter
          • The document of the standard letter with the data from the database
          • For each field in the database, a new letter is created
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  Mail Merge: The Documents
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  Mail Merge Completed
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  Mail Merge: The Applications

  • Standard letters:
       – Overdue accounts
       – Change of address
  • Mail shot:
       – Competitions
       – Surveys
  •   Reports at school
  •   Any document with standard information
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  Mail Merge: The Benefits

  • Easy to change text for all letters
  • Very quick to produce thousands of letters
  • Only need to proofread a single letter to know that all the
    others are correct
  • Can re-use data collected for other purposes –
      – Christmas card list can be used for moving list
      – Single data store reduces errors
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  Modify Document for User/Task

       • Business Formatting
           – Project layout
               • Team follows a consistent layout which identifies sub headings, etc
               • Use of frames and groupings to highlight areas to be filled in
           – Minutes of meetings
               • Can highlight discussion, resolutions and actions separately
           – Templates
               • Regularly produced items set up in advance
                   – Newsletters
                   – Weekly diaries
       • Casual
           – E-mail
               • Spellings, formatting, background layout
           – Memo
               • Casual style – different from formal letters
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  Needs of a User

  • Visually disabled (including seniors) and young
      – Clear font
      – Size of font
      – White space on the page
  • Business Users
      – Common identification of headings
      – Corporate style used to identify sender
  • Magazines/Newspapers
      – Common text layout, font and font size
         • Meets user expectations
         • Familiarity
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  Reformatting Text

  • Changing the appearance of the document to suit a different
    set of users:
      – Turning tables of numbers into graphs
      – Using pictures instead of text
  • Rearranging objects on the page:
      – Cut and Paste
      – Drag and drop
      – Group objects together as a single entity and work with the entity by drag and
        drop or cut and paste
  • Making Text Fit in a specified area
      – Change margins, fit to page, change font style, font size, kerning, paragraph
        spacing etc.
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  Advantages and Disadvantages of Clipart and Thumbnail

  • ClipArt
      – Disadvantages
          • Limited to what is available - may not have suitable image
          • Quality of clipart is variable –can be poor/cartoon like
          • Copyright
      – Advantages
          • Cost of clipart is cheap/free
          • Volume of images to select from
  • Thumbnail Collections
      –   See all images in one go – click on image to see greater detail
      –   Collect similar images together
      –   Select a range of images and view them as a slideshow
      –   Can take a long time to load
      –   Many images in library may not be required/similar
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  Describe the differences between vector and bitmap

  • Difference between vector and bitmap graphics
      – Vector
          • Information about image held as geometric data, e.g, start point, end point,
            thickness of line and colour
          • Device dependent
          • Allows images to be stretched and reduced with no loss
          • Low memory / high processor requirements
      – Bitmap (known as pixel based)
          •   Image stored as pixels (square of colour)
          •   More pixels = higher quality
          •   By altering colour of each pixel causes changes in the image
          •   Based on display adapter
          •   Blurring (pixelation) caused by stretching/enlarging image         a 4 x 3 pixel image
                                                                                  = 12 pixels total
          •   High memory requirements
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  Evaluate their suitability for given applications
  • Vector
      – Used for CAD programs
      – Used for maps – individual lines and layers
      – Building design / architectural drawings

  • Suitability
      – Allows resizing without pixelation / Scalability of image
      – File size based on complexity rather than size or colour depth
      – Components can be individually manipulated rather than whole image
      – Can create layers and edit individual layers
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  Evaluate their suitability for given applications
  • Bitmap
      – Bitmapped used in web based images
      – Photos and scanned images

  • Suitability
          • What you see is what you get
              – usually in real time - similar to when using a “paintbrush”
          • Much easier to create the appearance of “natural” media and real life
          • More universally available interchange file formats
               – most bitmaps can be read by most bitmap-based software and
                 certain file formats such as jpeg and png can be read and written by
                 every “painting” program.
          • Fine control over individual pixels
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  Describe the advantages and disadvantages of using
  graphic libraries

  • Graphic libraries are collections of images all related to the
    same topic.
  • They are accessible through specific programs
  • Advantages
      – The final result will contain the proper symbols and look like the finished
      – If the known symbols are used then more people will recognise and
        understand the picture.
      – The images required will all be stored in one place
      – Specific add on packages can be released
      – Companies can release graphic libraries for their specific products
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  Describe the use of graphic libraries in: kitchen design,
  cartography and network design

  • Collections of images relating to specific items network
    components, database diagram boxes
      – These can be used when creating network diagrams – include images of
        switches, computers and printers
  • In kitchen design, companies can supply graphic
    images of their sinks, cupboards and appliances
      – The end user can get a very good idea of what the kitchen
         will look like
  • Cartography (map making) – there are set symbols used in
    map making
      – A graphic library can present these and allow the end user
         to select which one they want
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  Describe the features of presentation software: sound,
  video, slide transition and hyperlinks/hotspots

   Sound                            To announce a page
                                    Sound for company/signature tune/description of product
                                    Confirmation of action/error
   Hyperlinks                       For navigation
   Hotspots                         To go to other company products
                                    Hotspot is a part of an image that has a hyperlink
                                    attached to it. Several different hyperlinks can be
                                    created on the same image.
   Video                            To demonstrate a product.
                                    To clarify the ordering/web site use process
                                    To make site more interesting/user friendly
                                    Corporate video to increase corporate/brand recognition
   Slide Transition                 Can be the same to stop the customer losing focus
                                    Or different to try and maintain their interest
                                    The age group will determine how much and the type of
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  Describe the features of presentation software: text,
  images, animation and buttons

   Text                             Writing on the slide
                                    Can be headings or bullet text
   Images                           Can be corporate logo
                                    Images of products
                                    Used to break up the text
   Animation                        Can be applied to elements on the slide
                                    Allows individual items to be displayed one at a time
                                    Once displayed, elements can be greyed
                                    Allows attention to be focused
   Buttons                          Can allow for movement between slides
                                    Can run Video/Sound
                                    Macros can be attached to buttons

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  Compare delivering a presentation using printed acetate
  and using a computer and projector

                     OHT                                  Slideshow
    Fingerprints on slides                  Good quality
    Non linear order – can go backwards,    Linear progression – can go back but
    forwards and out of order               untidy
    Can skip slides                         Audience will see navigation
    Manually controlled                     Can be automatic
    Less equipment required - OHP           Requires laptop and projector - lots of
                                            equipment – risk of some not working
    Less risk of equipment not working      Can be interactive,
    Static presenter – needs to be at front Can move around the room and run
                                            by remote control
    Static presentation                     Sound, animation and movies
    Less common so OHP may not be           Updated immediately (e.g. if spelling
    available                               error found)

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  Compare and give advantages and disadvantages of
  different modes of navigation

  • Automatic Transition
      –   After a period of time the slide automatically moves to the next
      –   Equipment can be out of reach – less chance of vandalism
      –   Can be used as a background presentation – set and leave
      –   If giving presentation cannot have interruptions as timings will go wrong
  • Manual Transition
      – Click the mouse/hyperlink/hotspot to move to a next slide
      – Need user input to view the presentation
      – Can take as much time as you want on each slide

  • Advantages of manual are the disadvantages of automatic and vice
    versa. Both are completed on the computer.
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  Identify and give examples of when the use of each
  method is more suitable

  • Automatic
      – Kiosk application
      – Background application
      – Where a set presentation is given each time
         • Aircraft safety
  • Manual
      – Giving a presentation
      – Speaking to a set of slides
      – Questions from an audience
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  Describe nonlinear and hierarchical presentations

  • Hierarchical
      – Where one slide leads to another
      – Can go forwards or backwards
      – Linear sequence
  • Non-Linear
      – Any slide can go to any other
      – No specific pathway through the slides
      – Choice down to user no designer
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  Give the advantages and disadvantages of each

  • Hierarchical
      – Pathway through the presentation is predictable
      – Handouts given to delegates can match the slideshow
      – If necessary, presentation can be completely linear with no choice
      – Can be automated
      – Simple to use and create
  • Non-Linear
      – Same presentation can be used in different situations
      – User decides the path through the presentation
      – Can be complicated to create
      – End user might not see all the slides
      – Some slides might have no path to them
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  Identify and give examples of where each may be more

  • Hierarchical
      – Automated presentation
      – Kiosk application
      – Presentation given by speaker
  • Non-Linear
      – User follows presentation on their own
      – Decision making presentations
      – Expert system clones
      – Could be used in classroom presentation
         • different slides shown when wrong and right answers are selected
         • extra explanation slides could be shown if a class needs them

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