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Witchcraft _ Sorcery


									Witchcraft & Sorcery

       Chapter 6
    Lehman & Myers
 Witches vs. Shamans
     Similarities
          Fly
          Heal/harm through magic spells
          Communication with supernatural or spirit world
     Differences
          Evil/harmful
          Destructive
          Responsible for misfortune
          Escape goats
Historic Overview of Witchcraft
 Missionaries
 9th century Europe
 13th century Inquisition
 1347 The Black Plague
 15th century witch hunts
    1450 organized witch hunts
    1486 Malleus Malefacaran standard
    Witchcraze 1550-1650
    1690 Salem witchcraft
    1700’s Enlightment period “Age of Reason”
Witchcraft & Sorcery
 Poverty & Magic
     Explanation for crises
     African traditions
     Witch qualities
 Sorcerer vs. Witch
 Historic Overview
     16th & 17th century
     1692 Salem 200 arrests
Witchcraft & Sorcery
 Evil Eye
     Middle east, Europe, Central America, & Africa
     Voluntary & involuntary
     Perpetrators
     Victims or most vulnerable people
     Protective measures
An Anthropological
Perspective on the

        J. Brain
Image of the Witch
 Two Universal constants
  1.   Witches represent people’s deepest fears of
       selves & society
  2.   Witches represent a reversal of all normal
Image of the Witch
 Divinely ordained
 Authority & power struggles
 Patrilineal/patrilocal societies
 Matrilineal/matrilocal societies
 Women as manipulating
 Myths of women inferiority
   Aristotle
   Darwin

 Ritual pollution
 Sexual pollution
Mobility as a Factor in the Nonexistence
or Decline of Witchcraft Beliefs
 Non-western & small-scaled societies
 Sedentary agriculturalists
 Unilineal descent
 Pastoralists
 Mobile societies
 Environment control
 The church & witchcraft
In Class Activity
 Use the information from the lecture and the
  films to answer these questions:
     What caused the end of the witch craze?
     Why do we see a change in the existence of
      witchcraft beliefs in various societies?
     Is there witchcraft in your society today?
          Describe it and give examples
   Wicca & Witchcraft

Denise Zimmerman & Katherine Gleason
All about Wicca & Witchcraft
 Wicca- witch –wicce- “someone who uses magick in everyday
 Image of the witch
 Basic Witchcraft Principles
     Practice rites to attune ourselves with the natural rhythm of
       life forces.
     Recognize that our intelligence gives us a unique
       responsibility toward our environment
     Acknowledge a depth of power far greater than is apparent
       to the average person.
     Conceive of the creative power in the universe as both
       masculine and feminine. We value neither gender above the
     Recognize both outer worlds and inner, psychological
       worlds, and see in the interactions of these two dimensions
       the basis for paranormal and magickal exercises.
     Don not recognize any authoritarian hierarchy.
   All about Wicca & Witchcraft
 Basic Witchcraft Principles (continued)
    See religion, magick, and wisdom-in-living as being united in the
     way one views the world and lives in it.
    Calling oneself a “witch” des not make a witch, but neither does
     heredity itself, or the collection of titles, degrees, and initiations. A
     witch seeks to control the forces within that make life possible in
     order to live wisely and well, without harm to others, and in harmony
     with nature.
    Our only animosity toward Christianity, or toward any other religion
     or philosophy of life, is that its institutions have claimed to the “the
     onne true, right, and only way” and have sought to deny freedom to
     others and to suppress other ways of religious practices and beliefs.
    We are not threatened by debates on the history of the craft but
     concerned with our present and our future.
    We do not accept the concept of absolute evil, nor do we worship
     any entity known as “Satan” or “the devil” as defined by Christian
    We work within Nature for that which contributes to our health and
 The Goddess
      Venus of Willendorf
 Coven or solitary
 Idea of “original sin”
 Threefold law
 Wiccan Rede
    “An in harm none,
   do what ye will”
History of Wicca & Witchcraft
   Emergence of supernaturalism
   Cave paintings & Venus figurines
   Rise of rituals
   Pagan
   Shamanism & witchcraft
       The Druids- 350 B.C.E.
       The Roman Empire & Christianity- 371B.C.E.
       Pope Gregory I- “The Great” (540-604)
       Pope Innocent VIII- Papal Bull (1484)
       Joan of Arc (1431)
       Malleus Malleficarum- Witches’ Hammer by H. Kramer
        & J. Sprenge
History of Wicca & Witchcraft
 Enduring and surviving the crucible
    King James I’s Witchcraft Act (1604)
    Salem, MA (1692)
 Poland 1793
 1954- Gerald Gardner published Wtichcraft Today
 1979- National Public Radio reporter Margot Adler
  published Drawing down the Moon: Witches, Druids,
  Goddess-Worshippers, and other Pagans in America
      Starwhawk’s best selling book The Spiral Dance.
 1986- Laurie Cabot founded the Witches’ League for
  Public Awareness, Witches Anti-discrimination Lobby
Practicing Wicca & Witchcraft Today
 Social acceptance or       Traditions (cont.)
  discrimination?               Feri
 Witches’ Coven                Reclaiming**

 Traditions of the Craft       Dianic

      Gardnerian Wicca         British Traditional

      Alexandrian Wicca        Celtic Wicca

      Georgian Wicca           Blue star Wicca

      Algard Wicca             Strega Witches

      Seax-Wicca               Black Forest Clan

                             Solitaire

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