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fanatics had goaded into paroxysms of irra-     notions alive in the face of the empirical
tional fury. A subtle interaction between       evidence that contradicts them.
the authorities in church and state who                   The history of the witchcraft
manipulated the credulity of the unedu-         delusion in Western Europe is a dark chap-
cated, and the folk upon whose supersti-        ter in the annals of civilization, but the
tious fears and anxieties they played,          success achieved by reformers in purging
maintained the belief in witchcraft. The        the collective mind of the paranoid beliefs
analogy with modern right-wing dema-            with which Christian theology had in-
gogues who exploit the Lingering homo-          fected it must give heart to all those who
phobia of those who are still in the grip of    even now struggle for the same goal in
traditional attitudes is self-evident.          regard to homosexuality.
           Conclusion. The witchcraft delu-
sion has vanished from European society,            BIBLIOGRAPHY. Nachman Ben-Yehuda,
                                                    Deviance and Moral Boundaries:
apart from a few provincial backwaters              Witchcraft, the Occult, Science Fiction,
where it occasionally inspires acts of vio-         Deviant Sciences and Scientists,
lence against persons suspected of being                                  f
                                                    Chicago: University o Chicago Press,
witches. In such cases the police naturally         1985; Mircea Eliade, Occultism,
proceed against the superstition-ridden             Witchcraft, and Cultural Fashions:
                                                    Essays in Comparative Religions,
 perpetrators of the violence, not against                                f
                                                    Chicago: University o Chicago Press,
 the victims. But what the author of this           1976; Robert Muchembled, Sorcibes,
 article has termed the sodomy delusion             justice et socidtc?a m 16e et 17e sitkles,
held sway until the middle of the twenti-           Paris: Imago, 1987; Luciano Parinetto,
 eth century, and has only in the last two          Streghe e politico: dal Rinascimento
                                                    italiano a Montaigne, da Bodin a Naudc?,
 decades begun to recede. "Moral panics"            Milan:lstituto propaganda libraria, 1983i
provoked by an unsophisticated com-                 Rossell Hope Robbins, The Encyclopedia
munity's discovery of ahomosexual under-            of Witchcraft and Demonology, New
world in its midst persisted into the not           York: Crown, 1959; Keith Thomas,
 distant past, and in such cases the police         Religion and the Decline of Magic, New
                                                    York: Scribner's, 1971.
 acted to enforce superstition and intoler-                               Warren johansson
ance, while the victims suffered public
humiliation and imprisonment, if not
worse. Sporadic violence against homo-                   WITTGENSTEIN,
sexuals is often sanctioned by the mores of              (1889-1951)
 the heterosexual society, a form of intimi-             Austrian-Britishphilosopher.The
 dation that has been exacerbated by the        son of a millionaire industrialist in Vi-
 epidemic of AIDS with the irrational fear      enna, Wittgenstein came to England at
 of the "bearers of contagion" that it in-      nineteen with the intention of studying
 spires. In the politics of conservative and    aeronautics at the University of Man-
 clerical parties fear and aversion in regard   chester. Finding his bent more theoretical,
 to homosexuality still play a baleful role,    he transferred to Cambridge University,
 giving them a hold over segments of the        where he immersed himself in logic
 electorate whom they cannot win by more        courses taught by Bertrand Russell. In
 rational appeals. Therecord of the struggle    November 1912, at the behest of his fellow
 against the witchcraft delusion may afford     student John Maynard Keynes, Wittgen-
 valuable lessons for planning the future       stein was elected to the elite secret society
 campaigns of the gay liberation move-          known as the Apostles. At that time the
 ment, and for analyzing the psychological      group was closely knit and suffused with
 and social processes that--even at the close   homoerotic atmosphere. Always prickly,
  of the twentieth century-keep such false      Wittgenstein proved a difficult member
                                                and soon stopped attending meetings.
                                                           WITTGENSTEIN, LUDWIG          4

          Having joined the Austrian army      still regarded as important. As
after the outbreak of World War I, he was      Wittgenstein's reputation slowly faded in
captured by the Italians. From his pris-       England and America in the late seventies
oner-of-warcamp he succeeded in mailing        and eighties-in part owing to the recep-
to Bertrand Russell the manuscript of his      tion of French contemporary thought-it
Tractatus Logico-Positivus. After its pub-     gained influence in central Europe.
lication in 1921, this austere and con-                  Some of Wittgenstein's renown
densed treatise, whichsuggested that most      derives from his reputation as one almost
branches of traditional philosophy were        ascetically devoted to pure thought and
nonsense, was to have a catalytic effect on    exempt from any sensuality. When, in the
the emerging logical-positivist trend in       first edition (1973)of his biography, Wil-
philosophy. Except for onearticle, the Trac-   liam Warren Bartley, III, first broached the
tatus was the only work published by           subject of the philosopher's homosexual-
Wittgenstein during his lifetime.              ity, the Wittgenstein establishment re-
          After the war Wittgenstein gave      acted with vengeful anger. Although his
up philosophy, teaching elementary             literary heirs reputedly had in their pos-
school in a number of Austrian villages. In    session a coded diary containingreferences
1929, however, he returned to Cambridge        to homosexual encounters, they denied
where he was given a research fellow-          any sexual unorthodoxy, and sought to
ship. His classes, which were often painful    villfy Bartlcy. Their motives are hard to
exercises in self-criticism, attracted a       assess:Wittgensteinwas certainly noflam-
small, but devoted following. Much of the      ing queen, and those who did not have
material from these lectures went into         access to the documentsprobably did have
his manuscripts, which were only pub-          difficulty in conceiving him as a homosex-
lished after his death. Although Wittgen-      ual, a role for which they had only stere-
stein was appointed professor in 1939, he      otypical models. Others may have fore-
chose to spend the war as a humble medi-       seen that the philosopher's sexuality, if
cal orderly-acareer decision recalling that    openly discussed, would be used by philo-
of Walt Whitman eighty years before. After     sophical enemies to tarnish his reputa-
the war he returned to being a professor at    tion-as has happened.
Cambridge, but said that he found it tor-                 The facts appear to be as follows.
ture. Following a trip to the United States,   In his student days inVienna Wittgenstein
he died of cancer in 1951.                     became accustomed to cruise in the Prater,
           After his death, his associates     a large public park next to the inner city.
undertook the difficult job of seeing that     Here he met youths of the "rough trade"
 his manuscripts reached publication. The      type which remained his preference. Later
 most important of these, the Philosophi-      he was to continue this activity in Eng-
 cal Investigations (19531,contained major      land. However, he also had long-term af-
 revisions of his earlier thinking, concen-     fairs with men of his own class, notably
 trating on questions of language and the      with Francis Skinner. Wittgenstein was
 nature of philosophy itself. During the        always uncomfortable with his homo-
 third quarter of the twentieth century,        sexuality, which accounts for his conceal-
 Wittgenstein was probably the most influ-      ing it from his close friends.
 ential philosopher in the English-speaking               No close relationship seems to
 world, and his ideas existed in a fruitful     link Wittgenstein's sexual orientation and
 tension with the school of analytic phi-       his iconoclasticphilosophy. That is to say,
 losophy. This acclaim did not prevent his      he might have reached similar conclu-
 teacher Bertrand Russell from denouncing       sions had he been heterosexual. Nonethe-
 his later works as "mental bedsN-invita-       less, his homosexuality-or rather his
 tions to shirk the problems that Russell       insistence on remaining in the closet-

contributed to the aura of oracular           war group), enjoyed the psychedelic revo-
strangeness which helped to make the          lution and raised money hustling. During
author of highly abstruse and technical       1968 he organized war resistance events
papers into virtually a household name-       in British Columbia, Oregon, and Wash-
at least in academic circles.                 ington State.
                                                        Although closeted about his love
    BIBLIOGRAPHY. William Warren              for other men, Carl had begun an active
    Bartley, 111, Wittgenstein, 2nd ed., La
    Salle, IL: Open Court, 1985.              homosexual life at fourteen. "Kids can
                            wayneR. D~~~~     take care of themselves," he wrote, "and
                                              are sexual beings way earlier than we'd
                                              like to admit. Those of us who began
         WITTMAN,CARL                         cruising in early adolescence know this,
         (1943-1986)                          and we were doing the cruising, not being
          Gay and radical activist. A "red-   debauched by dirty old men." Wittman
diaper" baby, Wittman was born in New         came out i n an anti-war magazine
Jersey and attended Swarthmore College.       ("Waves of Resistance," Liberation, 13
As a campus leader, he spent summers in       [November, 19681, 29-33], where he held
Tennessee supporting black civil rights,      that resisting heterosexuality was related
wrote for the student paper and organized     to resisting war.
student support for anti-segregation dem-               Wittman was part of agay contin-
onstrations in Chester, Pennsylvania, and     gent at a San Francisco demonstration in
Cambridge, Maryland.                          May 1969 against the States Steamship
          The Swarthmore Political Action     Line, a Vietnam war supply carrier. His
Committee provided a model for the Stu-       essay, "Refugees from Amerika: A Gay
dents for a Democratic Society (SDS).         Manifesto," was written after the Steam-
Joining the national council in 1963,         ship demonstration but before Stonewall
Wittman played a prominent role in SDS         (June27,19691 and was first published late
until his departure in 1966. In September,    in 1969. Providing an ideology for radical
 1963, SDS established ERAP (Economic         gay males and widely reprinted by gay and
and Action Research Project) based on his      left movement groups, the Manifestonever
paper, "Students and Economic Action,"         became dogma: "the gay liberation move-
which was further elaborated with Tom          ment is in its polymorphous, unbureau-
Hayden in "An Interracial Movement of          cratic, anarchistic form," Wittman wrote
the Poor?" They called for non-hierarchi-      gleefully in 1970.
 cal organizing: "We are people and we                  In 1969, Wittman acquired land
 work with people." Wittman joined the         in Wolf Creek, Oregon, with his lover
 Newark SDS project and recalled that          Stevens McClave, who committed suicide
 "Tom Hayden confidently announced             in 1974. Between 1973 and Wittman's
 that there was to be no homosexuality or      death he and Allan Troxler were lovers. In
 marijuana in our community organizing         Autumn 1974 the first issue of t h e
 project, and then proceeded to borrow         periodical RFD appeared with a cover by
 my room to bed down with his latest           Allan and an article by Carl. RFD prom-
 woman, leavingmestunnedand terrified."        ised "to build some sense of community
 ("Us and the New Left," Fag Rag, 22/23        among rural gay people."
 [Fall 19781, 22).                                       In 1981, Wittman moved to Dur-
          While listed as a speaker for the    ham, North Carolina, where heworked in
 SDS affiliated Radical Education Project      the Durham Food Co-op, was a leader in
 during 1967, Wittman went to the west         Citizens for a Safer East Durham, which
 coast where he settled into a mixed San       closed the Armageddon Chemical plant,
 Francisco commune of Resistance (ananti-      and helped write Durham's Convention

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