European Expansion

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					                                   European Expansion

•   The Price Revolution
•   Thirty Years’ War
•   English Civil War
•   Oliver Cromwell
•   Charles II
•   Louis XIV
•   Absolutism
•   Constitutionalism
•   Seven Years’ War

Society of Early Modern Europe
•   Consisted of two main economic groups:
     – A small, wealthy elite
     – A large and growing population that exists on the margin of subsistence and is
       racked by recurrent hunger and disease
•   Capitalism emerges
     – Medieval sense of Christian community disappears

Forces Behind Expansion
• Population increase between 1450 and 1600
   – More children survive to adulthood
   – Land hunger
• Economic Expansion
   – Discovery of all-water routes to the eastern trade centers
   – Desire to break monopoly of Muslim and Venetian merchants and go directly to
      the source
• Centralizing monarchical state
   – Monarchs sought opportunities to extend their control
• Religion
   – continuing crusade against the Muslims
• Technology

The Portuguese Empire
• Very successful at overseas expansion
   – Unable to expand inward, so looked to the sea
• Prince Henry the Navigator
   – Sponsored exploration and nautical studies
• 15th century expansion
   – Expanded into islands in the Atlantic Ocean
   – Established trading posts along Western coast of Africa
•   Vasco da Gama found all-water route to Indies
     – Broke trade monopoly of Genoa and Venice
•   Established sugar plantations in Canary Islands
     – Imported black slaves to work them

•   Genoese shifted their capital and mercantile activities from the eastern Mediterranean
    to Spain and Portugal and their overseas possessions
•   Columbus, a Genoese sailor, worked in Portugal before winning acceptance of his
    scheme to find a westward route to the East in the Spanish court.

The Spanish Empire
• Stumbled onto its overseas empire
• Columbus won support from Ferdinand and Isabella
   – Landed on a Caribbean island
   – Found no spices in the New World but found large quantities of precious metals
• Hernando Cortés landed on Mexican coast in 1519
   – Conquered the Aztecs
• Francisco Pizarro conquered the Incas in Peru in 1529
   – Able to so easily conquer these people d/t disease
• Acquired vast quantities of gold and silver from both

• Mexico and Peru became the centers of Spanish overseas empire
   – Hoards of gold
   – Discovered silver in both Peru and Mexico in mid-16 century
• Crusading tradition led Spaniards to the New World
   – Cortes and Pizarro were hidalgos, whose status depended upon the possession of
   – Believed holy war was a legit avenue to wealth
   – Conquest and conversion of peoples of the New World an extension of the
      crusading spirit
Spanish Land Grants
•   Two types of land grants from the crown:
•   Encomiendas—royal grants of authority over the natives
     – Encomenderos promised to give protection and instruction in Christianity to their
     – In exchange they got power to take labor and tribute from the peasants
• Estancias—land grants either of land formerly belonging to the natives or land in
  remoter and less fertile regions
Native Populations
•   Native populations in the New World were decimated by Spanish settlement
•   Between 1500 and 1600 their population shrank from about 20 million to no more
    than 2 million
•   European diseases like smallpox, dysentery, malaria, and hookworm primarily
Social Stratification of Spanish Colonies
• Beginning in 1540s, the position of natives gradually improved
   – The crown eventually withdrew grants that gave authority over the natives
   – Power and wealth became concentrated in fewer and fewer hands
   – Royal officials and their associate gained substantial power and privilege
• Spanish America became permanently divided between the privileged elite and the
  impoverished masses—a condition that exists to this day.

Black Slavery and the Slave Trade
•   Slave trade between West Africa and the European colonies in the New World began
    in the early 16th century
     – Portuguese dominated the Atlantic slave trade from 1450 to 1600
     – Never more than 5,000 slaves per year then
•   Dutch, French and British became active in 17th century
     – Over the centuries 11 to 12 million slaves sold in the New World
                         The Triangular Trade and the Middle Passage
•   13 to 30 percent of slaves died on the voyage from Africa (the Middle Passage)
•   In Brazil and the West Indies slaves were worked to exhaustion and death and then
     – Slaves formed a large majority there and revolts were frequent
     – Always crushed and savagely punished
•   In the American South slaves were a minority dispersed over relatively small holding
     – Revolts and deadly epidemics were rare, as a result
•   U.S. abolished the external slave trade in 1808

Why did the Slave Trade Flourish?
•   Economics, Economics, Economics
     – Fields and mines had to be worked and the native population had been decimated
     – An enormous labor shortage existed, as a result
•   Slaves were advantageous because they were:
     – Plentiful and cheap to maintain
     – Skilled in farming and mining
     – Could withstand tropical heat, insects and disease, including European diseases.

How did African slavers continue to supply so many?
• Greatest demand for males
   – Males constituted 2/3 of those transported
   – All African peoples were polygynous
   – Women and girls left behind in Africa continued to breed so the population didn’t
• Guns were commonly traded for slaves
   – W. African rulers build armies for capturing other tribes to sell to Europeans, while
     protecting themselves from being enslaved
   – Desire for profit led to need for more captives to sell for more firearms to take
     more slaves
The Price Revolution
• Unprecedented inflation in the 16th century
   – A result of overseas expansion and the silver mining conducted in Spain
• Main cause was population growth of late 15th and 16th c.
   – Population of Europe almost doubled
• Cereal prices multiplied by 8 times or more in the 16th c. and continued to rise in the
  first half of the 17th c.
• People didn’t understand why prices so rose so were unable to control it
   – Remedies the government tried made it worse

Expansion of Agriculture
• Manor rights of peasant tillage of common lands was the old pattern of farming
   – Called the open-field system
• In England landlords pursued profits from rising farm prices
   – Changed ancient manorial practice
   – Enclosure
• English landlords launched a two-pronged attack against open-field system
   – Deprived tenant peasantry of the use of the commons
   – Changed the conditions of tenure from copyhold to leasehold

Yeomanry in England
•   Existence of prosperous farmers, yeomen, in England was crucial to
    commercialization of farming surpluses
•   A product of the English inheritance custom of primogeniture
•   Practiced by peasantry and gentry alike

Expansion of Trade and Industry
•   Conditions of price revolution caused trade and industry to expand
•   Population increase stimulated commerce in basic foodstuffs
•   Growing income of landlords, merchants, and sometimes, peasants created rising
    demand for consumer good
•   Growth of the state—increasing tax revenue gave governments more to spend

Expansion of Trade and Industry
• Putting-out system
   – Also known as Cottage Industry
   – Important step in evolution of capitalism
   – Broke the guild system
• Innovations in business
   – Banking operations more sophisticated
   – Accounting methods improved
   – Maritime insurance
   – Formation of joint-stock company
• Distinction between the merchant-owner and the worker
Growth of Capitalism
•   Private enterprise in which the main economic decisions are made by private
    individuals in their capacity as owners, workers, or consumers.
•   A system of free enterprise—basic decisions left not only to individuals, but are also
    made in response to market forces

Growth of Mercantilism
•   Conscious pursuit by governments of the courses of action supposed to augment
    national wealth and power
•   Pursuit of favorable balance of international payments
     – Goal is to sell more abroad than you buy—that is, to establish a favorable balance
       of payments

Witchcraft and the Witchcraze
• Witchcraft a part of traditional village culture for centuries
• Two kinds of witchcraft: black and white
   – White involved healing and fortune-telling
   – Black involved conjuring of evil powers by a curse or the manipulation of objects
• Church believed witchcraft involved a diabolical plot
   – Witches persecuted for heresy as early as 13 c.
• 75% of witches tried in 16th and 17th centuries were women
   – As many as 110,000 people prosecuted for witchcraft and 60,000 executed all
     over Europe in 16th and 17th c