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Culture Difference between English and Chinese

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					  Comparison and contrast
between Chinese culture and
      English culture
                Teaching Plan
Teaching Contents:
• 1. Definition of culture from different views
• 2. The relationship between language and culture
• 3. Cultural Correspondence (Cultural Similarities)
• 4. Cultural Non-correspondence (Cultural Inclusion,
  Cultural Parallel & Cultural Conflict)
• 5. Cultural Zero (Cultural Vacancy / Gap)
• 6. Cultural Integration (Cultural Globalization)
Teaching Aims:
• To make students get the knowledge about culture
• To make students get the knowledge about the
  relationship between culture and language in different
  countries
• To make students get the knowledge about cultural
  similarities and differences between Chinese and English
               Teaching Plan
Teaching Focus:
• Definitions of culture from different views
• Relationship of culture and language
• Characteristics of Chinese culture
• Characteristics of English culture
Teaching Methods:
• teacher-oriented lecturing
• Discussion (group work, then class work)
Teaching Approaches:
• Multi-media aided.
Teaching Procedures:
      Cultural Comparisons &
        Transformation (I)
Translation is a cross-linguistic, cross-cultural
   and cross-social communication event.
        I. Language & Culture
• 1. The definition of culture
• Culture ---- the deposit of knowledge,
  experience, beliefs, values, actions, attitudes,
  meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions of time,
  roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe,
  and artifacts acquired by a group of people in
  the course of generations through individual and
  group striving. (Samovar, Porter & Stefani)
• In cultural anthropology, culture is normally regarded as
  comprising, with some
• slight variations, the following four subsystems:
• (1) Techno-economic System (Ecology & Material Culture)
• e.g. ecology; ways of production, exchange, and
  distribution of goods; crafts, technology, and science;
  artifacts.
• (2) Social System (Social Culture)
• e.g. social classes and groups; kinship system; politics and
  the law; education; sports and entertainment; customs;
  general history.
• (3) Ideational System (Religious Culture)
• e.g. cosmology; magic and witchcraft; folklore; artistic
  creations as images; values (moral, aesthetic, etc.);
  cognitive focus and thinking patterns; ideology.
• (4) Linguistic System (Linguistic Culture)
• e.g. phonology and graphemics; grammar (morphology
  and syntax); semantics and pragmatics.
         I. Language & Culture
• 2. The relationship between language and
  culture
• Language and culture are inextricably intertwined /
  intrinsically bound together.
• (1) Language is a part of culture.
• (2) Language is a manifestation of culture. (Culture
  manifests itself both in patterns of language and thought
  and in forms of activity and behavior.)
• (3) Language is the stimulus of culture (A flourished
  language can promote the development of culture.)
  II. Cultural Correspondence (Cultural
                Similarities)
• 1) Pears are as sweet as dates are crisp.
• 2) Asharst's lips twitched. Garton seemed to him an ass just then.
• 3) The essence of pearl mixed with essence of men a curious dark
  residue was precipitated.
• 4) Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtitle;
  natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to
  contend.
• 5) It was wonderful to see his face shinning at us out of a thin cloud
  of these delicate fumes, as he stirred, and mixed, and tasted, and
  looked as if he were making, instead of punch, a fortune for his
  family down to the latest posterity.
• 6) 熟能生巧 / 水滴石穿 / 浑水摸鱼 / 眼见为实 / 远亲不如近邻
• 7) 欢乐的人群宛如大海的波涛,从街道上汹涌而过。
• 8) 冬去春来,大地万物俱苏,一切的一切充满了新的活力。
• 9) 客人一走进大门,扑鼻的是一阵幽香,入目的是绿蜡似的叶子和红
  霞或白雪似的花朵……
• 10) 鼓动吧,风!咆哮吧,雷!闪耀吧,电!把一切沉睡在黑暗怀里
  的东西,毁灭,毁灭,毁灭呀!
Cultural Comparisons &
  Transformation (II)
I. Cultural Non-correspondence (Cultural
   Inclusion, Cultural Parallel & Cultural
                  Conflict)
• 1) My grandfather is his cousin, so he’s kith and
  kin to me somehow, if you can make that out, I
  can’t.
• 2) Her mother is a real dragon. / She is a bit of a
  dragon around this place.
• 3) She has always been an idealist. So you can
  understand why she turned down
• a good job offer to work among refugee
  immigrants and low-income groups after she got
  her degree in social studies.
• 4) I read some of my poetry aloud to them,
  but it was casting pearls before swine.
  They obviously didn't understand a word of
  it and soon started yawning, looking at
  their watches and fidgeting in their chairs.
• 5) The employers found that extreme
  sweating, like killing the goose that laid the
  golden eggs, was not the best way to
  make business pay.
• 6) 一箭双雕 / 瘦得像猴一样 / 吹牛 / 水中捞月 / 脚
  踏两只船
• 7) 你红光满面。
• 8) 一见面是寒暄,寒暄之后说我“胖了”,说我
  “胖了”之后即大骂其新党。
• 9) 贾母因笑道:“外客未见,就脱了衣裳,还不
  去见你妹妹!”
• 10) 闲愁万种,无语怨东风 《西厢记》
• I am saddened by a myriad petty woes.
• And, though I speak not
• At the breezes from the east. (translated by
  Menry Mart)
• (Note: The east wind is symbolic of spring, with
  its urge to love and mating)
• Sweet and low, sweet and low, 轻轻地,柔
  和的,轻轻的,柔和地
• Winds of the Western sea, 西风吹来海风
• Low, low, breath and blow, 轻轻地,轻轻
  地吹拂
• Wind of the Western sea! 西风吹来海风
  (Alfred Tennyson)
 II. Cultural Zero (Cultural Vacancy / Gap)

• 1) The young girl thumbed her way to the passing car.
• 2) ―You should not be discouraged‖ Mother said to us
  gently. We all shook our
• heads.
• 3) John can be relied on. He eats no fish and plays the
  game.
• 4) I've let the cat out of the bag already, Mr. Corthell, and
  I might as well tell you
• the whole thing now.
• 5) Next to health, heart, home, happiness for mobile
  Americans depends upon the automobile.
• 6) 一个和尚挑水吃,两个和尚抬水吃,三
  个和尚没水吃。
• 7) 巧媳妇做不出没米的饭来,叫我怎么办?
• 8) 她师父极精演先天神数,于去冬圆寂了。
• 9) 母亲接言道:“我们绍生学习可用功啦,
  还是两道杠呢,年年考试得奖状。”
• 10) 一个人躺在地上,伸展四肢,仰面朝天,
  像个“大”字。
      Exercise:

• 坚持“二为”方向,贯彻“双百”方针,
  促进社会主义文化建设。要坚持正确的舆
  论导向,加强舆论监督。完善新闻媒介的
  自律机制。深化文化管理体制改革。整顿
  和规范文化市场,继续开展“打黄扫非”
  斗争。
      Cultural Difference between
         English and Chinese
•   Definition of culture
•   文化背景上的不同
•   风俗上的不同
•   联想上的不同
•   制度、信仰和世界观不 同
•   社交礼节
•   翻译方法
              Culture (1)
• The New World Encyclopedia
• "It is the totality of the spiritual,intellectual,
  and artistic attitudes shared by a group,
  including its tradition, habits, social
  customs,morals,laws,and social
  relations, Sociologically,every society,
  on every level, has its culture;the term
  has no implications of high development."
       Culture (2)
• "……翻译者必须是一个真正意义的文化人。人们
  全说:他必须掌握两种语言,确实如此;但是,
  不了解语言当中的社会文化,谁也无法真正掌握
  语言。"
     ———— 王佐良 《翻译中的文化比较》,
  1984.1.《翻译通讯》
• "翻译中对原文意思的理解,远远不是单纯的语言
  理解问题。语言是文化的组成部分,它受着文化
  的影响和制约。……在翻译过程中,译者对某段
  文字理解的正确与否,在很大程度上取决于他对
  有关文化的了解。……对于译者来说,没有两种
  文化的对比知识,就无从谈起对语言文字的正确
  理解与表达。”———— 谭载喜
            Culture (3)
• Learning a language is a kind of learning
  the culture and habit of the country where
  the language is spoken.
           文化背景 (1)
• 骨瘦如柴              be as lean as a rake
• 对牛弹琴         to cast pearls before swine
• 滚石不生苔a rolling stone gathers no mass
• 众人拾柴火焰高many hands make light
  work.
• 竹篮打水一场空drawing water in a
  bamboo basket means drawing nothing.
           文化背景 (2)
• Hoist your sail when the wind is fair.
• 好风快扬帆
• Still waters run deep.静水流深
• In a calm sea, every man is a pilot.海面平
  静,人人都可当舵手。
• A small leak will sink a great ship.小洞不堵
  要沉大船。
           风俗上的不同(1)
•   You are a lucky dog.
•   你是一个幸运儿。
•   Every dog has his day.
•   凡人皆有得意日。
•   Old dog will not learn new tricks.
•   老人学不了新东西。
•   sick as a dog
•   dog-tired
        风俗上的不同(2)
• 天生有福
• 俄国人:“穿着衬衣生下来的”
• 英国人:“生来嘴里就含着一把银勺”(born with a
  silver spoon in one’s mouth)
• 德国人:“梳好了头才出世的”
• “一箭双雕”或 “一举两得”
• 法语:“一块石头打两处”
• 英文:“一石打死二鸟”(to kill two birds with one
  stone)
• 俄语:“一枪打死两只免子”
• 德语:“一个拍子打两只苍蝇”
             联想上的不同(1)
•   Mr. White is a very white man.
•   He was looking rather green the other day.
•   He has been feeling blue today.
•   When I saw him, he was in a brown mood.
•   I hope he'll soon be in the pink again.
              联想上的不同(2)
•   山中无老虎,猴子称霸王
•   In the land of the blind, the one-eyed man is king.
•   如鱼得水             like a duck to water
•   多如牛毛            as plentiful as blackberries
•   一箭之遥            at stone’s throw
•   水中捞月            to fish in the air
•   石沉大海            remain a dead letter
•   半瓶子醋            half-baked
•   蠢得象猪            as stupid as a goose
         联想上的不同(3)
•   守口如瓶      dumb as an oyster
•   挥金如土      to spend money like water
•   烂醉如泥      drunk as a sailor
•   画蛇添足      gild the lily
•   热锅上的蚂蚁   like a cat on a hot tin roof
•   湿得像落汤鸡   as wet as a drowned rat
•   瘦得象猴子    as thin as a shadow
•   吹牛        talk horse
•   如履薄冰      to tread upon eggs
•   棋逢对手     diamond cut diamond
•   挂羊头卖狗肉   cry up wine and sell vinegar
     制度、信仰和世界观不同
•   关于颜色词语的理解
•   Red
•   Green
•   Yellow
•   Blue
•   White
•   Black
                 Red (1)
•   红旗 red flag      •   red wine 红酒
•   红糖 brown sugar   •   red ruin 火灾
•   红茶 black tea     •   red battle 血战
•   红榜 honor roll    •   red sky 彩霞
•   红豆 love pea
•   红运 good luck
•   红利 dividend
•   红事 wedding
                  Red (2)
• 贾宝玉神游太虚境,警幻仙曲演红楼梦。
• Jiao Baoyu visits the Land of Illusion;
• And the fairy Disenchantment performs the
  Dream of Golden Days.

• 贾宝玉品茶栊翠庵,刘姥姥醉窝怡红院。
• Jia Baoyu tastes some superior tea at Green
  Bower Hermitage;
• And Grannie Liu samples the sleeping
  accommodation at Green Delights.
                Green (1)
•   ―嫉妒、眼红”
•   green with envy
•   green as jealousy
•   green-eyed monster
               Green (2)
• ―钱财、钞票、有经济实力”
• In American political elections the
  candidates that win are usually the ones
  who have green power backing them.
• 在美国政治竞选中获胜的候选人通常都是
  些有财团支持的人物。
               Green (3)
• ―没有经验、缺乏训练、知识浅薄”
• The new typist is green at her job.
•  刚来的打字员是个生手。
• You cannot expect Mary to do business
  with such people. She is only eighteen and
  as green as grass.
• 你不能指望玛丽同这样的人做生意,她只
  有十八岁,还毫无经验。
                  Yellow (1)
•   ―胆小、卑怯、卑鄙”
•   a yellow dog 可鄙的人,卑鄙的人
•   a yellow livered 胆小鬼
•   He is too yellow to stand up and fight.
•   他太软弱,不敢起来斗争。
         Yellow (2)
• 特定颜色
• Yellow Pages 黄页 (电话号码簿,用黄纸
  印刷)
• Yellow Book 黄皮书 (法国等国家的政府
  报告,用黄封面装帧)
• yellow boy (俗)金币
          Yellow (3)
•   象征低级趣味、色情庸俗、下流猥亵
•   pornographic(色情的)
•   vulgar(庸俗下流的)
•   obscene(猥亵的)
•   blue jokes(下流的玩笑)
•   blue films(黄色电影)
                   Blue (1)
• ―情绪低落”、“心情沮丧”、“忧愁苦闷”
• They felt rather blue after the failure in the
  football match.
• 球赛踢输了,他们感到有些沮丧。
• ——She looks blue today. What’s the matter
  with her?
• ——She is in holiday blue.
• 她今天显得闷闷不乐,出了什么事情?
• 她得了假期忧郁症。
           Blue (2)
• ―黄色的”、“下流的”
• blue talk 下流的言论
• blue video 黄色录像
           Blue (3)
• 社会地位高、出身名门的意义,如blue
  blood(贵族血统)
• others
• out of blue 意想不到
• once in a blue 千载难逢
• drink till all’s blue 一醉方休
        White (1)
• 英语中的white有时表达的含义,与汉语中
  的“白色”没有什么关系
• a white lie 善意的谎言
• the white coffee 牛奶咖啡
• white man 善良的人,有教养的人
• white-livered 怯懦的
• white elephant 昂贵又无用之物
              White (2)
•   汉语中有些与“白”字搭配的词组,实际
    上与英语white所表示的颜色也没有什么
    联系,而是表达另外的含义
•   白开水 plain boiled water
•   白菜 Chinese cabbage
•   白字 wrongly written or mispronounced
    character
•   白搭 no use
•   白费事 all in vain
             Black (1)
• 象征气愤和恼怒
• black in the face 脸色铁青
• to look black at someone 怒目而视
               Black (2)
•   ―阴险”、“邪恶”
•   黑心 evil mind
•   backstage manipulator黑幕
•   inside story黑线
•   a sinister line black sheep 害群之马
•   black day 凶日
•   black future 暗淡的前途
              Others (1)
•   历史方面:
•   to raise to the purple升为红衣主教
•   to be born in the purple 生于帝王之家
•   to marry into the purple 与皇室或贵族联姻
            Others (2)
• 社会方面:
• blue-collar workers 蓝领阶层,指普通体力劳动
  者
• grey-collar workers 灰领阶层,指服务行业的职
  员
• white-collar workers 白领阶层,指接受过专门技
  术教育的脑力劳动者
• pink-collar workers 粉领阶层,指职业妇女群体
• golden-collar personnel 金领阶层,指既有专业
  技能又懂管理和营销的人才
         Others (3)
• 经济方面:
• red ink 赤字
• in the black 盈利
• white goods 白色货物,指冰箱、洗衣机等
  外壳为白色的家电产品
• brown goods 棕色货物,指电视、录音机、
  音响等外壳为棕色的电子产品
       社交礼节上的不同(1)
  – 你辛苦了
• You must have had a tiring journey. You
  must be tired from a long trip?
• Well done! That was a hard job. You’ve
  got a hard job.
           社交礼节上的不同(2)
•   饭桶                good- for-nothing
•   吃不开              be unpopular
•   吃不了兜着走 land oneself in serious trouble
•   吃不消             be unable to stand
•   吃不住             be unable to bear or support
•   吃老本             live off one's past gains
•   吃软不吃硬         be open to persuasion but not to coercion
•   吃闲饭           lead an idle life
•   吃香            be very popular
•   He has taken the bread out of my mouth.
•   他砸了我的饭碗
       翻译方法
• 直译
• 意译
• 其他
                 直译(1)
•   Easy come, easy go.
•   来得容易,去得快
•   Strike while the iron is hot.
•   趁热打铁
•   Practice makes perfect.
•   熟能生巧
•   Example is better than precept.
•   身教胜于言传
                直译(2)
• All roads lead to Rome.
• 条条大道通罗马
• 雪中送炭
• to offer fuel in snowy weather
• 一人得道,鸡犬升天
• even the dog swaggers when its master win
  favor
• ―瓜田李下” “瓜田不纳履,李下不整冠”
• Neither adjust your shoe in a melon patch,nor
  your hat under a plum tree。
                  意译(1)
•   When in Rome,do as the Romans do.
•   ―入乡随俗” “到什么山,唱什么歌”
•    望子成龙
•   to expect one’s son to become an outstanding
    personage
•   a cat on hot bricks
•   热锅上的蚂蚁
•   天有不测风云
•   Something unexpected may happen any time.
                 意译(2)
• Achilles’ heel
• ―阿克勒斯的脚后跟”
• “唯一致命的弱点”更恰当。
• The dog that will fetch a bone will carry a bone.
• 你说别人坏话,他也会说你的坏活。
• We still love each other very much ,but we fight
  like cat and dog.
• ―我们常吵吵闹闹,但仍很相爱。”
Cultural Comparisons &
  Transformation (III)
    I. Cultural Integration (Cultural
             Globalization)
• Cultural integration is an inevitable and ongoing
  trend.
• (1) Culture is an open mechanism
• (2) Culture is a non-perpetual mechanism
• (3) Cultural acceleration. (economic
  globalization; the information era)
 1) sour grapes / a stick-and-carrot policy / ivory
  tower / black humor / soap opera/ 功夫 / 豆腐 /
  饺子 / 元宵 / 旗袍 / 太极拳 / 炒杂烩 / 麻将
• 2) While it may seem to be painting
  the lily, I should like to add somewhat
  to Mr. Alistmir Cookke's excellent
  article.
• 3) Leonard is no Luddite. He knows
  that the growing use of digital
  technology is good for the industry.
• 4) 她有沉鱼落雁之容,闭月羞花之貌。
• 5) 一共住着多少家子,谁说得清?住两间房的就不多,
  又搭上今天搬来,明天又搬走,我没有那么好记性。大
  家见面招呼声“吃了吗”,透着和气,不说呢,也没什
  么。
   ① Who on earth could tell how many families live
  there? Those who occupy two rooms are very few.
  Besides, guys keep moving in and out everyday. I
  haven't got such a good memory as to remember all
  this. People greeted each other with "Have you
  eaten?" to show their neighborlyfeelings. But if they
  don't, nobody would care.
  ② How many families live there, only God knows.
  Those who occupy two rooms are very few. Besides,
  they are always on the go. I haven't got such a good
  memory as to remember all this. People greeted each
  other with 'Hi' to show their neighborly feelings. But if
  they should cut each other dead, nobody would care.)
       Exercise
• 意大利著名旅行家马可·波罗曾这样叙述他
  印象中的杭州:“这是世界上最美妙迷人
  的城市,它使人觉得自己是在天堂。”在
  中国,也流传着这样的话:“上有天堂,
  下有苏杭。”杭州的名气主要在于风景如
  画的西湖。西湖一年四季都美不胜收,宋
  代著名诗人苏东坡用“淡妆浓抹总相宜”
  的诗句来赞誉西湖。在杭州,您可以饱览
  西湖的秀色,也不妨漫步街头闹市,品尝
  一下杭州的名菜名点,还可购上几样名特
  土产。

				
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