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Emulsions For Holography



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                                                               Fine Grain

                                                               Ultra-Fine Grain


                                            Name of
            GEOLA                           Material

                                            VRP-M        Fine-grained green sensitive holographic plates and film
Geola is the international
                                                         designed for reflection or transmission hologram
coordination office for the
                                                         recording. Average grain size is 35-40nm, resolving power
distribution of Holography films and
                                                         is more than 3000 lines/mm, spectral sensitivity range
                                                         includes 488nm, 514nm, 526nm, 532nm.
Geola actively participates in the
                                            PFG-01       Fine-grained red sensitive holographic plates and film
origination of new products and in
                                                         designed for reflection or transmission hologram
primary product testing.
                                                         recording. Average grain size is 40nm, resolving power
                                                         more than 3000 lines/mm, spectral sensitivity range 600-
Geola certifies holography
                                                         6             8           0             n             m
materials through its own in-house
                                                         (including 633nm, 647nm).
quality control programme.
                                                         Ultra fine-grained red sensitive plates and film designed
Geola’s network for the sale,
                                                         for reflection hologram recording. Average grain size is
wholesale and distribution of
                                                         8-12nm, resolving power more than 5000 lines/mm,
holography materials is currently
                                                         spectral sensitivity range includes 633nm, 647nm.
the largest such distribution               PFG-03C
network worldwide.
                                                         Ultra fine-grained panchromatic (full colour) holographic
                                                         plates and film designed for colour reflection hologram
                                                         recording. Average grain size is 8nm, resolving power
                                                         more than 5000 lines/mm, spectral sensitivity range up to
         PRODUCTS                                        700nm (457nm, 514nm, 633nm).
                                                         Dichromated Gelatine holographic plates designed for
Geola currently supplies both                            phase reflection hologram recording. Resolving power
                                                         greater than 5000 lines/mm, spectral sensitivity range up
Silver Halide and Dichromated
                                                         to 514nm (457nm, 488nm, 514nm).
                                                             Table 1: List of Available Holographic Materials
Gelatine emulsions for holography
applications. Table 1 summarises                                           Acknowledgements
                                          Geola is grateful to Sergey Vorobyov for the technique of latensification. We would
all materials presently available         also like to acknowledge the work of Hans Bjelkhagen and Nicholas Phillips, on which
from Geola.                               much of the chemistry listed in this brochure is based, as well as that of Bernadette
                                          and Ron Olson for the technique of colour-shifting by D-Sorbitol.
The fine grain, green-sensitive
VRP-M emulsions are very close                FINE GRAIN SILVER HALIDE MATERIALS
analogues to the old Agfa 8E56
products and can be used for both                                                       size characteristics for the
Pulsed and CW laser recording of                       VRP-M                            VRP-M and PFG-01 emulsions
holograms.                                           (GREEN SENSITIVE)
                                                                                        are shown in Fig.3.The diffrac-
                                                   AND    PFG-01                        tion efficiency versus exposure
The fine grain, red sensitive                         (RED SENSITIVE)
                                                                                        f                o              r
PFG-01 material gives equivalent                                                        reflection holograms recorded on
performance to Agfa 8E75 for CW          Characteristic curves of fine-grain            PFG-01 (using a CW laser) and
recording.                               red (PFG-01) and green (VRP-M)                 on VRP-M (using a pulsed laser)
                                         emulsions, showing spectral                    is presented in Fig.4. The
The PFG-03M (red sensitive) and          sensitivity versus wavelength, are             maximum diffraction efficiency is
PFG-03C (panchromatic) materials         shown in Fig.1. The VRP-M                      seen to be >45% for both
are super-fine grain emulsions.          optical sensitivity (to CW radiation)          emulsions. Material lifetime is
                                         is seen to peak at aproximately 75             more than two years.
Finally PFG-04 is a long-life            mJ/cm2 and that of the improved
Dichromated Gelatine emulsion for        PFG-01 (to CW radiation) at                    The VRP-M and PFG-01
recording in the blue and green          approximately 80 m J/cm2. (This                emulsions may be used equally
sprectral ranges.                        improved batch will be comercially             well with pulsed lasers and with
                                         available in the second quarter                CW radiation. In the pulsed la-
All of the Silver Halide materials are   of 2001). Fig.2 shows the                      s               e                r
available coated onto glass or TAC       optical density after exposure                 radiation case the emulsion
film substrate and cover a wide          by CW radiation and after                      should be post-sensitized with the
range of sizes.                          development versus energy. Grain               technique of latensification. The


                                                                                     VRP-M            Mastering and Copying          Mastering and Copying
  log (cm2/mJ)

                                 -3                                                  PFG-01           with Pulsed Radiation           with CW Radiation.


                                       500          600             700     800
                                                                                   MASTERING               20-40 mJ/cm2                     60-80 mJ/cm2
                                              Wavelength (nm)                      COPYING                 30-60 mJ/cm2                     70-90 mJ/cm2
        Figure1: Spectral Sensitivity curves for                                   Latensification             Yes                           If needed
        VRP-M (left) and PFG-01 (right). In                                        Development              SM-6, 2min                      CW-C2, 2min
        grey we show a new PFG-01 sensi-                                           Wash                    Water, 1-2min                    Water, 1-2min
        tivity curve (commercially awailable in
        the second quarter of 2001).                                               Bleach             PBU-Amidol until clear          PBU-Amidol until clear
                                                                                                           (~2-3 min)                      (~2-3 min)
                                                                                   Wash                   Water 5 mins                    Water 5 mins
                                                                                   Final Wash           Water with wetting              Water with wetting
                                                                                                       agent (Agepon) 1min             agent (Agepon) 1min
                                                                                    Drying                   Slow Air                        Slow Air
                                                                                              Table 2: Recommended Processing for VRP-M and PFG-01

                                 1                                                                                         ( w w w. p h o t o f o r m u l a r y. c o m ) ,
                                                                                     RECOMMENDED                           (ii) Sigma-Aldrich www.sigma-
                                                                                     CHEMISTRY FOR               ,
                                                                                                                           (iii) Prolabo (
                                       50               75          100     125
                                                                                    VRP-M and PFG-01
                                              Energy (mJ/cm2)
                                                                                                                           For pulsed work one may also use
        Figure 2: Characteristic Curves for
        VRP-M (left) and PFG-01 (right).
                                                                                  latensification technique is             the standard D-19 Kodak devel-
                                                                                  described below.                         oper if 6-8g of Methyl Phenidone
                                                                                  Table 2 shows a summary of rec-          is added into the final solution.
                                                                                  ommended processing schemes
                                                                                  for use with VRP-M when ex-                         SM-6 Developer
                                                                                  posed by pulsed Neodymium la-              Sodium Hydroxide            12.0g
                                                                                                                             Methyl Phenidone             6.0g
                                                                                  sers (526.5nm, 532nm) and for
     Grain Size Distribution %

                                                                                                                             Ascorbic Acid                18g
                                                                                  use with VRP-M and PFG-01                  SodiumPhosphate             28.4g
                                                                                  when exposed by CW Argon or by             (dibasic)
                                 20%                                              HeNe lasers. In the case of expo-          if 12 H2O                   71.6g
                                                                                  sure      by     CW      radiation         Water                       to 1.0L
                                                                                  latensification is usually not nec-                CW-C2 Developer
                                                                                  essary.                                            1 part A + 1 part B
                                                                                                                            Part A
                                       0.02      0.04        0.06    0.08
                                                                                                                            Catechol                      20.0g
                                              Grain size (m m)                    White-light holograms made on             Ascorbic Acid                 10.0g
        Figure 3: Grain Size Distribution                                         VRP-M have a natural green re-            Sodium Sulphite               10.0g
        Curve for VRP-M and PFG-01.                                               construction colour that can be           (anhydrous)
                                                                                  easily changed by the technique           Urea                         100.0g
                                                                                  of colour -shifting using D-Sorbi-        Water                        to 1.0L
                                                                                  tol (described below). White-light        Part B
                                                 PFG-01             VRP           holograms made on PFG-01                  Sodium Carbonate              60.0g
                                 50%                                              have a natural yellow/orange re-          Water                        to 1.0L
                                                                                                                                   PBU-Amidol Bleach
                                                                                  construction colour when using a          Potassium Persulphate         10.0g
                                 45%                                              HeHe laser and the recom-                 Citric Acid                   50.0g
Diffraction efficiency

                                                                                  mended chemistry.                         Cupric Bromide                1.0g
                                 40%                                                                                        Potassium Bromide             20.0g
                                                                                  All chemicals necessary for the           Amidol                        1.0g
                                 35%                                              preparation of the recomended             Water                        to 1.0L
                                                                                  solutions can be obtained from the             Potassium Iodide Bath
                                 30%                                              following companies -                     Potassium Iodide              18.0g
                                        50              75          100     125
                                                                                  (i) Photographer’s Formulary Inc.         Water                        to 1.0L
                                         Exposure (mJ/cm2)
        Figure 4: Diffraction Efficiency Curves                                                                            Table 3:VRP-M and PFG-01 Developers,
        for VRP-M and PFG-01.                                                                                              Bleach and Colour-shift bath.
  LATENSIFICATION                                                      COLOUR CONTROL                                                                            ULTRA-FINE GRAIN
                                           exposure. If required, chemical                                                                                          MATERIALS
The temperature of all solutions           processing may be done
described in this brochure is 20           with significant delay after
  C.                                       latensification (~8 hours).                                                                                                     PFG-03M
PFG-01 and VRP-M emulsions                 For the VRP-M emulsion we                                                                                       RED SENSITIVE EMULSION
have peak sensitivities to expo-           recomend two colour shifting
sures in the millisecond regime.           techniques. One produces a fixed                                                               This material is designed for re-
In order to obtain optimal sensi-          colour-shift towards the red of                                                                flection hologram recording using
tivity to exposures different from         approximately 50 nm. The other                                                                 CW radiation in the red spectral
this regime the technique of               produces an adjustable colour                                                                  range (633nm - HeNe laser and
latensification must be used.              shift.                                                                                         647nm - Krypton laser). The spec-
                                                                                                                                          tral sensitivity curve of the mate-
Latensification is usually done di-        The fixed colour shifting is                                                                   rial is shown in Fig.6.
rectly after the holographic expo-         accomplished by soaking the final
sure. Before applying the process          hologram for 1 minute in a bath of                                                             Peak emulsion sensitivity is
a latensification time appropriate         Potassium Iodide solution (Table                                                               around 1.5-2mJ/cm2. The grain
for your system must be worked             3). Adjustable colour shifting is                                                              size distribution curves for both
out. This procedure is as follows:         accomplished by soaking the                                                                    PFG-03M and PFG-03C are
Place a 25W white lamp at a dis-           hologram for 1 minute in an                                                                    shown in Fig.7. Recommended
tance of 1m from a test holoplate          aqueous solution of D-Sorbitol                                                                 processing is given in table 4.
or film such that its light uniformly      (sugar substitute - C6H14O6) with
illuminates the emulsion. You will         added wetting agent. The colour
need to try several exposure               of the final hologram depends on                                                                                                PFG-03C
times.                                     the solution concentration (Fig.5).                                                                         PANCHROMATIC EMULSION
                                           After soaking, the film must be
First of all you will need to develop      taken out and put onto a flat                                                                  This material is designed for the
the unexposed emulsion under               surface. Water drops must be                                                                   production of full-colour reflection
normal safelight conditions. The           removed using a rubber wiper                                                                   holograms using CW laser radia-
plate will darken a little. This is        such as a windscreen wiper. Here                                                               tion in the blue (457nm - Argon
called the “fog” level. After devel-       one must be delicate - if too much                                                             laser), green (514nm - Argon la-
opment wash this control plate,            force is employed you may obtain                                                               ser) and red (633nm -HeNe la-
dry and keep it handy. Now a se-           a somewhat different colour than                                                               ser).
ries of exposures with small test          that predicted by Fig. 5. If, after
plates must be made. Start at              drying of the hologram, the replay                                                             A spectral sensitivity curve of the
about 2 secs and go up to around           colour achieved is not satisfactory,                                                           PFG-03C material is shown in
10 secs. After each exposure de-                film
                                           the700 or plate may be washed in                                                               Fig.6. Diffraction efficiency versus
                                              Maximal reflection wavelength (nm)

velop your plate and match the             warm water and then soaked
                                                                                                                                          exposure is shown in Fig.8. The
darkening of this plate to your            anew in another D-Sorbitol
                                                                                                                                          maximum diffraction efficiency in
control plate. If it is the same,          solution of different concentration.
                                               620                                                                                        the blue region is >25% and in the
more exposure is needed so go                                                      600                                                    green and red regions >45%.
back and repeat the process.                                                       580
Stop when a result that is just                                                    540                                                    Typical sensitivity values for
marginally darker than the fog                                                     520                                                    PFG-03C are 2mJ/cm2 and 3mJ/
level is obtained. This is then the                                                         0      5      10         15   20     25       cm2 for the blue and red/green
correct latensification exposure                                                         D-Sorbitol water solution concentration (%)
                                                                                                                                          regions respectively.
for your geometry.                          Figure 5: Hologram Colour versus
                                            D-Sorbitol Solution Concentration for
                                            exposure @ 526 nm.
Now       that     the      proper                                                 -2                                                                                50%

latensification time has been dis-
                                                                                                                                         Grain Size Distribution %

covered, after every proper                                                                                                                                          40%

holoplate exposure you must take
                                        l o g S ( c m 2/ m J )

your plate and illuminate it exactly                                               -3

as described above for the time                                                                                                                                      20%

that you have worked out. Then
all processing is as normal.

Latensification stabilizes and                                                                   500           600        700      800
                                                                                                                                                                           0.005      0.010   0.015   0.020
                                                                                                                                                                                   Grain size (mm)
enhances the latent image                                                                              Wavelength (nm)

formed by the holographic                  Figure 6: Spectral Sensitivity curves for                                                      Figure 7: Grain Size distribution curve
                                           PFG-03C (grey) and PFG-03M (black).                                                            for PFG-03C and PFG-03M.
                                         633 nm       514 nm

                                                                              holograms                                                                  PFG-03C

                                                                             Exposure             1500 - 2000 mJ/cm2                                  2500 - 3000 mJ/cm2
Diffraction efficiency

                         40%                                                 Hardening            Hardener, 2-3 min                                    Hardener, 6 min
                                                                             Wash                   Water, 1-2 min                                      Water, 1-2 min
                                                                             Development           GP-2, 10 - 15min                                     VRP, 4 - 5min
                         20%                                                 Wash                   Water, 1-2 min                                      Water, 1-2 min
                                                                             Fixing                  Fixer, 2 min                                             No
                                                                             Bleach                       No                                         PBU-Amidol, 5-8 min
                                                                             Wash                   Water, 1-2 min                                      Water, 1-2 min
                                    2             3         4           5
                                        Exposure (mJ/cm2)                    Stop bath                    No                                           Stop bath, 2 min
                         Figure 8: Diffraction Efficiency Curve
                                                                             Wash                         No                                            Water, 1-2 min
                         for PFG03C.                                         Bathing                      No                                          Water with wetting
                                                                                                                                                         agent, 1min
                                                                             Drying            50%,75% and 96% Ethyl                                   Slow Air Drying
                                   Hardener                                                    Alcohol, 2mins each bath
                         Formalin 37%                           10ml                   Table 4: Recommended Processing for PFG-03M and PFG-03C
                         Potassium Bromide                      2g
                         Sodium Carbonate                       5g
                         Water                                   to 1L
                                                                                      DICHROMATED GELATINE PFG-04

                                GP-2 Developer                              This material is designed for the        Note that the processing solution
                         Concentrated solution:                             recording of reflection Denisyuk         temperatures must not exceed
                         Methyl Phenidone         0.2g                      type holograms using CW laser            20oC for fresh layers. If holo-
                         Hydroquinone             5g                        radiation (e.g. 488nm, 514nm -           grams appear “milky” in colour
                         Sodium Sulphite(Anhyd.) 100g                       Argon laser). The material spec-         then the processing solution tem-
                         Potassium Hydroxide       5g                       tral sensitivity curve is shown in       perature should be decreased or
                         Ammonium Thiocyanate 12g                           Fig.9. The sensitivity reaches           the thermal hardening period
                         or Potassium Thiocyanate 24g                       100mJ/cm2 in the blue spectral           should be prolonged. The mate-
                         Water                 to 1L                        region and 250mJ/cm 2 in the             rial shelf life is 18 months (aver-
                         Working solution:                                  green. Due to its grainless struc-       age observed period).
                         40ml GP-2+1L H20                                   ture, this material has a very high
                                                                            resolving power and a diffraction
                                   VRP Developer                            efficiency of >75%.
                         Concentrated solution:
                                                                            The recommended processing
                         Sodium Sulphite              194g                  technique for PFG-04 is as fol-
                                                                                                                     log S (cm2/mJ)

                         (Andydrous)                                        lows:
                         Hydoquinone                    25g                                                                                 -3

                         Potassium Hydroxide           22g                  1).Thermal Hardening after expo-
                         Methyl Phenidone              1.5g                 sure (100oC) - Depending on the
                         Potassium Bromide              20g                 layer freshness. See Fig.10.
                         Potassium Metaborate 140g                                                                                          -4
                                                                            2).Cooling to room temperature.
                         1,2,3-Benzotriazole           0.1g                                                                                              300        400     500        600
                                                                                                                                                               Wavelength (nm)
                         Distilled Water              to 1L                 3).Bathing in running filtered wa-
                         Working solution:                                                                           Figure 9: Spectral Sensitivity Curve for
                                                                            ter - 3mins.                             PFG-04.
                         1 part of developer + 6 parts water.
                                                                            4).Bathing in 50% Isopropyl Alco-
                                      Fixer                                 hol solution for 2 - 3 mins.                                    60
                         Sodium Thiosulphate
                                                                                                                     Hardening Time (min)

                         (cryst.)                           160 g           5).Bathing in 75% Isopropyl Alco-
                         Potassium                                          hol solution for 2 - 3 mins.                                    40

                         Metabisulphite                         40 g        6).Bathing in 100% Isopropyl Al-
                         Water                                  to 1L       cohol solution for 2 - 3 mins.

                                    Stop Bath
                         Acetic Acid                         20g            7).Drying in a desiccator. (100oC)
                                                                                                                                                 0   2         4     6      8     10     12
                         Water                              to 1L           for 60 mins.                                                                   Freshness (months)
                                                                                                                     Figure 10. Hardening time for PFG-04 vs
                                                                            8).Emulsion layer preservation           Storage Time. The black curve corre-
                         Table 5: Recommended Chemistry for                 using optical anhydrous adhesive         sponds to a storage temperature of 18
                         PFG-03C and PFG-03M.                               and protective glass.                    o
                                                                                                                       C and the grey curve to 4 oC.
      TEMPORARY                                                                        For emulsion protection of
                                         FINAL LAMINATION                              transmission film holograms we
      LAMINATION                                                                       recomend the use of a transparent
Holography materials certified          The emulsion of holograms made                 double-sided self-adhesive film
and distributed by Geola are            on film and glass plates should                (e.g. Optimount 60238 from Hunt
manufactured on glass and TAC           be protected from humidity and                 Graphics Europe Ltd.) and a
film substrates that are ostensi-       UV light.The diffusion of water                plexiglass sheet (e.g. Plexiglas XT,
bly identical to those used by          into the emulsion leads to the                 from Rohm GmbH, Germany,
Agfa.                                   colour of the hologram changing.     
                                        UV radiation causes hologram
The temporary film lamination           brightness degradation (the "print             One side of the double-sided film is
technique described below is an         out" effect). In order to protect the          applied to the emulsion side of the
alternative to the well-known in-       hologram from these unwanted                   hologram and the other side is stuck
dex matching technique and is           effects one may cover and seal                 to the plexiglass. This can be done
easier and less time-consuming.         the hologram on one or both                    either by hand (rubber roller) or by
The technique is appropriate for        faces. In the case of glass                    using     a     cold    lamination
film sheets of 20x30cm or larger.       holograms sealing from the back                machine. The result is a sandwich
                                        side is sufficient whereas film                consisting of holofilm substrate,
We recomend using an electro-           holograms should be sealed both                emulsion, adhesive and plexiglass.
static transparent film similar to      from the front and the back.
the 5105CL “Penstic” Transpar-                                                         In order to insure flatness of film
ent film from Molco GmbH                The best way to protect the back               reflection holograms the same
(, Germany.               side (the emulsion) of reflection              technique of mounting to a
The procedure is as follows.            holograms is by lamination of a                plexiglass sheet using a
                                        black self-adhesive film. We                   doublesided film may be used. The
1. Clean a glass plate and place        recomend “Black Oracal”                        result is a sandwich consisting of
it horizontally. The plate should be    641-070M from Orafol GmbH,                     the film substrate, the emulsion, a
slightly bigger than the actual film.   Germany (, or a                  black self-adhesive film, the
                                        similar product. It is straight-               double-sided self-adhesive film and
2. With a soft brush create an          forward to apply this black film to            finally the plexiglass sheet.
electrostatic charge on the glass       the emulsion side of the hologram
plate.                                  using a photographic rubber                    Front-side protection of the
                                        roller. Alternatively a cold                   hologram from UV radiation can be
3. Apply the electrostatic film to      lamination machine may be used.                effected by use of the standard UV
the glass plate with a (photo-          The result is a sandwich                       reflecting films available from
graphic) rubber roller making           consisting of the holographic                  E        d            m      o         n        d
sure that you eliminate all the air     substrate, the emulsion and the                S c i e n t i f i c ( w w w. e d s c i . c o m ) .
bubbles.                                protective film.

4. Again take a soft brush and
create an electrostatic charge on                                      Material Sizes
the electrostatic film.                                                                                                        Box
                                                PLATES Emulsion*             Plate Size Q-ty per            Box Size          Weight
5. Apply the holographic film to                                               (mm)       Box                (mm)              (kg)
the electrostatic film with the rub-
ber roller making sure, once             VRP-M, PFG-01, -03C,-03M, -04 63x63                  30          180x80x90             0.95
again, that you eliminate all the        VRP-M, PFG-01, -03C,-03M, -04 102x127                25         240x165x215            3.30
bubbles.                                 VRP-M, PFG-01, -03C,-03M, -04 300x406                 6         426x325x40             5.45
6. Now use the glass plate as you                                               Sizes  Q-ty of              Box Size           Box
would a normal holographic plate.                FILMS Emulsion**               mmX m Rolls per              (mm)             Weight
                                                                                (Roll)  Box                                    (kg)
7. After making an exposure (and
latensification) simply peel off
your photosensitive film and               VRP-M,PFG-01,-03C,-03M                 35X20        1           f100X50              0.3
process it as described above.             VRP-M,PFG-01,-03C,-03M                102X 20       1          f100X 265             0.9
                                           VRP-M,PFG-01,-03C,-03M                203X 20       1          260X97X88             1.8
Another technique useful to                VRP-M,PFG-01,-03C,-03M                304X 10       1          370X97X88             1.3
achieve the necessary flatness             VRP-M,PFG-01,-03C,-03M                350X 10                  410X97X88             1.5
for the recording of film holo-                                                 1150X 10                                        8.9
                                           VRP-M,PFG-01(on request)                            1         1350X 105X95
grams smaller than 20x30cm is
to put the film between two glass                           *bigger sizes on request **cut sheets on request
plates.                                                   Table 6: Material sizes available as standard products.

Parameters                          PFG-01   VRP-M    PFG-03M      PFG-03C      PFG-04

Holographic Sensitivity
@ 457nm CW mJ/cm2                    .         .         .          2000         80000
@ 488nm CW mJ/cm2                    .         .         .            .          100000
@ 514.5nm CW mJ/cm2                  .        75         .           3000        250000
@ 526.5nm 30ns pulse with
latensification - mJ/cm2             .        75         .           .                 .
@ 633nm mJ/cm2                       80        .      1500-2000     3000               .

Maximum Density on
Characteristic Curve (Dmax)         <4.0     <4.0       <4.0         <4.0          x

Resolving Power (R), mm-1           3000     3000       >5000       >5000       Grainless

Max. of Spectral
Sensitization, nm                   633       530       633       457/514/633     415

Swollen Emulsion Layer
Strength after Chemical
Processing, H (gm force)             900      900       >50         >50            x

Deformation Temperature of 
Emulsion Layer in Water (Tdef),oC   >90oC    >90oC     >35oC        >35oC          x

Emulsion Layer Thickness
(microns)                           7 to 8   6 to 7     6 to 7      9 to 10     16 to 17

Normal Diffraction Efficiency
for Reflection
@ 457nm, %                            .        .         .          >25%         >75%
@ 488nm, %                            .        .         .           .           >75%
@ 514.5nm, %                          .      45%         .          >45%         >75%
@ 526.5nm, %                          .      45%         .           .             .
@ 633nm, %                          >45%       .       >45%         >45%           .

Observed Storage Period for the
holographic materials certified
by Geola: At 4o Celsius,
30% Humidity.

Film Roll (months)                   18       18        18            x                x

Cut Sheets (months)                  12       12         6            x                x

Plates (months)                      18       18        12           12            12
                                          Sales & Purchasing Information

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                                                         Distributors                              Tel: +03 3818 4011
The Geola International Sales                                                                     Fax:: +03 3818 4015
Coordination Office was formed in                                USA
                                                        Laser Reflections, Inc                     Brainet Corporation
order to ensure that end-users                    
obtain the highest quality                              Tel: + 1 415 896 5958                      Tel: +813 5815 2623
                                                       Fax: + 1 415 896 5171                      Fax: +81 3 3822 0025
materials available. All batches of
                                                       Keystone Scientific Co                         South Korea
holographic materials are tested in                                Daeduk Optical Instruments
our modern laboratories and                            Tel: + 1 610 269 9065            
                                                       Fax: + 1 610 269 4855                     Tel: +82 42 861 0055
certified. The best processing                                                                 Fax: +82 42 862 0055 E. S.
techniques for each material are                    Forth Dimension Holographic
                                                                            E. S. Net-work
continuously reviewed by our highly                        
skilled team of experienced                             Tel: + 1 812 988 8212             Tel: +82 2 742 7791, + 82 2 903 7791,
                                                        Fax: +1 812 988 9211              Fax: + 82 2 744 7731, + 82 2 992 7731
photonic engineers and chemists.
                                                                  UK                                   Singapore
                                                  Holographic Materials Distributors              Precision technology
                                                       Tel: + 44 181 368 6425                      Tel: +65 273 4573,
                                                       Fax: + 44181 361 8761                       Fax: +65 273 8898
In the unlikely event that any
certified holographic product is found                      J.B. Consultants                            Slovakia
                                                             KVANT s.r.o.
to     be     defective     due     to         Tel: + 44 1223 420405, + 44 1638 742205   
manufacture and this product has                         Fax: + 44 1223 420797                    Tel: +4217654113 55
                                                                                                  Fax: +421765411344
been sold through the Geola                                   France
                                                      Opton Laser International                           Taiwan
Distribution Network, this product will                       Collimage International Co, Ltd.
be replaced free of charge in the                       Tel:+33 1 69410405,              
                                                       Fax: +33 1 69413290                        Tel: + 886 2 8732 8585
shortest possible time.                                                                          Fax: + 886 2 8732 8586
            Disclaimer                                                                                 Lasing S.A.
UAB Geola reserves the right to                                                                     Tel: +91 377 5006
                                                                                                   Fax:: +91 407 3624
make change without notice to


                                                                                         Your Local Representative

P.O. Box 343, Vilnius 2006, Lithuania
Tel: +370 2 232 737
Fax: +370 2 232 838

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