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					Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu                                                                                                                       1



     Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu




       Two black-belt level practitioners competing in the World Jiu-Jitsu Championship. The technique being attempted is a triangle
                             choke, a technique that has become synonymous with the art of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu.
    Also known as          BJJ, Jiu-Jitsu, Gracie Jiu-Jitsu, GJJ

    Focus                  Grappling

    Hardness               Full Contact

    Country of origin           Brazil
    Creator                Helio Gracie, Carlos Gracie, Mitsuyo Maeda.

    Famous                 Gracie family, Machado family, Fabio Gurgel, Alexandre Dantas, Demian Maia, Marcio Gomes, Marcelo
    practitioners          Garcia, BJ Penn, Rubens Charles Maciel, Saulo Ribeiro, Xande Ribeiro, Leticia Ribeiro, Fábio Santos, Braulio
                           Estima, Bixente Lizarazu

    Parenthood                                                [1]
                           Early 20th century Kodokan Judo

    Olympic sport          No

     Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒuˈʒitsu], English: /dʒuːˈdʒɪtsuː/) is a martial art, combat sport and a
     self-defense system that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting. The art was derived from the Japanese
     martial art of Kodokan judo in the early 20th century,[1] [2] which was itself developed from a number of schools (or
     Ryu) of Japanese jujutsu in the 19th century.
     It promotes the principle that a smaller, weaker person can successfully defend themself against a bigger, stronger
     assailant by using leverage and proper technique—most notably by applying joint-locks and chokeholds to defeat the
     other person. Brazilian Jiu Jitsu can be trained for sport grappling tournaments (gi and no-gi) and mixed martial arts
     (MMA) competition or self-defense.[3] Sparring (commonly referred to as 'rolling') and live drilling play a major role
     in training, and a premium is placed on performance, especially in competition.


     History

     Origin
     The art began with Mitsuyo Maeda (aka Conde Koma, or Count Coma in English), an expert Japanese judoka and
     member of the Kodokan. Maeda was one of five of the Kodokan's top groundwork experts that judo's founder Kano
     Jigoro sent overseas to spread his art to the world. Maeda left Japan in 1904 and visited a number of countries[2]
     giving "jiu-do" demonstrations and accepting challenges from wrestlers, boxers, savate fighters and various other
     martial artists before eventually arriving in Brazil on November 14, 1914.[4]
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu                                                                                                               2


     Jujutsu, as with its parent art of judo, is known as more than just a system of fighting. Since its inception in 1882,
     judo was separated from older systems of Japanese jujutsu. This was more than just Kano's ambition to clearly
     individualize his art: to Kano, judo wasn't solely a martial art: it was also a sport; a method for promoting physical
     fitness and building character in young people; and, ultimately, a way (Do) of life.[5] [6]
     It is often claimed that BJJ is a development of traditional Japanese jujutsu, not judo, and that Maeda was a
     jujutsuka. However, Maeda never trained in jujutsu. He first trained in sumo as a teenager, and after the interest
     generated by stories about the success of judo at contests between judo and jujutsu that were occurring at the time, he
     changed from sumo to judo, becoming a student of Kano's Kodokan judo.[2] He was promoted to 7th dan in Kodokan
     judo the day before he died in 1941.
     Helio Gracie also held the rank of 6th dan in judo.[7]


     Name
     When Maeda left Japan, judo was still often referred to as "Kano Jiu-Jitsu",[8] or, even more generically, simply as
     "Jiu-Jitsu."[9] [10] Higashi, the co-author of "Kano Jiu-Jitsu"[8] wrote in the foreword:
           "Some confusion has arisen over the employment of the term 'jiudo'. To make the matter clear I will
           state that jiudo is the term selected by Professor Kano as describing his system more accurately than
           jiu-jitsu does. Professor Kano is one of the leading educators of Japan, and it is natural that he should
           cast about for the technical word that would most accurately describe his system. But the Japanese
           people generally still cling to the more popular nomenclature and call it jiu-jitsu."[8]
     Outside Japan, however, this distinction was noted even less. The distinction between a jutsu and a do is subtle, and
     is still used somewhat arbitrarily to this day. Thus, when Maeda and Satake arrived in Brazil in 1914, every
     newspaper announced "jiu-jitsu" despite both men being Kodokan judoka.[5]
     The Japanese government itself did not officially mandate until 1925 that the correct name for the martial art taught
     in the Japanese public schools should be "judo" rather than "jujutsu".[11] In Brazil, the art is still called "Jiu-Jitsu".
     When the Gracies went to the United States to spread their art, they renamed this Japanese fighting system as
     "Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu" and "Gracie Jiu-Jitsu." "Jiu-jitsu" is an older romanization that was the original spelling of the
     art in the West, and it is still in common use, whereas the modern Hepburn romanization is "jūjutsu." Other common
     spellings are "jujitsu" and "ju-jitsu".
     The art is sometimes referred to as Gracie Jiu-Jitsu (GJJ), but this name is trademarked by Rorion Gracie and
     specifically refers to the style taught by him and his selected teachers. Other members of the Gracie family often call
     their style by personalized names, such as Charles Gracie Jiu-Jitsu or Renzo Gracie Jiu-Jitsu, and similarly, the
     Machado brothers call their style Machado Jiu-Jitsu (MJJ). While each style and its instructors have their own
     unique aspects, they are all basic variations of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. Today there are three major branches of BJJ from
     Brazil: Gracie Humaita, Gracie Barra, and Carlson Gracie Jiu-Jitsu. Each branch can trace its roots back to Mitsuyo
     Maeda and the Gracie family.
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu                                                                                                               3


     Development
     Maeda met an influential businessman named Gastão Gracie who helped him get established. In 1916, his 14
     year-old son Carlos Gracie watched a demonstration by Maeda at the Teatro da Paz (Theatre of Peace) and decided
     to learn the art. Maeda accepted Carlos as a student,[2] and Carlos went on to become a great exponent of the art and
     ultimately, with his younger brother Hélio Gracie became the founder of Gracie Jiu-Jitsu, modern Brazilian
     Jiu-Jitsu.[12]
     In 1921, Gastão Gracie and his family moved to Rio de Janeiro. Carlos, then 17 years old, passed Maeda's teachings
     on to his brothers Osvaldo, Gastão and Jorge. Hélio was too young and sick at that time to learn the art, and due to
     medical imposition was prohibited to take part in the training sessions. Despite that, Hélio learned from watching his
     brothers. He eventually overcame his health problems and is now considered by many as the founder of Brazilian
     Jiu-Jitsu (though others, such as Carlson Gracie, have pointed to Carlos as the founder of the art).[12]
     Hélio competed in several submission judo competitions which mostly ended in a draw. One defeat (in Brazil in
     1951) was by visiting Japanese judoka Masahiko Kimura, whose surname the Gracies gave to the arm lock used to
     defeat Hélio. The Gracie family continued to develop the system throughout the 20th century, often fighting vale
     tudo matches (precursors to modern MMA), during which it increased its focus on ground fighting and refined its
     techniques.[13]
     Today, the main differences between the BJJ styles is between traditional Gracie Jiu-Jitsu's emphasis on self-defense,
     and Sport Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu's orientation towards competition. There is a large commonality of techniques between
     the two. Also, there is a wide variety of ideals in training in different schools in terms of the utilization of technique
     versus how much to attempt to overpower an opponent.


     Divergence from Kodokan rules
     Since judo was introduced to Brazil there have been changes in the rules of sport judo—some to enhance it as a
     spectator sport, and some for improved safety. Several of these rule changes have greatly de-emphasised the
     groundwork aspects of judo, and others have reduced the range of joint locks allowed and when they can be applied.
     Many of the banned techniques are preserved in the judo kata, and are practised to varying extents in different clubs.
     Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu did not follow many of these changes to judo rules, and this divergence[14] has given it a distinct
     identity as a martial art, while still being recognizably related to judo. Other factors that have contributed towards the
     stylistic divergence of BJJ from sport judo include the Gracies' desire to create a national martial art, the influence of
     Brazilian culture, and the Gracies' emphasis on full-contact fighting.
     BJJ permits all the techniques that judo allows to take the fight to the ground, these include judo's scoring throws as
     well as judo's non-scoring techniques that it refers to as 'skillful takedowns' (such as the flying armbar). BJJ also
     allows any and all takedowns from wrestling, sambo, or any other grappling art. BJJ also differs from judo in that it
     also allows a competitor to drag his opponent to the ground, and also even to drop to the ground himself provided he
     has first taken a grip.[15] Early Kodokan judo not only allowed all that BJJ now allows, it even allowed a fighter to
     drop straight to the ground without first taking a grip.
     BJJ's different rules set and point scoring mechanisms are designed to give BJJ an arguably more practical emphasis,
     by rewarding positions of control from which the grappler could strike their opponent (if it weren't for the sport's
     restrictions against striking).
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu                                                                                                              4


     Prominence
     Jiu-Jitsu came to international prominence in the martial arts community in the 1990s, when Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu
     expert Royce Gracie won the first, second and fourth Ultimate Fighting Championships, which at the time were
     single elimination martial arts tournaments.[3] Royce fought against often much-larger opponents who were
     practicing other styles, including boxing, shoot-fighting, karate, judo and tae kwon do. It has since become a staple
     art for many MMA fighters and is largely credited for bringing widespread attention to the importance of ground
     fighting. Sport BJJ tournaments continue to grow in popularity worldwide and have given rise to no-gi submission
     grappling tournaments, such as the ADCC Submission Wrestling World Championship.


     Style of fighting
     Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu emphasizes taking an opponent to the ground and utilizing ground fighting techniques and
     submission holds involving joint-locks and chokeholds also found in numerous other arts with or without ground
     fighting emphasis. The premise is that most of the advantage of a larger, stronger opponent comes from superior
     reach and more powerful strikes, both of which are somewhat negated when grappling on the ground.
     BJJ permits a wide variety of techniques to take the fight to the ground after taking a grip. Once the opponent is on
     the ground, a number of maneuvers (and counter-maneuvers) are available to manipulate the opponent into a suitable
     position for the application of a submission technique. Achieving a dominant position on the ground is one of the
     hallmarks of the BJJ style, and includes effective use of the guard position to defend oneself from bottom, and
     passing the guard to dominate from top position with side control, mount, and back mount positions. This system of
     maneuvering and manipulation can be likened to a form of kinetic chess when utilized by two experienced
     practitioners. A submission hold is the equivalent of checkmate in the sport. However, it is possible for a combat
     situation to continue even after a proper submission is performed.
     Renzo Gracie wrote in his book Mastering Jujitsu:
           "The classical jujutsu of old Japan appeared to have no common strategy to guide a combatant over the
           course of a fight. Indeed, this was one of Kano's most fundamental and perceptive criticisms of the
           classical program." Maeda not only taught the art of judo to Carlos Gracie, but also taught a particular
           philosophy about the nature of combat developed by Kano, and further refined by Maeda based on his
           worldwide travels competing against fighters skilled in a wide variety of martial arts.[16]
     The book details Maeda's theory as arguing that physical combat could be broken down into distinct phases, such as
     the striking phase, the grappling phase, the ground phase, etc. Thus, it was a smart fighter's task to keep the fight
     located in the phase of combat that best suited to his own strengths. Renzo Gracie stated that this was a fundamental
     influence on the Gracie approach to combat, these strategies were further perfected over time by the Gracies and
     others, and became prominent in contemporary MMA.


     Comparison with judo
     Originally having been developed from judo, and while still recognizable as closely related and even as a style of
     judo, there are some differences from modern Olympic judo. For example BJJ encourages free sparring without
     striking (also known as "rolling"), against a live, resisting opponent very similar to randori in judo, however the rules
     related to this sparring have some differences.


     Ground fighting
     BJJ is most strongly differentiated by its greater emphasis on groundwork, in contrast with judo's greater emphasis
     on throws, due to both its radically different point-scoring system, and the absence of most of the judo rules that
     cause the competitors to have to recommence in a standing position. This has led to greater time dedicated to training
     on the ground, resulting in enhancement of judo's groundwork techniques by BJJ practitioners.
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu                                                                                                                5


     There are also many techniques that have been allegedly created by BJJ practitioners. Many have been used in some
     form or another by Kodokan judo practitioners during its long history. Some of them are now rarely seen in judo
     dojos. In some instances, BJJ practitioners genuinely rediscovered techniques that they did not know existed in judo,
     such as the Gogoplata. However, some new techniques have certainly been developed by BJJ practitioners, such as
     the "rubber guard" defensive hold.
     Along with BJJ's great strengths on the ground comes its relative weakness with standing techniques such as striking.
     Many judo practitioners also regard the art as having greatly lost the ability to execute effective throws and
     takedowns, a cornerstone of the original judo. A similar, but contrary opinion is held by BJJ practitioners of the
     ground technique in judo, which is regarded as having become extremely limited and of decreased effectivenes.
     There is an increasing amount of cross-training between the sports of BJJ and judo, and striking based arts such as
     Muay Thai, and boxing.


     Training methods
     Sport Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu's focus on submissions without the use of strikes while training allows practitioners to
     practice at full speed and with full power, resembling the effort used in a real competition. Training methods include
     technique drills in which techniques are practiced against a non-resisting partner; isolation sparring, commonly
     referred to as positional drilling, where only a certain technique or sets of techniques are used, and full sparring in
     which each opponent tries to submit their opponent using any legal technique. Physical conditioning is also an
     important part of training at many clubs.


     Primary Ground Positions
     During the ground phase of combat the BJJ practitioner strives to take a
     dominant or controlling position from which to apply submissions, these
     positions provide different options.

     Side Control

     The practitioner pins their opponent to the ground from the side of their
     body. Their laying across the opponent with weight applied to the
     opponent's chest. The opponent may be further controlled by pressure on
     either side of their shoulders and hips from the practitioner's elbows and
     knees. A wide variety of submissions are initiated from Side control.

                                                                                                 One type of Side control




                                                   Full Mount

                                                   The practitioner sits astride opponent's chest, in the strongest form of this
                                                   position the practitioner works their knees up under into the arm pits to
                                                   reduce arm movements, limiting their ability to move or counter the
                                                   submission attempts. Full Mount is mostly used to attack the arms or apply
                                                   choke holds.

        Full Mount is considered one of the most
             dominant Grappling positions.
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu                                                                                                             6


     Back Mount
     The practitioner attaches to the back of the opponent by wrapping their legs around and hooking the opponent's
     thighs with their heels. Simultaneously, the upper body is controlled by wrapping the arms around the chest or neck
     of the opponent. This position is commonly used to apply chokeholds, and counters much of the benefit an opponent
     may have from greater size or strength.

     Guard

     In the Guard, the practitioner is on their back controlling an opponent with
     their legs. The practitioner pushes and pull with the thighs or feet to upset
     the balance and limit the movements of their opponent. This position
     comes into play often when an opponent manages to place the practitioner
     upon his or her back and the practitioner seeks the best position possible to
     launch counter-attacks. This is a very versatile position from which the
     BJJ practitioner can apply a variety of joint-locks as well as various                      One type of Guard

     chokes. the two main types are 'Closed' and 'Open' guards, the key
     difference being on if the users has their legs linked together.


     Submission
     The majority of submission holds can be grouped into two broad categories: joint locks and chokes. Joint locks
     typically involve isolating an opponent's limb and creating a lever with the body position which will force the joint to
     move past its normal range of motion.[3] Pressure is increased in a controlled manner and released if the opponent
     cannot escape the hold and signals defeat by submitting. Opponents can indicate submission verbally or they can tap
     out (i.e. tap the opponent, the mat several times. Tapping one's own body is dangerous because the opponent may not
     be able to tell if his or her opponent is tapping.) A choke hold, disrupting the blood supply to the brain, can cause
     unconsciousness if the opponent does not submit soon enough.
     A less common type of submission hold is a compression lock, where the muscle of an opponent is compressed
     against a hard, large bone (commonly the shin or wrist), causing significant pain to the opponent. These types of
     locks are not usually allowed in competition due to the high risk of tearing muscle tissue. This type of lock often also
     hyper-extends the joint in the opposite direction, pulling it apart.
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu                                                                                                                 7


     Joint locks

                                                    While many joint locks are permitted, most competitions ban or restrict
                                                    some or all joint locks involving the knees, ankles, and spine. The reason
                                                    for this is that the angles of manipulation required to cause pain are nearly
                                                    the same as those that would cause serious injury. Joint locks that require a
                                                    twisting motion of the knee (called twisting knee locks or twisting knee
                                                    bars, or techniques such as heel hooks, and toe holds) are usually banned in
                                                    competitions because successfully completing the move nearly always
                                                    results in permanent damage that requires surgery. Similarly, joint
                                                    manipulations of the spine are typically barred due to the inherent danger of
                                                    crushing or mis-aligning cervical vertebrae. Leglocks are allowed in
                                                    varying degrees depending on skill level, with straight ankle locks being the
                                                    only leglocks allowed in the beginner division, or white belt level, straight
                                                    kneebars being allowed in the intermediate division, or blue belt level and
                                                    toeholds with the pressure applied inwards are allowed in the advanced
       A practitioner attempting a type of armbar   division (purple, brown, black).
                       submission.
                                               However, most joint locks involving the wrist, elbow, shoulder or ankle are
     permitted as there is a great deal more flexibility in those joints and those locks are safe to use under tournament
     conditions. Also, some fighters practice moves whose sole purpose is to inflict pain upon their opponent, in the hope
     that they will tap out. This includes driving knuckles into pressure points, holding their opponent's head in order to
     tire out the neck (called the "can opener" or kubi-hishigi) and putting body weight on top of the sternum, floating
     ribs, or similarly sensitive bones. These moves are not true submission moves - they are generally only used as
     distractions mostly in lower levels of competition. They are avoided or aggressively countered in middle to upper
     levels of competition.


     Chokes and strangles
     Chokes and strangles (commonly but somewhat incorrectly referred to as "air chokes" and "blood chokes"
     respectively) are a common form of submission. Chokes involve constriction of the windpipe (causing asphyxia.)
     Strangles involve constriction of the carotid artery (causing ischemia.)[17]
     Air chokes are less efficient than strangles and may result in damage to the opponent's trachea, sometimes even
     resulting in death. By contrast, blood chokes (strangulations) cut the flow of blood to the opponent's brain, causing a
     rapid loss of consciousness without damaging any internal structures. Being "choked-out" in this way is relatively
     safe as long as the choke is released soon enough after unconsciousness, letting blood back into the brain before
     oxygen deprivation damage begins.[18] However, it should not be practiced unsupervised.


     The Gi
     The Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu practitioner's uniform is similar to a judogi, but often with tighter cuffs on the pants and
     jacket. This allows the practitioner to benefit from a closer fit, providing less material for an opponent to manipulate,
     although there is a significant overlap in the standards that allows for a carefully selected Gi to be legal for
     competition in both styles. To be promoted in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, the wearing of the Gi while training is a
     requirement, but recently with the growing popularity of "no gi" Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, instructors have been giving out
     belts to no gi practitioners. Such as Rolles Gracie awarding Rashad Evans a black belt.
     As is the case with judo, the term kimono is sometimes used to describe the outfit, especially in Brazil.
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu                                                                                                            8


     Grading

                                                     Age categories[19]
                                                        4-6      pré-mirim

                                                        7-9       mirim

                                                       10-12      infantil

                                                       13-15 infanto-juvenil

                                                       16-17      juvenil

                                                       18-29      adulto

                                                       30-35      master

                                                       36-40      sênior I

                                                       41-45     sênior II

                                                       46-50     sênior III

                                                       51-55     sênior IV

                                                        56+      sênior V



                                           Junior belt colors (15 and under)
                                                       White

                                                      Yellow

                                                      Orange

                                                       Green



                                            Adult belt colors (16 and over)
                                                       White

                                                       Blue

                                                       Purple

                                                      Brown

                                                       Black

                                                     Black/Red

                                                        Red


     The Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu ranking system awards a practitioner different colored belts to signify increasing levels of
     technical knowledge and practical skill. While the system's structure shares its origins with the judo ranking system
     and the origins of all colored belts, it now contains many of its own unique aspects and themes. Some of these
     differences are relatively minor, such as the division between youth and adult belts and the stripe/degree system.
     Others are quite distinct and have become synonymous with the art, such as a marked informality in promotional
     criteria, including as a focus on a competitive demonstration of skill, and a conservative approach to promotion in
     general.[20] [21] [22] Traditionally, the concept of competitive skill demonstration as a quickened and earned route of
     promotion holds true.[20] [21] [22] Some schools have placed a green belt for adults between the white and blue belt
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu                                                                                                      9


     ranks due to the long periods between advancement.


     World Jiu-Jitsu Championship
     One of the most prestigious and recognized Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu tournament in the world is the World Jiu-Jitsu
     Championship (known as the Mundials), hosted annually by the International Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Federation. [23]
     It must be noted that when speaking of the world championship it most often specifies championships held by
     International Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Federation. There have been other organizations like the CBJJE which also hosts
     World Class Championships in Brazil. In the United States there are many success stories with American fighters
     such as BJ Penn being the first American to win a gold medal in the Black Belt Division and as well Ryan
     Beauregard being the only American in 2008, in the Brown Belt division to win a World Championship in Brazilian
     Jiu-Jitsu.


     BJJ Teams with the most Gold Medals [24]

                                                          Team         Titles

                                                  Gracie Barra         164

                                                  Alliance             89

                                                  Gracie Humaita       76

                                                  Nova Uniao           58

                                                  Brasa                35

                                                  Carlson Gracie Team 27

                                                  Brazilian Top Team   21


     • Data is aggregated from several sources of predominant BJJ, Jiu-Jitsu Tournaments including IBJJF tournament
       results from 1996 - 2009


     See also
     •   10th planet jiu-jitsu
     •   Aiki-jujutsu
     •   Aikido
     •   Hapkido
     •   Judo
     •   Jujutsu
     •   Sambo
     •   Mixed martial arts
     •   Pankration
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu                                                                                                                                      10


     Sources
     • Official IBJJF rules [25]. URL last accessed October 24, 2008
     • Gastão and Hélio Gracie talk about Gracie Jiu-Jitsu [26] - interviewed in 1997 for Gracie Jiu-Jitsu Videos
     • IFBJJ Graduation System [27]. URL last accessed September 19, 2007


     External links
     • IBJJF..org [28], IBJJF/CBJJ Tournament Results
     • Vinicius "Draculino" Magalhaes [29], Fourth degree black belt, multi-time Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu world champion.
       Primary academies in the United States and Brazil with affiliates around the world.


     References
     [1] Virgílio, Stanlei (2002) (in Portuguese). Conde Koma - O invencível yondan da história. Editora Átomo. pp. 93. ISBN 85-87585-24-X.
     [2] Virgílio, Stanlei (2002) (in Portuguese). Conde Koma invencível yondan da história. Editora Átomo. pp. 22–25. ISBN 858758524X.
     [3] AZcentral.com (http:/ / www. azcentral. com/ sports/ azetc/ articles/ 1030mma. html), Untangling a sport that transcends style Chad Edward
         The Cincinnati Enquirer October 30, 2007 12:05 PM
     [4] Eros, Rildo. "História do Judô" (http:/ / www. judodaunicamp. hpg. ig. com. br/ historia. htm). .
     [5] Virgílio, Stanlei (2002) (in Portuguese). Conde Koma - O invencível yondan da história. Editora Átomo. pp. 72–73. ISBN 85-87585-24-X.
     [6] For more on this, see judo and Kano Jigoro.
     [7] According to Masahiko Kimura in his book "My Judo", Helio Gracie was a 6th dan judo at the time of his fight with Kimura in 1951 (http:/ /
         www. judoinfo. com/ kimura4. htm see extract]). There is no Kodokan record of Hélio Gracie having any dan grade in judo, but it is not
         unusual for a foreign judoka's actual grade to be higher than that officially granted and recorded by the Kodokan, as Kodokan ranks are
         maintained independently and have much more strict requirements.
     [8] As evidenced by the title of the book Hancock, H. Irving; Higashi, Katsukuma (1905). The Complete Kano Jiu-Jitsu (Judo). New York: G. P.
         Putnam & Sons. pp. 544. See details, including the original book cover here (http:/ / www. bestjudo. com/ brcompletekanojiujitsu. shtml).
     [9] As evidenced by the title of the book Kano, Jigoro (1937). Jiu-Jitsu (Judo). Tokyo, Japan: Board of Tourist Industry, Japanese Government
         Railways. pp. 59. See details, including the original book cover here (http:/ / www. bestjudo. com/ judo. jpg).
     [10] As also evidenced by the title of the book Gregory, O.H.; Tomita, Tsunejiro (circa 1907). Judo: The Modern School of Jiu-Jitsu. Chicago,
         USA.
     [11] Motomura, Kiyoto. "Budō in the Physical Education Curriculum of Japanese Schools." In Alexander Bennett, ed., Budo Perspectives.
         Auckland: Kendo World, 2005, pp. 233-238.
     [12] Virgílio, Stanlei (2002) (in Portuguese). Conde Koma - O invencível yondan da história. Editora Átomo. pp. 93–104. ISBN 85-87585-24-X.
     [13] Peligro, Kid (2003). The Gracie Way: Illustrated History of the World's Greatest Martial Arts Family. Invisible Cities Press Llc.
         ISBN 1-931229-28-7.
     [14] IBJJF rules (http:/ / www. ibjjf. org/ rules. htm)(International Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Federation) - URL last accessed April 3, 2008
     [15] Article 5.2.2.A of the IBJJF rules states "The athlete will only be allowed to kneel after having taken hold of his opponents kimono."
     [16] Gracie, Renzo (2003). Mastering Jujitsu. Human Kinetics. pp. 1–233. ISBN 0736044043.
     [17] Ohlenkamp, Neil. Principles of Judo Choking Techniques (http:/ / judoinfo. com/ chokes. htm). judoinfo.com. URL last accessed October
         23, 2007.
     [18] Koiwai, E.K. (MD). How Safe is Choking in Judo? (http:/ / judoinfo. com/ chokes2. htm). judoinfo.com. URL last accessed October 23,
         2007.
     [19] http:/ / www. ibjjf. org/ rules. htm
     [20] "Martial arts ranking" (http:/ / usadojo. com/ learning-center/ martial-arts-ranking. htm). The similar graduation system of another martial
         art (Karate). . Retrieved October 13th, 2009.
     [21] Camargo, Bruno. "IBJJF Graduation system" (http:/ / www. ibjjf. org/ graduation. htm). . Retrieved October 13th, 2009.
     [22] Gracie, Renzo & Royler (2001). Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu: Theory and Technique. Invisible Cities Press Llc. pp. 304. ISBN 1931229082.
     [23] IBJJF.org (http:/ / www. ibjjf. org/ worlds. htm)
     [24] from BJJ Legends Magazine & DVD Article, 2009 - Team with Most Gold Medals (http:/ / www. bjjlegends. com/ bjj/ bjjnogi-tournaments/
         tournaments/ item/ 49-world-champions-1996-to-2009-team-with-most-gold-medals. html) Data is aggregated from several sources of
         predominant BJJ, Jiu-Jitsu Tournaments including IBJJF tournament results from 1996 - 2009
     [25] http:/ / www. ibjjf. org/ rules. htm
     [26] http:/ / video. google. com/ videoplay?docid=-266490598921567133
     [27] http:/ / www. ibjjf. org/ graduation. htm
     [28] http:/ / www. ibjjf. org/ results. htm
     [29] http:/ / www. draculinobjjtraining. com
Article Sources and Contributors                                                                                                                                                                   11



    Article Sources and Contributors
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    Akqjt, Aktsu, Aldis90, Alex Klotz, Alltherightanswers, Andreworkney, Angela, AnonWolf, Antonio Prates, Atownbrown, Auric, Auto-revert, Baa, Ballinmangosocks, Barklund, Bartinho,
    Bazzargh, Beabodybuilder, BigHairRef, Bihal, Billybeat, Biscuitbox, Biscuitking, Bjjfan, Bjjlegends, Bkalafut, Blamster55, Blaznfattyz, Boccobrock, Boosie123, Bradeos Graphon, Brat32,
    Bryan Derksen, Btball, Buddy23Lee, Budo-tx, Burkedavis, C3smash, Caiaffa, Cainewiki, Caloss, Canadian Ninja, CardinalDan, CasualFighter, Causa sui, Ceara33, ChaoticLlama, Chris the
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    FlowWTG, Freedom skies, Frenchman113, FromanylanD, Garion96, Gatta, GilbertoSilvaFan, GrapplersQuest, GrapplingArts, GreenSprite, Hateless, Hbent, Headinthedoor, Heqs,
    Horrorfiend138, Hutcher, ILoveCountryMusic, Igoldste, Illegalheadbutt, Impreza01, Iwtbf42, J Sho, J.delanoy, JNW, Jag149, Jaileer, Jamyers, Jdsouza, JerryFriedman, Jfjkdc, Joel7687, John
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    Scottandrewhutchins, Seabro99, Seahorseruler, Sensei kurt, Shaggorama, Shawnc, Shooshi, SimonD, Sinneed, Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington, Skrilmps, Skysmith, Sleepinggypsy, Smertios,
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    Wanndeco, WatchAndObserve, Werdna, West Brom 4ever, Wiggalama, Wikieditor06, Wikipelli, WilliamBKH, Willking1979, Woohookitty, Xezbeth, Xyzzyva, Y, Yjabri, ZeroOne, 1412
    anonymous edits




    Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
    Image:GABRIEL_VELLA_vs_ROMINHO_51.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:GABRIEL_VELLA_vs_ROMINHO_51.jpg  License: Creative Commons
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    Image:Fm3-25-150combativesfig3-2frontmount.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fm3-25-150combativesfig3-2frontmount.png  License: Public Domain
     Contributors: -Marcus-, Rorybowman
    Image:Guard1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Guard1.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Phil192
    Image:In-guard armbar.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:In-guard_armbar.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Parhessiastes
    Image:BJJ White Belt.PNG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BJJ_White_Belt.PNG  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Buddy23Lee
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