Road Pricing The Dutch Approach

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					                          Road Pricing
                       The Dutch Approach
               Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
                            Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
                                Transport Research Centre


                                                  Leo van den Berg
                                                  Senior Consultant


0   Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
    Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
    Transport Research Centre
                                                                      Road Pricing Seminar
                                                                      Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
Index


•   History
•   MobiMiles - Reference model
•   MobiMiles - Implementation
•   MobiMiles - Organisation
•   MobiMiles - Status
•   Conclusion




0    Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
     Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
     Transport Research Centre
                                                                Road Pricing Seminar
                                                                Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
Index


•   History
•   MobiMiles - Reference model
•   MobiMiles - Implementation
•   MobiMiles - Organisation
•   MobiMiles - Status
•   Conclusion




0    Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
     Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
     Transport Research Centre
                                                                Road Pricing Seminar
                                                                Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
History-Context


                                                               • More than 8 million motor
                                                                 vehicles (6,5 million private
                                                                 cars)
                                                               • Vehicle growth > 4%
                                                               • 1 car per 2 inhabitants
                                                               • Speeds during rush-hour
                                                                       < 60 km/hour
                                                                       Between 60 and 80
                                                                       > 80 km/hour




0   Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
    Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
    Transport Research Centre
                                                                                  Road Pricing Seminar
                                                                                  Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
History-Context


                        Demand
                       Management
                                                                         Traffic Flow
                                                                           Control




 Travel                    Pre-trip                            On-trip
Demand                     Choice                              Choice    Traffic              Monitoring



                                                            Traffic
                                                         Information

                            Travel
                         Information


0   Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
    Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
    Transport Research Centre
                                                                                        Road Pricing Seminar
                                                                                        Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
History-Investigation


• Research focused on fully automatic ¨Toll driving¨
  with free flowing traffic. This means toll gates and:
   – DSRC (vehicle roadside communication)
   – On-board unit
   – Smart card ¨on the spot¨ payment
   – Fully automatic enforcement
   – Error: < 1 * 10-6
• Technology driven project. Other issues (legislation,
  economic effects, policy issues, social impact etc.)
  were left out.

0   Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
    Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
    Transport Research Centre
                                                               Road Pricing Seminar
                                                               Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
History-Field trials

• Based on a basic specification a Request for Proposal was
  commissioned. Test should give answers for:
   – Detection of the vehicle
   – Localization of the vehicle
   – Automatic financial transaction
   – Digital picture

Result: Road Pricing was feasible but new technology was needed.


 But how to cope with decreasing social acceptance of

0                      toll driving?
     Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
     Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
     Transport Research Centre
                                                                Road Pricing Seminar
                                                                Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
MobiMiles

• Existing project was expensive and based on the traditional
  Design and Build of the Ministry.
• The popularity for alternative forms of payment increased:
  variable kilometre charging, a fairer form of charging depending
  on time and location.
• The Minister requested short term ¨technology scouting¨ for
  kilometre charging
            – How should we implement it?
            – With what technology?
            – How can we have a short term field trial?




0
                MobiMiles concept was launched!
    Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
    Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat                        Road Pricing Seminar
    Transport Research Centre                                  Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
Index


•   History
•   MobiMiles - Reference model
•   MobiMiles - Implementation
•   MobiMiles - Organisation
•   MobiMiles - Status
•   Conclusion




0    Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
     Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
     Transport Research Centre
                                                                Road Pricing Seminar
                                                                Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
MobiMiles – Model requirements

1. Mobimiles must variabilise and differentiate the costs of road
   use.
2. Mobimiles must comply with the most stringent privacy
   requirements and expectations.
3. Mobimiles must be reliable and enforceable
4. Mobimiles must establish a link between demand for and
   availability of the road infrastructure.
5. Mobimiles must be introduced in a manner attractive to the
   user.
6. Mobimiles must be based on a solid architecture.



0   Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
    Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
    Transport Research Centre
                                                               Road Pricing Seminar
                                                               Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
MobiMiles – Reference model

                                                                Network
                                                                 Region
                                                                Services

                                                               Road type
                                                               Information

       Network                                                                Account            Network
                                    Position                    Trusted
       Location                                                                                  Payment
                                  Information                    Wallet
       Services                                                                                  Services
                                                                 Status
                                                                Request

                                                                Network
                                                               Verification


0   Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
    Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
    Transport Research Centre
                                                                Services

                                                                                        Road Pricing Seminar
                                                                                        Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
MobiMiles – Reference model

• The reference model has 5 main components:
   – Cost calculation (Trusted Wallet)
   – Charge distribution (Network Region Services)
   – Location determination of the vehicle (Network Location
     Services)
   – Payment (Network Payment Services)
   – Enforcement (Network Verification Services)




0   Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
    Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
    Transport Research Centre
                                                               Road Pricing Seminar
                                                               Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
Index


•   History
•   MobiMiles - Reference model
•   MobiMiles - Implementation
•   MobiMiles - Organisation
•   MobiMiles - Status
•   Conclusion




0    Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
     Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
     Transport Research Centre
                                                                Road Pricing Seminar
                                                                Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
MobiMiles – Implementation Cost calculation

• Trusted Wallet takes care of:
   – Adding and deducting the MobiMiles
   – Storage function
   – Identification (user to MobiMiles)
   – Monitoring integrity
• Trusted Wallet could be:
   – Chipknip (existing bankcard)
   – SIM card (as used in mobile phone)
   – New chipcard (such as the mobility pass)



0   Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
    Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
    Transport Research Centre
                                                               Road Pricing Seminar
                                                               Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
MobiMiles – Implementation Charge distribution

•   Road network broken down in road sections
•   Every section has its own charge code
•   Each charge code implies a cost level
•   Charge code can change over time
•   Some sections could have a ¨negative¨ charge code: The user
    ¨earns¨ points.




0    Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
     Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
     Transport Research Centre
                                                                Road Pricing Seminar
                                                                Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
MobiMiles – Implementation Charge distribution




                     06:00
                     08:00
                     07:00
0   Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
    Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
    Transport Research Centre
                                                               Road Pricing Seminar
                                                               Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
MobiMiles – Implementation Enforcement

• System must be highly fraud resistance!
   – How to detect falsification of data
   – How to detect evasion
• The greater the profit from participating in the system, the less
  will be the urge to act fraudulently!
• Random unexpected interaction with the system is needed to
  detect fraud!


                                                               ¨Digital enforcement¨



0   Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
    Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
    Transport Research Centre
                                                                                Road Pricing Seminar
                                                                                Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
MobiMiles – Implementation Enforcement




0   Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
    Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
    Transport Research Centre
                                                               Road Pricing Seminar
                                                               Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
MobiMiles – Scenario 1


                                                               SMARTCARD


                                                               Road type
                                                               Information


                                  Position                                   Account
    GPS module                                                 SIM CARD                   SMARTCARD
                                Information

                                                                 Status
                                                                Request


                                                                 DSRC



0   Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
    Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
    Transport Research Centre
                                                                                       Road Pricing Seminar
                                                                                       Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
MobiMiles – Scenario 2
                                                                GSM/
                                                                GPRS/
                                                                UMTS

                                                               Road type
                                                               Information


                                                                             Account              GSM/
                                    Position
    GPS module                                                 SIM CARD                           GPRS/
                                  Information
                                                                                                  UMTS

                                                                 Status
                                                                Request


                                                                 DSRC


0   Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
    Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
    Transport Research Centre
                                                                                       Road Pricing Seminar
                                                                                       Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
Index


•   History
•   MobiMiles - Reference model
•   MobiMiles - Implementation
•   MobiMiles - Organisation
•   MobiMiles - Status
•   Conclusion




0    Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
     Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
     Transport Research Centre
                                                                Road Pricing Seminar
                                                                Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
MoviMiles – Organisation




                                                                Service                      Tax
                                                               operator                     Office



                                                      Service              Service
                                                        Service
                                                     providers               Service
                                                                          providers
                                                          Service
                                                       providers               Service
                                                                            providers
                                                         providers            requester




0   Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
    Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
    Transport Research Centre
                                                                                          Road Pricing Seminar
                                                                                          Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
MoviMiles – Organisation B2C Services

• Business to Customer
   – Travel and Traffic information
   – Ticket reservation
   – Tourist information
   – Parking information and reservation
   – Internet
   – Gaming
   – Etc.




0   Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
    Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
    Transport Research Centre
                                                               Road Pricing Seminar
                                                               Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
Index


•   History
•   MobiMiles - Reference model
•   MobiMiles - Implementation
•   MobiMiles - Organisation
•   MobiMiles - Status
•   Conclusion




0    Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
     Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
     Transport Research Centre
                                                                Road Pricing Seminar
                                                                Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
MoviMiles – Status

• Completely changed political climate in the Netherlands
   – Increase of ¨service level¨ of existing infrastructure (improve
     public transport, more new roads)
   – No implementation of MobiMiles in this governmental period.




0   Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
    Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
    Transport Research Centre
                                                               Road Pricing Seminar
                                                               Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
Index


•   History
•   MobiMiles - Reference model
•   MobiMiles - Implementation
•   MobiMiles - Organisation
•   MobiMiles - Status
•   Conclusion




0    Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
     Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
     Transport Research Centre
                                                                Road Pricing Seminar
                                                                Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
Conclusion


• MobiMiles is a new and innovative approach to solve traffic
  problems in the Netherlands
• Mobility pricing depends on time and location
• It can be build from ¨Custom off-the-shelf¨ products
• By using an open architecture, extra (customer) services can be
  added




0   Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
    Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
    Transport Research Centre
                                                               Road Pricing Seminar
                                                               Valencia, 26th of september 2002
Road Pricing-The Dutch Approach
Conclusion




                               Questions?

0   Ministry of Transport, Water Management and Public Works
    Directorate-General Rijkswaterstaat
    Transport Research Centre
                                                               Road Pricing Seminar
                                                               Valencia, 26th of september 2002

				
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