Computer Studies Project
Input and Output devices
What is Smart card and Smart card reader ?.........P.1
Real Examples and usages ………….………….....P.2
Type of device and data..........................................P.3
Features of card and reader....................................P.4
Advantages and disadvantages …..P.5,P.6 ,P.7 & P.8
Sources of Information.........................................P.10
What is Smart card and Smart card reader ?
Smart Card Reader which comprises of a controller board
and an antenna is a electronic device used to read data stored
in the Smart cards. The reader uses inductive Radio
Frequency (RF) coupling to transmit power and data signals
to the processors inside the Smart card. Smart card is a small
electronic device about the size of a credit card that contains
electronic memory and it can store value ,digital data and
Real Examples and Usages
Octopus card and Octopus card reader are the real examples of Smart
card and Smart card reader respectively in our daily life. They are very
common in Hong Kong and have become parts of our life. We usually use
them when we take a public transport, buy something or have an
Users simply "beep" their Octopus cards on Octopus card readers which
will automatically deduct the correct amount from the cards so there's no
longer a need for coins. The Octopus can be widely used in over 160
different Service Provider’s outlets, including public transport, parking,
fast food shops, supermarkets, vending machines, access control system
and leisure facilities.
Type of device and data
Smart card reader is an input device since it accepts digital
data from the Smart card and deducts the numerical value
stored in the card in operation. The numerical value inside
the card deducted by the reader usually represents the
amount of money. In the coming years, it is believed that
the demand for coins and bank notes will decrease
gradually in Hong Kong.
Features of card and reader
The features are summarized as follows :
1. Fast transactions and wide usages
Octopus card is applicable in different services like public
transports and vending machines etc.
2. High stability
The remote contact-less feature allows the Smart card to
operate with more stability.
3. Recycle usage
The card is re-loadable, so there is no need for disposal,
and the pet material used to fabricate the card is also
Advantages and disadvantages(1)
There are six main advantages:
1. High accuracy, stability and efficiency
The interaction between the card and the reader is contact-less,
providing a fast and reliable transaction and usually without the
trouble of removing the card from the purse or wallet.
2. Multiple purposes and Solving the problems on coins
The card can be commonly used across multiple modes of public
transport in Hong Kong, allowing passengers to change modes
without buying separate tickets. There is no need to carry cash or
worry about exact charge for individual journeys.
Furthermore, it can be used to buy products and have entertainment.
3. Being environmentally friendly
The Octopus cards are reusable, thus they don’t make any
pollutions to the Earth. According to a report published by a local
University, the Octopus card has no adverse effects on the
environment and no harmful or toxic chemicals will produce or
liberate even though it is heated. P.5
Advantages and disadvantages(2)
The card is small in size, thin and easy to be brought. So users may
take their Octopus cards to everywhere hereafter instead of heavy
coins and pieces of bank notes.
5. Reducing the demand for currency
As the invention of Smart card, it leads us to another new manner of
living, it makes us more convenient and the demand for currency
has been relatively decreasing. I think the decrease is continuous
and the (decrease) rate will get faster and faster.
6. Discounts and other preference
Discounts are applied when using the Octopus card for a number
of services for some large scale companies in Hong Kong.
Advantages and disadvantages(3)
Three major disadvantages are concluded as below.
1. Dependence of card users on Octopus card and Causing inconvenience
Most of the shops in Hong Kong have not installed Octopus card
readers that may cause inconvenience for the consumers who
usually use their Octopus cards for payments.
2. Lack of capability in avoiding abuse
The Octopus card is a kind of smart card but it can not avoid
being used by abusers who may get the cards by illegal means or
finding it unintentionally from the cards’ holders and abuse it instead
of returning it to the relevant department. P.7
Advantages and disadvantages(4)
3. Easiness of being affected/damaged
The cards may be damaged and the data inside the cards may lose when
they contact with or are just near to something magnetic. Besides, they
may have the same effects if they are placed somewhere with high
humidity. Users should avoid placing their cards under the above
Photographs Special version of Octopus card
Personal Octopus card
For car parking Buying drinks with
For public transports
Adults Octopus card and its cover P.9
Sources of Information
Book : Computer Studies textbook
Websites : http://www.webopedia.com