Stephen Hawking Stephen Hawking Biography • Stephen William Hawking •

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					Stephen Hawking
• Stephen William Hawking     • After leaving the Institute
  was born on 8 January         of Astronomy in 1973
  1942. In Oxford, England.     Stephen came to the
• Stephen then went on to       Department of Applied
  Cambridge to do               Mathematics and
  research in Cosmology,        Theoretical Physics, and
  there being no-one            since 1979 has held the
  working in that area in       post of Lucasian
  Oxford at the time.           Professor of
• Professor Hawking has twelve      • Hawking would have been
  honorary degrees, was               remarkable for just his cutting
  awarded the CBE in 1982, and        edge work in theoretical
  was made a Companion of             physics. However, he has
  Honors in 1989.                     managed to strike people's
• He works at Cambridge               interests in science in a way
  University in England as a          other scientists of his stature
  physics professor. He is a          have not been able to do.
  quantum cosmologist - a           • His best selling book, A Brief
  person who studies the              History of Time offered a new
  universe at a time when it was      way to look at things. He sold
  so small that atoms had not yet     millions of copies to audiences
  formed. Hawking is best             eager to learn even some of
  known for his work involving        what Stephan Hawking has to
  the exploration into the nature     offer.
  of black holes
                                     • Also, most ALS sufferers die
• Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis        within five years of being
  (ALS), often referred to as          diagnosed, while Hawking has
  "Lou Gehrig's disease," is a         survived over three decades
  progressive neurodegenerative        with it. 5% of the cases are
  disease that affects nerve cells     hereditary.
  in the brain and the spinal        • ALS kills nerve cells in the
  cord.                                upper spinal cord, and
• Motor neurons reach from the         therefore they cannot carry
  brain to the spinal cord and         signals from the brain to the
  from the spinal cord to the          muscles of the body. ALS is an
  muscles throughout the body.         incurable disease

• Stephen Hawking is unable to
  move or speak* because of a
  disease called Amyotrophic
  Lateral Sclerosis
• As motor neurons            • When the motor neurons
  degenerate, they can no       die, the ability of the brain
  longer send impulses to       to initiate and control
  the muscle fibers that        muscle movement is lost.
  normally result in muscle   • With voluntary muscle
  movement.                     action progressively
• Early symptoms of ALS         affected, patients in the
  often include increasing      later stages of the
  muscle weakness,              disease may become
  especially involving the      totally paralyzed.
  arms and legs, speech,
  swallowing or breathing
              Assistive device
• Stephen uses a           • It is written by a
  program called             company called
  Equalizer written by a     words plus.
  company called Word      • He uses a voice
  Plus.                      synthesizer made by
• It uses a cursor           Speech +.
  across part of the       • Writes paper using
  screen.                    program called tex.

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