Stephen Hawking Biography • Stephen William Hawking • After leaving the Institute was born on 8 January of Astronomy in 1973 1942. In Oxford, England. Stephen came to the • Stephen then went on to Department of Applied Cambridge to do Mathematics and research in Cosmology, Theoretical Physics, and there being no-one since 1979 has held the working in that area in post of Lucasian Oxford at the time. Professor of Mathematics. Biography • Professor Hawking has twelve • Hawking would have been honorary degrees, was remarkable for just his cutting awarded the CBE in 1982, and edge work in theoretical was made a Companion of physics. However, he has Honors in 1989. managed to strike people's • He works at Cambridge interests in science in a way University in England as a other scientists of his stature physics professor. He is a have not been able to do. quantum cosmologist - a • His best selling book, A Brief person who studies the History of Time offered a new universe at a time when it was way to look at things. He sold so small that atoms had not yet millions of copies to audiences formed. Hawking is best eager to learn even some of known for his work involving what Stephan Hawking has to the exploration into the nature offer. of black holes Disability • Also, most ALS sufferers die • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis within five years of being (ALS), often referred to as diagnosed, while Hawking has "Lou Gehrig's disease," is a survived over three decades progressive neurodegenerative with it. 5% of the cases are disease that affects nerve cells hereditary. in the brain and the spinal • ALS kills nerve cells in the cord. upper spinal cord, and • Motor neurons reach from the therefore they cannot carry brain to the spinal cord and signals from the brain to the from the spinal cord to the muscles of the body. ALS is an muscles throughout the body. incurable disease • Stephen Hawking is unable to move or speak* because of a disease called Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Disability • As motor neurons • When the motor neurons degenerate, they can no die, the ability of the brain longer send impulses to to initiate and control the muscle fibers that muscle movement is lost. normally result in muscle • With voluntary muscle movement. action progressively • Early symptoms of ALS affected, patients in the often include increasing later stages of the muscle weakness, disease may become especially involving the totally paralyzed. arms and legs, speech, swallowing or breathing Assistive device • Stephen uses a • It is written by a program called company called Equalizer written by a words plus. company called Word • He uses a voice Plus. synthesizer made by • It uses a cursor Speech +. across part of the • Writes paper using screen. program called tex.