Docstoc

Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal_ vol

Document Sample
Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal_ vol Powered By Docstoc
					                  Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, vol.1, no.1,pp 61-72, (2005)
                          Stress Analysis of the Hip Bone

                    Dr. Akram Abood Jaffar*       Dr. Sadiq Jaffar Abass **
                              Huma Mohamed Abdullah*

               * Human Anatomy Dept. / College of Medicine / University of Al-Nahrain
            ** Medical Engineering Dept. / College of Engineering / University of Al-Nahrain


Abstract
The bony pelvis has a major role in weight transmission to the lower limbs. The
complexities of its geometric form, material properties, and loading conditions render
it an open subject to biomechanical analysis.
 The present study deals with area measurement, and three-dimensional finite element
analysis of the hip bone to investigate magnitudes, load direction, and stress
distribution under physiological loading conditions.
 The surface areas of the auricular surface, lunate surface, and symphysis pubis were
measured in (35) adult hip bones. A solid model was translated into ANSYS
parametric design language to be analyzed by finite element analysis method under
different loading conditions.
The surface areas of the auricular surface, symphysis pubis, and lunate surface were
(14.39±2.05cm², 4.46±1.01cm²,          and 24.63±3.2cm²) respectively.    A significant
positive linear relationship was found between the auricular surface area and that of
the lunate surface. No such correlation was found between the auricular surface and
symphysis pubis. The finite element analysis model showed that stresses, using the
Von Mises method, were distributed mainly in the acetabulum (anterior, superior and
posterior part: 11.2%, 5.4%, 15.9% respectively), auricular surface 24.6%, and ischial
tuberosity 40.3%, when a 70kg load was applied. Stresses calculated for higher loads
showed a positive direct proportional increase. Principle stresses indicated that failure
occurred in the anterior and posterior surface of the acetabulum as well as in the
sacrioiliac joint.
Keyword: Hip Bone, Finite Element Analysis, Stress.
                        35
                                            ANSYS

1.09 4.46, 2.05 14.39
                                                                                                   2
                                                                                                         3.2 24.63
     70

                    24.6                            15.9                  5.4           11.2%
                                                                                                               40.3




                                                                                            49




      ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, vol, 1, no.1,pp 101 --116, (2005)


 The Effect of Oil and Filer Contents on the Porosity of Lead Acid
         Battery Separators Produced From Polyethylene
                   Dr. Malek Mostafa Mohammed*                           Zyad Rafa'a Zair
            *Biochemical Engineering Dept./ Al-Khwarizmi Engineering College/ university Of Baghdad


Abstract:
        In this investigation a high density polyethylene (HDPE) was used as a substitute to
polyvinylchloride in the production of lead acid battery separators. This has been achieved by
preparing mixtures of different percentages of the feed materials which include a high density
polyethylene (HDPE) locally produced, filler materials such as silica and oils such as
dioctylphthalate (DOP) or paraffin which were added to the mixture to improve the final
properties of the separator. The materials were compounded by two roll-mills under the same
conditions. The following parameters are involved:
1- Studying the use of a high density polyethylene as a binder to film components with      (15-
30) wt.%.
2- Studying the use of finely divided silica sand with (25-45) wt.% as a medium to oil
  adsorption.
3- Studying the use of two type plasticizers (Paraffin or DOP) with        (35-55) wt. %. as a
   creative medium to films porosity.
   The best results of the feed materials in the mixture were selected so as to give the highest
porosity using 15 wt. % PE, 30 wt. % filler, and 55 wt. % oil. It has been found that the films
with DOP oil give higher porosity.
Keyword: Lead Acid Battery Separator, Polyethylene, Film, Porosity.




                                      two – roll mill

                                                      30 15
                                                                     45 25
                          55 35

                                                  55            30                                   15


  -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, vol.1, no.1,pp 46-51, (2005)

               A New Approach for Designing Multi Information
                 Management System Using XML Technology
                                               Dr. Suha Mohammed Hadi
             Information Engineering Dept./Al-Khwarizmi Engineering College/UniversityOf Baghdad



Abstract
XML is being incorporated into the foundation of E-business data applications. This paper
addresses the problem of the freeform information that stored in any organization and how
XML with using this new approach will make the operation of the search very efficient and
time consuming. This paper introduces new solution and methodology that has been
developed to capture and manage such unstructured freeform information (multi
information) depending on the use of XML schema technologies, neural network idea and
object oriented relational database, in order to provide a practical solution for efficiently
management multi freeform information system.
Keyword: Free Form Information, XML Technology, Data Modeling, Relational        Data Base.
        XML



                                                                          XML

                                                XML


                                                         XML




                   Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, vol.1, no.1,pp 38-45, (2005)
Human Face Recognition Using GABOR Filter And Different Self
            Organizing Maps Neural Networks

                                         Dr. Tarik Zeyad
               Electrical Engineering Dept./College of Engineering/ University of Baghdad




Abstract.
        This work implements the face recognition system based on two stages, the first stage is
feature extraction stage and the second stage is the classification stage. The feature extraction
stage consists of Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) in a hierarchical format in conjunction with
Gabor Filters and local image sampling. Different types of SOM’s were used and a comparison
between the results from these SOM’s was given.
    The next stage is the classification stage, and consists of self-organizing map neural
    network; the goal of this stage is to find the similar image to the input image. The proposal
   method algorithm implemented by using C++ packages, this work is successful classifier
   for a face database consist of 20 people with six images for each person and a measure of
   the time differences between the methods is given.
Keyword: Self-Organizing Map, Gabor filter

                                                   GABOR




                          GABOR
       C++




          ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                      Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, vol.1, no.1,pp 52-60, (2005)
               Speech Signal Compression Using Wavelet And
                          Linear Predictive Coding
                      Dr. Tarik Zeyad                                       Ahlam Hanoon
                Electrical Engineering Dept. / College of Engineering / University of Baghdad



Abstract
        A new algorithm is proposed to compress speech signals using wavelet transform and
linear predictive coding. Signal compression based on the concept of selecting a small number
of approximation coefficients after they are compressed by the wavelet decomposition (Haar
and db4) at a suitable chosen level and ignored details coefficients, and then approximation
coefficients are windowed by a rectangular window and fed to the linear predictor. Levinson
Durbin algorithm is used to compute LP coefficients, reflection coefficients and predictor
error. The compress files contain LP coefficients and previous sample. These files are very
small in size compared to the size of the original signals. Compression ratio is calculated from
the size of the compressed signal relative to the size of the uncompressed signal. The proposed
algorithms where fulfilled with the use of Matlab package.
Keyword: Wavelet, Speech Coding, Linear Predictive Coding, Levinson Durbin.


           ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


               Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, vol.1, no.1,pp 83-100, (2005)

    The Effect of Restriction Shape On Laminar Natural Convection Heat
                                                    Transfer In
                                        A Vertical Circul ar Tube



              Dr. Yasin K. Salman*         Hussein Ahmed Mohammed**
      Nuclear Engineering Dept,/ College of Engineering/ University of Baghdad*
     Mechanical Engineering Dept,/ College of Engineering/ University of Baghdad**




Abstract
         Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated for laminar air flow in a
vertical circular tube by using the boundary condition of constant wall heat flux in the ranges
of (RaL) from (1.1*109) to (4.7*109). The experimental set-up was designed for determining
the effect of different types of restrictions placed at entry of heated tube in bottom position, on
the surface temperature distribution and on the local and average heat transfer coefficients. The
apparatus was made with an electrically heated cylinder of a length (900mm) and diameter
(30mm). The entry restrictions were included a circular tube of same diameter as the heated
cylinder but with lengths of (60cm, 120cm), sharp-edge and bell-mouth. The surface
temperature along the cylinder surface for same heat flux would be higher values for circular
restriction with length of (120cm) and would be smaller values for bell-mouth restriction. The
results show that the local Nusselt number (Nux) and average Nusselt number ( Nu L ) are higher
for bell-mouth restriction and smaller values for (120cm) restriction. For all entry shape
restrictions, the results show that the Nusselt number values increases as the heat flux
increases. From the present work an empirical correlations were obtained in a form of
(Log Nu L ) versus (Log Ra L ) for each case investigated and obtained a general correlation for
all cases which reveals the effect of restriction existence on the natural convection heat transfer
process in a vertical circular tube.
Keyword: Restriction Shape, Laminar Natural Convection, Heat Transfer, Vertical
             Circular Tube.
                           **                                      *




                           4.7 *109            1.1 *109           RaL
                                                                  restriction

           30mm                        900mm



          ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                    Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, vol.1, no.1,pp 117-124, (2005)


                    Removal of Oil From Wastewater Using
                                Walnut-Shell

                                          Dr. Zainab Ziad Ismail
             Environmental Engineering Dept/College of Engineering./University of Baghdad



Abstract
The ability of pulverized walnut-shell to remove oil from aqueous solutions has been
studied. It involves two-phase process which consists of using walnut-shell as a filtering bed
for the accumulation and adsorption of oil onto its surface. Up to 96% oil removal from
synthetic wastewater samples was achieved while tests results showed that 75% of oil can be
removed from the actual wastewater discharged from Al- Duara refinery in the south of
Baghdad.
Keyword: Wastewater, Oil Removal, Walnut-Shell, Adsorption.
                                      96

                                                                                                                      75


            ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



  An Experimental Study of Capillary Tubes Behavior With R-12
                                                   and R-134a


                         Issam M.Ali                                            Hani A.Jasim
                  Mechanical Engineering Dept/ College Of Engineering/University Of Baghdad

Abstract:
        Experimental work has been performed on three capillary tubes of different lengths and
diameters using R-12 and R-134a. The test also studies the effect of discharge and speed of
evaporator fan. The results clearly showed that refrigerant type and discharge significantly
influence the temperature drop across the capillary tube. While the speed of evaporator fan has
small effect. Experimental results showed that the temperature gradient for the two refrigerants
are the same, but after approximatly one meter the temperature gradient of R-134a is steeper
than R-12.

       discharge and speed of evaporator fan. The results clearly showed that refrigerant type
and discharge significantly influence the temperature drop across the capillary tube. While the
speed of evaporator fan has small effect. Experimental results showed that the temperature
gradient for the two refrigerants are the same, but after approximatly one meter the temperature
gradient of R-134a is steeper than R-12.
Keyword: Refrigeration, Capillary Tube, R-12, R134a.
                                                              R12 – R134a )




                                                                                                R-134a        R-12


   R12               R134a


            ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                      Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, vol.1, no.1,pp 125-133, (2005)


   Kinetic and Mechanism of Oxidation of Oxalic Acid by Cerium
                                                          (IV)
                                                 Dr. Ammar J. Mohammed
           Biochemical Engineering Dept./,Al-khwarizmi Engineering College/ University of Baghdad


Abstract:
    Kinetic and mechanism studies of the oxidation of oxalic acid by Cerium sulphate have been carried out in
acid medium sulphuric acid. The uv- vis. Spectrophotometric technique was used to follow up the reaction and the
selected wavelength to be followed was 320 nm. The kinetic study showed that the order of reaction is first order
in Ce(IV) and fractional in oxalic acid. The effect of using different concentration of sulphuric acid on the rate of
the reaction has been studied a and it was found that the rate decreased with increasing the acid concentration.
Classical organic tests was used to identify the product of the oxidation reaction, the product was just bubbles of
CO2.
Keyword: Cerium(IV), Kinetics, Oxidation, Oxalic Acid.




                                                                                                                     :‫اٌخالصح‬
  ‫ذُ دساسح ؼشو١ح ِٚ١ىأ١ى١ح اوسذج ؼاِط االٚوضاٌ١ه فٟ اٌٛسط اٌؽاِعٟ ِٓ ؼاِط اٌىثش٠ر١ه . اسرخذِد‬
 ً‫ 023 . ت١ٕد اٌذساسح اٌؽشو١ح اْ اٌرفاػ‬nm ٟ‫ذمٕ١ح االشؼح فٛق اٌثٕفسع١ح- اٌّشئ١ح ٌّراتؼح اٌرفاػً ػٕذ اٌطٛي اٌّٛظ‬
                           . ‫ِٓ اٌّشذثح االٌٚٝ تإٌسثح ٌٍس١ش٠َٛ اٌشتاػٟ ٚاٌّشذثح اٌىسش٠ح تإٌسثح ٌؽاِط االٚوضاٌ١ه‬
      ‫ذُ دساسح ذأش١ش ذغ١١ش ذشو١ض ؼاِط اٌىثش٠ر١ه ػٍٝ سشػح اٌرفاػً ٚٚظذ اْ سشػح اٌرفاػً ذمً تض٠ادج ذشو١ض ؼاِط‬
     ‫اٌىثش٠ر١ه ذُ اسرخذاَ اٌىشٛفاخ اٌؼعٛ٠ح االٌٚ١ح ٌدشخ١ص ٔاذط االوسذج ٚٚظذ اْ ٔاذط اٌرفاػً ٘ٛ ػثاسج ػٓ فماػاخ‬
                                                                                    . ْٛ‫غاص شأٟ اٚوس١ذ اٌىاست‬

          -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                       Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, vol.1, no.1,pp 26-37, (2005)
 The Determination of Critical-Sampling Scheme of Preprocessing
     for Multiwavelets Decomposition as 1st and 2nd Orders of
                        Approximations.

           W. A. Mahmoud*                                    Z. J. M. Saleh**                              N. K. Wafi*
                 Electrical Engineering Dept / College of Engineering /University of Baghdad *.
          Information Engineering Dept ./ Al-Khwarizmi Engineering College / University of Baghdad**




Abstract
          One of the important differences between multiwavelets and scalar wavelets is
 that each channel in the filter bank has a vector-valued input and a vector-valued
 output. A scalar-valued input signal must somehow be converted into a suitable
 vector-valued signal. This conversion is called preprocessing. Preprocessing is a
 mapping process which is done by a prefilter. A postfilter just does the opposite.
 The most obvious way to get two input rows from a given signal is to repeat the
 signal. Two rows go into the multifilter bank. This procedure is called “Repeated
 Row” which introduces oversampling of the data by a factor of 2.
  For data compression, where one is trying to find compact transform representations
 for a dataset, it is imperative to find critically sampled multiwavelet transforms
 schemes which this paper focuses on finding a simple and easy to follow algorithm
 for its computation.
 One famous multiwavelet filter used here is the GHM filter proposed by Geronimo,
 Hardian, and Massopust. The GHM basis offers a combination of orthogonality,
 symmetry, and compact support, which can not be achieved by any scalar wavelet
 basis. Using a computer program for the proposed method, an example test on Lena
 image is verified which shows image properties after a single level decomposition
 and the reconstructed image after reconstruction.
       Keyword: Discrete Multiwavelete Transform (DMWT), Inverse Discrete
        Multiwavelete     Transform (IDMWT), Critical-Sampling, Schema of
                                       Processing.
                                                                                         DMWT)



                                                                                                              2



                                                                    DMWT


            ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



                 Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, vol.1, no.1,pp 1-18, (2005)

Neuro-Self Tuning Adaptive Controller for Non-Linear Dynamical
                           Systems

                                     Ahmed Sabah Abdul Ameer Al-Araji
                                         University of Technology



Abstract:
In this paper, a self-tuning adaptive neural controller strategy for unknown nonlinear system is
presented. The system considered is described by an unknown NARMA-L2 model and a feed
forward neural network is used to learn the model with two                         stages. The first stage is learned
off-line with two configuration serial-parallel model & parallel model to ensure that model
output is equal to actual output of the system & to find the jacobain of the system. Which
appears to be of critical importance parameter as it is used for the feedback controller and the
second stage is learned on-line to modify the weights of the model in order to control the
variable parameters that will occur to the system. A back propagation neural network is applied
to learn the control structure for self-tuning PID type neuro-controller. Where the neural
network is used to minimize the error function by adjusting the PID gains. Simulation results
show that the self-tuning PID scheme can deal with a large unknown nonlinearity.
Keyword: Self-Tuning, Neural Network, Adaptive Controller.




                                        (Identifier)
                                               (off-line)              (NARMA-L2)
                                       (PID)
                                                        (NARMA-L2)
                                                                  (Jacobain)


        (Weights)                 (on-line)                   (NARMA-L2)




               ( PID)
          ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                     Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, vol.1, no.1,pp 19-25, (2005)

A New Structure for Cascaded Single-Stage Distributed Amplifier
                       Using Proposed Active Inductor Loads

Azad R. Kareem
                       Control and Systems Engineering Dept./University of Technology
Abstract:
A modification to cascaded single-stage distributed amplifier (CSSDA) design by using
active inductor is proposed. This modification is shown to render the amplifier suitable
for high gain operation in small on-chip area. Microwave office program simulation of
the Novel design approach shows that it has performance compatible with the
conventional distributed amplifiers but with smaller area. The CSSDA is suitable for
optical and satellite communication systems.

Keyword: Micro electronic, Microwave, Amplifier, Distributed Amplifier.




                                                  (Cascaded Single Stage Distributed Amplification)

(integrated circuits)


                                                     (Microwave Office)



         ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
         ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.2, No.2, pp 1-14 (2006)


   Performance of Turbo-Codes with Some Proposed Interleaver
                           Schemes

                                          Ahmed S. Hadi
                             Information &Communications Engineering Dept.
                                  AL khwarizmi College of Engineering
                                          University of Baghdad



                     (Received 14 November 2005; accepted 4 April 2006)




Abstract:-
        This paper describes a number of new interleaving strategies based on the golden
section. The new interleavers are called golden relative prime interleavers, golden interleavers,
and dithered golden interleavers. The latter two approaches involve sorting a real-valued vector
derived from the golden section. Random and so-called “spread” interleavers are also
considered. Turbo-code performance results are presented and compared for the various
interleaving strategies. Of the interleavers considered, the dithered golden interleaver typically
provides the best performance, especially for low code rates and large block sizes. The golden
relative prime interleaver is shown to work surprisingly well for high puncture rates. These
interleavers have excellent spreading properties in general and are thus useful for many
applications other than Turbo-codes.

Keywords: FEC, Turbo Code, interleaver, golden section, relative prime.



                                            ٞ‫أؼّذ سراس ٘اد‬
                                   ‫لغُ ٕ٘ذعخ اٌّؼٍِٛبد ٚاالرظبالد‬
                                  ‫وٍ١خ ٕ٘ذعخ اٌخٛاسصِٟ / عبِؼخ ثغذاد‬



                            (interleaved
          golden relative interleaver
                                 dithered golden                                 golden

                                                                                       spread
                                                                             .
                                                                                    code rate
                                                                              puncture

         ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
         ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


               Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.2,No.2,pp 15-31 (2006)
  Design & Implementation of High Switching & Low Phase Noise
                    Frequency Synthesizer

                                                Ali M. N. Hassan
                               Information & Communications Engineering Dept.
                                     Al Khwarizmi College of Engineering
                                            University of Baghdad

                        (Received 14 November 2005; accepted 4 April 2006)


Abstract:-
This research describes the design & implementation of frequency synthesizer using
single loop Phase lock loop with the following specifications: Frequency range (1.5 – 2.75)
GHz,Step size (1 MHz), Switching time 36.4 µs, & phase noise @10 kHz = -92dBc & spurious
-100 dBc
 The development in I.C. technology provide the simplicity in the design of frequency
synthesizer because it implements the phase frequency detector(PFD) , prescalar & reference
divider in single chip. Therefore our system consists of a single chip contains (low phase noise
PFD, charge pump, prescalar & reference divider), voltage controlled oscillator , loop filter &
                reference oscillator. The single chip is used to provide the following properties :
     Low power consumption.
     Small size, light weight.
     Flexibility in selecting crystal oscillator frequencies to fit into the system frequency
        planning.
     High reliability.
The application of this synthesizer in frequency hopping systems, satellite communications &
radar because it has high switching speed ,low phase noise & low spurious level.




                                                  ٞ‫ػٍٟ ِؽّذ ٔٛس‬
                                          ‫لغُ ٕ٘ذعخ اٌّؼٍِٛبد ٚاالرظبالد‬
                                        ‫وٍ١خ ٕ٘ذعخ اٌخٛاسصِٟ / عبِؼخ ثغذاد‬
                     36                              1                            2750 1500
                   100                                                      10000        (-92)


p/(                                                                                                                      )
                                                                                                                      p+1)




         ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
         ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

             Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.2,No.2,pp 42-55 (2006)

                 Buckling Analysis of Unidirectional Polymer
                          Matrix Composite Plates
                                         Dr. Jawad Kadhim Uleiwi
                             Material Engineering. Dept. / University of Technology

                        (Received 14 November 2005; accepted 4 April 2006)


Abstract:-
        This study deals with the estimation of critical load of unidirectional polymer matrix
composite plates by using experimental and finite element techniques at different fiber angles
and fiber volume fraction of the composite plate.
        Buckling analysis illustrated that the critical load decreases in nonlinear relationship
with the increase of the fiber angle and that it increases with the increase of the fiber volume
fraction.
        The results show that the maximum value of the critical load is (629.54 N/m) at ( =
0) and (Vf = 40 %) for the finite element method, while the minimum value of the critical load
is (49 N/m) at ( = 90) and (Vf = 10 %) for the experimental results.
        The results also indicated that the maximum difference between the finite element
analysis and experimental work is about (11 % ) at (  = 0) and (Vf = 40 %).
                                                 ‫د. ظٛاد واظُ ػٍ١ٛٞ‬
                                         ‫لغُ ٕ٘ذعخ اٌّٛاد / اٌغبِؼخ اٌزىٌٕٛٛع١خ‬




‫=‪‬‬              ‫‪Pcr = 629.5 N/m‬‬
‫94 = ‪Pcr‬‬                                                                                        ‫% 04 = ‪Vf‬‬   ‫‪0‬‬
                                                                        ‫% 01 = ‪Vf‬‬               ‫‪ = 90‬‬   ‫‪N/m‬‬
        ‫% 11 =‬
                                                                                           ‫% 04 = ‪Vf‬‬              ‫‪ = 0‬‬


          ‫------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------‬
          ‫------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------‬


              ‫)6002( 23-02 ‪Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.2,No.2,pp‬‬
                        ‫دساسح ٔظش٠ح الِىأ١ح ص٠ادج اٌمذسج اٌىٙشتائ١ح إٌّرعح‬
                                  ‫ِٓ اٌّؽطاخ اٌثخاس٠ح فٟ اٌؼشاق‬


                            ‫د.ِؤ٠ذ سصٚلٟ ؼسٓ‬                                ‫فالغ فاخش ؼاذُ‬
                    ‫لغُ ٕ٘ذعخ اٌّىبئٓ ٚاٌّؼذاد‬                           ‫لغُ ٕ٘ذعخ اٌّىبئٓ ٚاٌّؼذاد‬
                        ‫اٌغبِؼخ اٌزىٌٕٛٛع١خ‬                                 ‫اٌغبِؼخ اٌزىٌٕٛٛع١خ‬

                         ‫)6002 ‪(Received 14 November 2005; accepted 4 April‬‬

                                                                                                       ‫ٍِخص اٌثؽس:-‬
‫ٚرٌه ػٓ طش٠ك غٍك ِسخٕاخ‬             ‫٠رعّٓ اٌثؽس دساسح ٔظش٠ح الِىأ١ح ص٠ادج أراض اٌمذسج اٌىٙشتائ١ح إٌّرعح فٟ اٌؼشاق‬
‫اٌعغط اٌؼاٌٟ ٌّ١اٖ ذغز٠ح اٌّشظً اٌثخاسٞ فٟ اٌّؽطاخ اٌثخاس٠ح اٌؼاٍِح فٟ اٌؼشاق . ٌغشض اٌذساسح ذٕاٚي اٌثؽس شالز‬
‫ِؽطاخ تخاس٠ح ِٕفصٍح ػاٍِح فٟ اٌؼشاق ٟٚ٘ ِؽطح اٌذٚسج ، ظٕٛب تغذاد ٚإٌاصش٠ح . اٚظؽد إٌرائط اِىأ١ح ص٠ادج‬
‫ج ِٓ ِؽطرٟ اٌذٚسج ٚإٌاصش٠ح تؽذٚد 51 -01 % ٚتؽذٚد 6 % ٌّؽطح ظٕٛب تغذاد . اسرٕادا اٌٝ ظشٚف‬              ‫اٌمذسج اٌىٙشتائٟ‬
   ‫ػًّ اٌّؽطاخ اٌثخاس٠ح اٌؽاٌ١ح فٟ اٌؼشاق فاْ اسرخذاَ ٘زا االسٍٛب س١ؤدٞ اٌٝ اِىأ١ح ص٠ادج اٌمذسج اٌىٙشتائ١ح تؽذٚد‬
                                                 ‫‪ٌّ 250MW‬ذج شالشح اٌٝ استؼح ساػاخ ٠ِٛ١ا ػالٚج ػٍٝ ذمٍ١ً صشف‬
‫٠اخ اٌٛلٛد ِماسٔح تٌّٛذاخ اٌذ٠ضي الٔراض ٘زٖ اٌمذسج‬
                                                                                                            ‫االظاف١ح .‬
   ‫‪A theoretical study for increasing production of electric power‬‬
                   ‫.‪from Iraqi steam power plants‬‬
Abstract:
This article conclude a theoretical study for the possibility to produce additional electric
power from Iraqi steam power plants by cutting – off high-pressure feed water heaters .
Three separated steam power plants which Dura , south –Baghdad and Nasria were
studied . The investigation showed the possibity of increasing the electric power from 10
to 15% for Dura and Nasria , whereas 6% for south – Baghdad . According to the
nowadays of operation to Iraqi steam power plants , the results showed that by cutting–
off high pressure feed water heaters we can generate additional electric power about 250
MW during 3-4 hrs. daily. In addition, the fuel consumption can be reduced in
comparison with diesel generator, which is used to produce the same add- ional electric
power.


         ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
         ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


             Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.2,No.2,pp 56-70 (2006)
               Dynamic Analysis of Rotating Cantilever Plates

                                             Oday. I. Abdullah
                               Nuclear Engineering Dept. / College of Engineering
                                             University of Baghdad



                        (Received 14 November 2005; accepted 4 April 2006)


Abstract:-
        A finite elements technique has been used to determine the natural frequencies of a
cantilever plate mounted on the periphery of a rotating disc. The rotating cantilever plate has
been idealized as an assemblage of three nodded triangular shell elements with six degrees of
freedom at each node. In the analysis the initial stress effect (geometric stiffness) and other
rotational effects except the carioles acceleration effect have been included.
The eigenvalues have been extracted by using simultaneous iteration technique. From the result
of computations carried out for various values of the aspect ratio, the speed of rotation, disc
radius and the setting angle. The numerical results have shown a good agreement compared
with the available investigations using other methods.

Key Words: finite element, natural frequency, geometric stiffness, rotating plate.
                                                 ‫ػذٞ اتشا٘١ُ ػثذاهلل‬
                                           ‫لغُ إٌٙذعخ إٌٛٚ٠خ / وٍ١خ إٌٙذعخ‬
                                                      ‫عبِؼخ ثغذاد‬




                    carioles acceleration




         ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
         ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




              Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.2,No.2,pp 1-19 (2006)

                                                         DIN 15Mo3




                        (Received 14 November 2005; accepted 4 April 2006)




                                                                                                   (MIG/MAG spot)
                                          (DIN15Mo3)
                        CO2
(2sec)          (4mm)                13
                             (36KN)                         CO2
                                   CO2                            (220Amp.)               (8sec)           (2mm)
(290Amp.)            (8sec)             (4mm)                   13                                    (31KN)
                                                      (30.9KN)             CO2                           (37.9KN)
(39KN)                           (450Amp.)             (8sec)            (6mm)               18.5
                                               5.20                            (37KN)            CO2




    Welding of Low Alloy Steel DIN 15Mo3 by MIG/MAG Spot
Abstract:
This research deals with the effects of welding variables using MIG/MAG spot by using
Argon (Ar) gas and CO2 to show their effect on the mechanical characteristics and
microstructure of low alloy steel type DIN15Mo3 and determine the optimum condition
for the process of welding ; current & time. The results show the possibility of using CO 2
and also Ar in low alloy steel welding with a little decrease in the shear force of not more
than 13% for 4mm thickness and time 2sec. The shear force increased when using Ar
instead of CO2 to be , The shear force reach 36KN when using Ar at 2mm thickness time
of 8 sec and current of 220 Amp. , when used CO 2 instead of Ar decreased shear force to
31KN reach decrease rate 13% while for a thikness of 4mm , time 8sec and acurrent of
290Amp. it was 37.9kN , when used CO2 became 30.9KN decrease rate 18.5% and for a
thikness of 6mm , time 8 sec and 450Amp. current it was 39 KN when used CO 2 it become
37KN redusing rate 5.20% .The diameter and penetration of welding have straight
                                            relation with the increase of current and time.


         ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
         ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


   Effect of the Mechanical and Thermal Stresses of Rotating Blades

            Assist. Prof. Dr. Nabeel K. AL-sahib                                           Malik M. Ali
                    Baghdad University / AL-Khwarizmi College of Engineering

                        R ece ved11December 2006 accep ed 25 Apr 2007
                       ((Receiived11December 2006 ;; acceptted 25 Apriill 2007))

Abstract:
      Rotating blades are the important parts in gas turbines. Hence, an accurate mathematical
estimation (F.E.M) of the stresses and deformations characteristics was required in the design
applications to avoid failure. In recent year’s there are researchers interest in the effect of
temperature on solid bodies has greatly increased, The main of this study investigated the
thermal and rotational effects. So, the thermal stresses due to high pressure and temperature
are studies, also determine the steady state stresses and deformations of rotating blades due to
mechanical effect. Many parameters such as thickness and centre of rotating are investigated in
this paper. The study results can ensure good recommendation for the effect of the mechanical
and thermal stresses of rotary blades.
Keywords: Thermal Stresses, Finite Element Method, Mechanical Stresses , Blade Material ,
                                                                                Design .



                ٍٟ‫ِاٌه ِؽّذ ػ‬                                   ‫أ.َ.د. ٔث١ً واظُ ػثذ اٌصاؼة‬
                                    ‫وٍ١خ ٕ٘ذعخ اٌخٛاسصِٟ - عبِؼخ ثغذاد‬


                                                                                                                 :‫اٌخالصح‬

( ٟ‫أٌّشاٚػ أٌذٚاسح ٟ٘ ِٓ األعضاء اٌّّٙخ فٟ اٌزٛسث١ٕبْ اٌغبص٠خ ، ٌزٌه أْ اٌزّض١ً اٌش٠بػ‬
. ً‫ؿش٠مخ اٌؼٕبطش اٌّؾذٚدح ) ٌأل عٙبداد ٚاٌزشٛ٘بد ػشٚسٞ ِٓ ا عً اٌزـج١مبد اٌزظّ١ّ١خ ٌزغٕت اٌفش‬
ِٓ ٟ‫فٟ اٌغٕٛاد األخ١شح صاد أ٘زّبَ اٌجبؽض١ٓ ثزأص١ش دسعبد اٌؾشاسح ػٍٝ األعغبَ اٌظٍجخ. اٌٙذف اٌشئ١غ‬
   ‫د‬
‫٘زٖ اٌذساعخ ، دساعخ األ عٙبداد اٌؾشاس٠خ إٌبرغخ ِٓ اٌؼغؾ ٚدسعخ اٌؾشاسح اٌؼبٌ١١ٓ. ٚوزٌه رُ أػ عبة‬
ُ‫األعٙبداد اٌّغزمشح ٚاٌزشٖٛ اد ٌٍّشاٚػ اٌذٚاسح إٌبرغخ ِٓ اٌزأص١شاد اٌّ١ىبٔ١ى١خ . اٌؼذ٠ذ ِٓ اٌؼٛاًِ ر‬
                                         ‫اٌزمظٟ ػٕٙب فٟ ٘زا اٌجؾش ِضً اٌغّه ِٚشوض اٌذٚساْ .... أٌخ‬
          .‫ٔزبئظ اٌذساعخ رؤِٓ رٛط١بد ع١ذح ٌزأص١شاد األعٙبداد اٌّ١ىبٔ١ى١خ ٚاٌؾشاس٠خ ٌٍّشاٚػ اٌذٚاسح‬

         ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
         ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


          Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.3, No2, pp 67 -86 (2007)
Correlation for fitting multicomponent vapor-liquid equilibria data and
                              prediction of azeotropic behavior

                                 Dr. Khalid Farhod Chasib Al-Jiboury
                                   Chemical Engineering Department
                                       University of Technology

                        R ece ved 1 Sp ember 2006 accep ed 24 Apr 2007
                       ((Receiived 1 Spttember 2006 ;; acceptted 24 Apriill 2007))


Abstract
       Correlation equations for expressing the boiling temperature as direct function of
liquid composition have been tested successfully and applied for predicting azeotropic
behavior of multicomponent mixtures and the kind of azeotrope (minimum, maximum
and saddle type) using modified correlation of Gibbs-Konovalov theorem. Also, the
binary and ternary azeotropic point have been detected experimentally using graphical
determination on the basis of experimental binary and ternary vapor-liquid equilibrium
data.
        In this study, isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium for two ternary systems: “1-Propanol –
Hexane – Benzene” and its binaries “1-Propanol – Hexane, Hexane – Benzene and 1-Propanol
– Benzene” and the other ternary system is “Toluene – Cyclohexane – iso-Octane (2,2,4-
Trimethyl-Pentane)” and its binaries “Toluene – Cyclohexane, Cyclohexane – iso-Octane and
Toluene – iso-Octane” have been measured at 101.325 KPa. The measurements were made in
recirculating equilibrium still with circulation of both the vapor and liquid phases. The ternary
system “1-Propanol – Hexane – Benzene” which contains polar compound (1-Propanol) and
the two binary systems “1-Propanol – Hexane and 1-Propanol – Benzene” form a minimum
azeotrope, the other ternary system and the other binary systems do not form azeotrope.
        All the data passed successfully the test for thermodynamic consistency using
McDermott-Ellis test method (McDermott and Ellis, 1965).
        The maximum likelihood principle is developed for the determination of correlations
parameters from binary and ternary vapor-liquid experimental data which provides a
mathematical and computational guarantee of global optimality in parameters estimation for
the case where all the measured variables are subject to errors and the non ideality of both
vapor and liquid phases for the experimental data for the ternary and binary systems have been
accounted.
        The agreement between prediction and experimental data is good. The exact value
should be determined experimentally by exploring the concentration region indicated by the
computed values.

Keywords: Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Azeotropic Behavior, Multicomponent system




                                                      ‫ـ‬
                                           ‫د. خايـد فشٖ ــٚد‬
                                         ‫لغُ إٌٙذعخ اٌى١ّ١بٚ٠خ‬
                                          ‫اٌغبِؼخ اٌزىٌٕٛٛع١خ‬

                                                                                              :‫اٌخالصح‬
  ‫ػاللبد س٠بػ١خ ٌٍزؼج١ش ػٓ دسعخ ؽشاسح غٍ١بْ اٌخالئؾ ٌألٔظّخ اٌّزؼذدح وذاٌخ ِجبششح ٌزشو١ض‬
            ‫اٌغبئً رُ اخزجبس٘ب ثٕغبػ ٚؿجمذ ٌٍزٕجؤ ثؾبٌخ األ٠ضٚرشٚة ٌٍخالئؾ اٌّزؼذدح ٚوزٌه ال٠غبد ٔٛع‬
‫) ثبعزخذاَ اٌؼاللبد‬         ‫األ٠ضٚرشٚة (ألً دسط ح ؽشاسح، أػٍٝ دسعخ ؽشاسح، ٔٛع صبثذ دسعخ اٌؾشاسح‬
‫) وزٌه ٔمـخ األ٠ضٚرشٚة ٌألٔظّخ اٌضٕبئ١خ ٚ اٌضالص١خ رُ اٌزؾمك‬Gibbs - Konovalov( ‫اٌّـٛسح ٌٕظش٠خ‬
‫عبئً ٌألٔظّخ‬       – ‫ِٕٙب ثظٛسح ػٍّ١خ ثبعزخذاَ اٌزؼ١١ٓ اٌج١بٟٔ ػٍٝ أعبط اٌج١بٔبد اٌؼٍّ١خ ٌزٛاصْ ثخبس‬
                                                                                       .‫اٌضٕبئ١خ ٚاٌضالص١خ‬
 ‫فٟ ٘زٖ اٌذساعخ رُ ل١بط رٛاصْ ثخبس – عبئً ثضجٛد اٌؼغؾ اٌغٛٞ ألصٕ١ٓ ِٓ األٔظّخ اٌضالص١خ‬
، ْ‫ٟٚ٘"1- ثشٚثبٔٛي - ٘ىغبْ – ثٕض٠ٓ" ٚوزٌه األٔظّخ اٌضٕبئ١خ اٌزبثؼخ ٌٗ ٟٚ٘ " 1- ثشٚثبٔٛي – ٘ىغب‬
ٚ‫٘ىغبْ – ثٕض٠ٓ ٚ 1- ثشٚثبٔٛي – ثٕض٠ٓ"ٚوزٌه ٌٍٕظبَ اٌضالصٟ األخش ٚ٘ٛ "رٍٛ٠ٓ – ٘ىغبْ ؽٍمٟ – ا٠ض‬
،ٟ‫أٚوزبْ (4،2،2 – صالصٟ ِض١ً ثٕزبْ )" ٚوزٌه األٔظّخ اٌضٕبئ١خ اٌزبثؼخ ٌٗ ٟٚ٘ (رٍٛ٠ٓ – ٘ىغبْ ؽٍم‬
                                      ‫ب‬
 .‫٘ىغبْ ؽٍمٟ – ا٠ضٚ أٚوزبْ ٚ رٍٛ٠ٓ – ا٠ضٚ أٚوزبْ) رُ ل١بعٙب عّ١ؼً فٟ ظشٚف 523.101 و١ٍٛثبعىبي‬
‫اٌم١بعبد رّذ فٟ ثشط اٌزٛاصْ اٌذ ٚاس اٌزٞ ٠زُ ِٓ خالٌٗ رذٚ٠ش وال اٌـٛس٠ٓ اٌجخبس ٚاٌغبئً .‬
‫إٌظبَ اٌضالصٟ "1- ثشٚثبٔٛي - ٘ىغبْ – ثٕض٠ٓ" اٌزٞ ٠ؾزٛٞ ِشوت لـجٟ ٚ٘ٛ "1- ثشٚثبٔٛي" ٚوزٌه‬
‫اصٕ١ٓ ِٓ األٔظّخ اٌضٕبئ١خ ٟٚ٘ "1- ثشٚثبٔٛي – ٘ىغبْ ٚ 1- ثشٚثبٔٛي – ثٕض٠ٓ" رىْٛ ؽبٌخ األ٠ضٚرشٚة‬
        ‫.‬
        ‫ٔٛع ألً دسعخ ؽشاسح. إٌظبَ اٌضالصٟ األخش ٚوزٌه األٔظّخ اٌضٕبئ١خ اٌجبل١خ ال رىْٛ ؽبٌخ األ٠ضٚرشٚة‬
        ‫وً إٌزبئظ اٌؼٍّ١خ اعزبصد ثٕغبػ اخزجبس اٌظؾخ ٚاٌذلخ ِٓ إٌبؽ١خ اٌضشِٛد٠ٕبِ١ى١خ ثبعزخذاَ‬
                                                                                           ‫ؿش٠مخ االخزجبس ٌـ‬
                                                                                 ‫(‪.)McDermott-Ellis‬‬
 ‫ؿش٠مخ االخز١بس األفؼً اٌّغّبح (‪ )Maximum Likelihood Principle‬اعزخذِذ إل٠غبد‬
 ‫صٛاثذ اٌؼاللبد ثبعزخذاَ اٌج١بٔبد اٌؼٍّ١خ ٌزٛاصْ اٌجخبس – عبئً ٌألٔظّخ اٌضٕبئ١خ ٚاٌضالص١خ ٚ٘زٖ اٌـش٠مخ‬
‫رؼّٓ ِٓ إٌبؽ١خ اٌش٠بػ١خ ٚاٌؾغبث١خ االخز١بس األفؼً ٌم١ُ اٌضٛاثذ فٟ اٌؼاللبد ؽ١ش إٔٙب رؼًّ فٟ ؽبٌخ‬
    ‫وً اٌّزغ١شاد اٌّمبعخ رىْٛ ِؼش ػٗ ٌٍخـأ ٚوزٌه ػٕذِب رىْٛ ؽبٌخ اٌألِضبٌ١خ فٟ وال اٌـٛس٠ٓ اٌجخبس‬
                                                                        ‫ٚاٌغبئً ٌألٔظّخ اٌضالص١خ ٚاٌضٕبئ١خ.‬
  ‫ب‬                                         ‫ب‬
  ‫اٌزمبسة ثبٌم١ُ ع١ذ ث١ٓ اٌج١بٔبد اٌّزٕجأ ثٙب ٚاٌزٟ رُ ل١بعٙب ػٍّ١ً . اٌم١ُ اٌظؾ١ؾخ ٠غت أْ رؼ١ٓ رغش٠ج١ً‬
                                                ‫ا‬
     ‫ثٛاعـخ اعزىشبف ِٕـمخ اٌزشو١ض اٌزٟ ٠زُ ؽغبثٙب ثٛاعـخ ٌٕزبئظ اٌّؾغٛثخ ِٓ ٘زٖ اٌؼاللبد اٌش٠بػ١خ.‬

          ‫------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------‬
          ‫-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------‬


                    ‫)7002( 61- 8‪Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.3, No.2, pp‬‬
                    ‫‪Application of Fuzzy Logic in Servo Motor‬‬

                                        ‫‪Dr. Shereen F. Abd-Alkarim‬‬
                                        ‫‪Dept. of Education Technology‬‬
                                          ‫‪University of Technology‬‬


                      ‫)7002 ‪(Received 31 Julay 2006; accepted 24 April‬‬


       ‫:‪Abstract‬‬
        ‫‪In this work the design and application of a fuzzy logic controller to DC-servomotor is‬‬
‫‪investigated. The proposed strategy is intended to improve the performance of the original‬‬
‫‪control system by use of a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) as the motor load changes. Computer‬‬
‫‪simulation demonstrates that FLC is effective in position control of a DC-servomotor‬‬
‫.‪comparing with conventional one‬‬

‫‪Keywords: Fuzzy logic, Servomotor, Controller‬‬
                           ‫ذطث١ماخ إٌّطك اٌغاِط ٌٍّؽشن اٌّؤاصس‬

                                           ‫د. ش١ش٠ٓ فائك ػثذ اٌىش٠ُ‬
                                          ‫لغُ اٌزؼٍ١ُ اٌزىٌٕٛٛعٟ / فشع اٌىٙشثبء‬
                                                   ‫اٌغبِؼخ اٌزىٌٕٛٛع١خ‬
                                                                                                   ‫اٌخالصح:‬
‫رُ فٟ ٘زا اٌجؾش رظّ١ُ اٌّغ١ـشاٌغبِغ ٌٍّؾشن اٌـّؤاصس ؽ١ش دسعذ خظبئض اداء اٌّؾشن‬
                                               ‫اي‬
    ‫ثبعزخذاَ اٌّؾبوبح . ٚلذ اصجزذ ٔزبئظ اٌّؾبوبح ثبْ ِغ١ـش اٌغبِغ ٌٍّؾشن رٚ فؼبٌ١خ ع١ذح ٌٍغ١ـشح‬
                                   ‫اٌّٛلؼ١خ ٌٍّؾشن ػٕذ اؽّبي ِزغ١شح ِمبسٔخ ثبٌّغ١ـش اٌزمٍ١ذٞ .‬

     ‫------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------‬
     ‫------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------‬
               (2007)17- 31Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.3, No.2, pp

   Investigation of heat transfer phenomena and flow behavior around
                                                      electronic chip
                                    Dr. Sattar j. Habbeb
                                 Mechanical Engineering Dept.
                                    Technology University

                 (Received1 November 2006; accepted 24 April 2007)


                                                                               Abstract:

Computational study of three-dimensional laminar and turbulent flows around
electronic chip (heat source) located on a printed circuit board are presented.
Computational field involves the solution of elliptic partial differential equations for
conservation of mass, momentum, energy, turbulent energy, and its dissipation rate
in finite volume form. The k-ε turbulent model was used with the wall function
concept near the walls to treat of turbulence effects. The SIMPLE algorithm was
selected in this work. The chip is cooled by an external flow of air. The goals of this
investigation are to investigate the heat transfer phenomena of electronic chip
located in enclosure and how we arrive to optimum level for cooling of this chip.
These parameters, which will help enhance thermal performance of electronic chip
and flow patterns, through the understanding of different factors on flow patterns.
The results show the relation between the temperature rise, heat transfer
         parameters (Nu, Ra) with (Ar, Q) for two cases of laminar and turbulent flows.
Keywords: Electronic equipment, Fluid flow, Convection heat transfer




                                                                  PCB
                    Finite Volumes (
                                                                         k-ε
                                                  (SIMPLE algorithm)




                          (Ar, Q)      (Nu, Ra)




     -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                    Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.3, No.2, pp1-7 (2007)
               Reduction of the error in the hardware neural network
                                           Dr. Dhafer r. Zaghar
                             Computer and programming Engineering Department

                                    College of EngineeringAL-Mustanserya

                                          University / Baghdad/ Iraq


                        (Received 7 March 2006; accepted 30 October 2006)



Abstract:-
        Specialized hardware implementations of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) can offer
faster execution than general-purpose microprocessors by taking advantage of reusable modules,
parallel processes and specialized computational components. Modern high-density Field
Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) offer the required flexibility and fast design-to-
implementation time with the possibility of exploiting highly parallel computations like those
required by ANNs in hardware. The bounded width of the data in FPGA ANNs will add an
additional error to the result of the output. This paper derives the equations of the additional error
value that generate from bounded width of the data and proposed a method to reduce the effect of
the error to give an optimal result in the output with a low cost.

Key Words: Neural, co-processor, DSP, FPGA, ISE 4.1i software, adder, multiplier.
                                             ‫د . ظافر رافع زغير‬

                              ‫قـسم هـندسة الحـاسبـات و البرامجيات / كــلية الهــندسـة‬

                                              ‫جامـعة المستنصرية‬‫ال‬


                                                         ANNs

      FPGA




     -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.3, No.2, pp 49 - 66 (2007)
               An Investigation into the Behavior of Disc Blake
                                       Wear

         Dr. Aziz Al-Alawi                Dr. Albert E. Yousif              Muneer A. H. Jassim
                                    Mechanical Engineering Department
                                         college of Engineering
                                         University of Baghdad
                     (Received 22 January 2007; accepted 5 March 2007)


Abstract:
A reliable method of predicting brake pad wear, could lead to substantial economies of time
and money. This paper describes how such a procedure has been used and gives the results to
establish its reliability by comparing the predicted wear with that which actually occurs in an
existing service.
The experimental work was carried out on three different commercial samples, tested under
different operational conditions (speed, load, time … etc) using a test rig especially modified for
this purpose.
Abrasive wear is mainly studied, since it is the type of wear that takes place in such
arrangements. Samples were tested in presences of sand or mud between the mating surfaces under
different operational conditions of speed, load and braking time.
Mechanical properties of the pad material samples (hardness, young’s modulus and collapse
load under pure bending condition) were established. The thermal conductivity and surface
roughness of the pad material were also found in order to enable comparison between the surface
condition before and after testing.
Sliding velocity had a small effect on the wear rate but it had great effect on friction
coefficient. Wear rate was affected mainly by the surface temperature which causing a reduction in
friction coefficient and increasing the wear rate. Surface roughness had almost no effect on the wear
rate since it was proved experimentally, that the surface becomes softer during operation.
Mechanical properties of the pad material had fluctuating effect on wear rate. The existence of solid
particles between pad and disc increasing wear rate and friction coefficient while the mud caused a
reduction in wear rate of the pad surface since it acts as a lubricant absorbing the surface heat
                      generated during sliding and reducing the area of contact between pad and disc.
Wear rate obtained experimentally agreed fairly well with that found from empirically
obtained equations.


               ‫دساعـخ اٌزأوً ٚاالؽزىبن اٌؾبطً ٌٛعبدح اٌّٛلف االِبِٟ ٌٍغ١بسح اٌظغ١شح‬

           ُ‫ِٕ١ـشػـجـذاٌؾغ١ٓ عبع‬                          ‫د. اٌج١ـشد ٠ـٛعف‬                     ٞٛ‫د. ػـض٠ـض اٌؼـٍـ‬
       .)‫( خـالي فـزـشح اػـذاد ٘ـزا اٌجؾـش وـبْ اٌّـؤٌـفـْٛ فـٟ لـغـُ إٌٙذعخ اٌّ١ىبٔ١ى١خ - وـٍ١خ إٌٙذعخ – عـبِؼخ ثـغـذاد‬



                                                                                                                      ‫اٌخالصــح‬
‫٠زؼّٓ ٘زا اٌجؾش دساعخ ػٍّ١خ ٚٔظش٠خ ٌّؼذي اٌزأوً ٚاالؽزىبن اٌؾبطً ٌٛعبدح اٌّٛلف االِبِٟ ٌٍغ١بسح‬
                                                                                                   .‫اٌظغ١شح‬
  ‫اشزٍّذ اٌذساعخ اٌؼٍّ١خ ػٍٝ اخزجبس صالس ٚعبئذ ِٛلف ِخزٍفخ إٌّشأ رؾذ عشع ٚأؽّبي ٚظشٚف ث١ئ١خ‬
                                                                    ‫اٌغ‬
                                                              .‫ِخزٍفخ ػٍٝ عٙبص ثغ١ؾ رُ اػذادٖ ٌٙزا سع‬
.                       ‫ب‬
‫رشوض اٌجؾش ػٍٝ دساعخ ِمذاس اٌزأوً إٌبرظ ػٓ ػٍّ١خ اٌؾه وٛٔٗ األوضش ٚػٛؽً ػٕذ رأوً ٚعبدح اٌّٛلف‬
ِٓ ‫أخز١شد ثؼغ إٌّبرط ِغ ٚعٛد ِبدح اٌشًِ أٚاٌـ١ٓ ث١ٓ اٌمشص ٚاٌٛعبدح رؾذ ظشٚف رشغ١ً ِخزٍفخ‬
                                                                                . ‫عشع ٚأؽّبي ٚصِٓ رٛلف‬
،‫رـٍجذ أٌذساعخ رؾذ٠ذ ثؼغ اٌخٛاص أٌّ١ىبٔ١ى١خ ٌٛعبدح أٌّٛلف ل١ذ أالخزجبس ( أٌظالدح، ِؼبًِ اٌّشٚٔخ‬
                                                                              . ) ‫ؽًّ االٔٙ١بس اصٕبء اٌؾٕب٠خ‬
     ‫وزٌه رُ رؾذ٠ذ ِؼبًِ اٌزٛط١ً اٌؾشاسٞ ٚفؾض ٔؼِٛخ اٌغـؼ ٌالعزفبدح ِٕٙب فٟ ِمبسٔخ اٌغـؼ لجً ٚثؼذ‬
                                                                                                    . ً١‫اٌزشغ‬
ًِ‫ٌـٛؽظ ِٓ خالي اٌزغـبسة أْ ٌٍغشػخ رأ ص١ـش ِؾذٚد ػً ِؼذي اٌزأوـً ٌٚىٓ رأ ص١ـش٘ب أٚػؼ ػٍٝ ِؼب‬
    ‫االؽزىبن ، اِب اٌؾشاسح فـٍٙب دٚس سئ١غـٟ ػٍٝ ِمـذاس اٌزأوـً ٚاالؽزىبن فض٠بدرٙب رمـًٍ ِٓ ِؼبًِ االؽزىبن‬
‫ٚرض٠ذ ِٓ ِؼذي اٌزأوـً . ٌُ ٠ىٓ ٌٕؼِٛخ اٌغـؼ دٚس ٚاػؼ ػٍٝ ِمذاس اٌزأوـً ؽ١ش ٌٛؽظ رغ١ش ٔؼِٛخ اٌغـؼ‬
                .ً‫ثؼذ أٚي ػٍّ١خ رشغ١ً . أِب رأص١ـش اٌخٛاص اٌّ١ىب ٔ١ى١خ فىبْ رأص١ـش٘ب ِزجب٠ٓ ػٍٝ ِمـذاساٌزأو‬
‫أٚػؾذ اٌذساعـخ إْ رٛاعذ ِٛاد طٍجخ ِضً اٌشِـً ث١ٓ اٌٛعبدح ٚاٌمـشص أدٜ اٌٝ ص٠بدح عش٠ؼخ فٟ ِمـذاس‬
‫اٌزأوـً ِٚؼبًِ االؽزىبن ، اِب ٚعٛد اٌّبدح اٌـ١ٕ١خ فمذ ادد اٌٝ رمـٍـ١ـً ِؼذي اٌزأوـً (ؽ١ش وـبْ ٌٍـ١ٓ د ٚس‬
                                                  . )‫اٌّض٠ذ ٚعبػذ ثأِزظبص لغُ ِٓ اٌؾشاسح اٌّزٌٛـذح‬
  ‫ٌـٛؽظ إْ ِؼذي اٌزأوـً اٌّغزؾظً ػٍّ١ب فٟ ؽبٌخ رـبثك ع١ذ ِغ رٌه اٌّؾغٛة ِٓ اٌّؼبدالد اٌزـج١م١خ‬


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                      Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.3, No1,pp 26-39, (2007)

 An investigation into the performance of counter rotating floating ring
                       journal under different working conditions.

  Dr. Basim A. Abass                            Dr. Adel A. Alwan                           Mustafa B.
                                                                                              Hunain
       Lecturer                                    Asst. Prof.                               Graduate
                                                                                               student
      Babylon University                         Babylon University                           Babylon
                                                                                             University

                    (Received 26 September 2006 ; accepted 20 December 2006)


                                                                                                Absract:
The steady state performance of the counter rotating floating ring Journal bearing is
analyzed with isothermal finite bearing theory. The effect of different parameters affecting the
performance of the bearing (namely speed ratio, clearance ratio and radii ratio), have been
investigated. The load carrying capacity of the bearing increasing with decreasing the radii ratio
(R2/R1) of the ring and clearance ratio (c1/c2), in the other hand, the coefficient of friction increases
with increasing the clearance and radii ratios, while decreases with incre4asing the bearing to
journal speed ratio (γ). It is shown during this work that different operating conditions are greatly
                                                           enhanced the performance of such bearings.

                                  Keywords: counter rotating, floating ring, isothermal performance.
         ًّ‫ساسح أداء سٍٛن اٌّسأذ ػىس١ح اٌذٚساْ راخ اٌؽٍمح اٌؼائّح ذؽد ظشٚف ػ‬
                                      ‫ِخرٍفح‬

                ٓ١ٕ٘ ‫ِصطفٝ تالش‬                   ْ‫د . ػادي ػثاط ػٍٛا‬                            ‫د. تاسُ ػع١ً ػثاط‬
             ‫طاٌة دساساخ ػٍ١ا‬                          ‫. ِساػذ‬     ‫أ‬                                    ‫ِذسط‬
                          ً‫ظاِؼح تات‬                       ً‫ظاِؼح تات‬                                ً‫ظاِؼح تات‬


                                                                                                          : ‫اٌخالصح‬

  ‫. ثبعزخذاَ ٔظش٠خ‬             ‫فٟ ٘زا اٌجؾش رُ رؾٍ١ً أداء اٌّغبٔذ ػىغ١خ اٌذٚساْ راد اٌؾٍمخ اٌؼبئّخ فٟ اٌؾبٌخ اٌّغزمشح‬
          ٓ‫اٌّغبْد اٌّؾذدح ٚثذسعبد ؽشاس٠خ صبثزخ . رُ دساعخ ِخزٍف اٌظشٚف اٌزٟ رؤصش ػٍٝ ػًّ اٌّغٕذ ٚاٌزٟ ٠ّى‬
 ًّ‫رغّ١زٙب ( ٔغجخ اٌغشػخ ث١ٓ اٌجٛشخ اٌخبسع١خ ٚاٌّؾٛس , ٔغجخ اٌخٍٛص , ٚٔغجخ أٔظبف األلـبس ). عؼخ ؽًّ اٌّؾ‬
    ‫,ٚ ِٓ ٔبؽ١خ أخش ٜ, ِؼبًِ االؽزىبن ٠ضداد ثض٠بدح‬            ‫رضداد ِغ ص٠بدح ٔغجخ أٔظبف ألـبس اٌؾٍمخ ٚ ٔغجخ اٌخٍٛص‬
, ًّ‫.خالي ٘زا اٌؼ‬              ‫ٔغجخ أٔظبف ألـبس اٌؾٍمخ ٚ ٔغجخ اٌخٍٛص ث١ّٕب ٠مً ثض٠بدح ٔغجخ عشػخ اٌّؾٛس ٚ اٌشو١ضح‬
                                               .      ‫ٚعذ ثبْ ٌٙزٖ اٌّزغ١شاد رأص١ش وج١شا ػٍٝ أداء ٘زا إٌٛع ِٓ اٌّغبٔذ‬

   ===========================================================

                     Al- Khwarizmi Engineering Journal , Vol. 3 , No.1 , pp 1-11 (2007)


 The Inverse Solution Of Dexterous Robot By Using Neural Networks
                  Dr. Bahaa Ibraheem Kazem                                         Samer Yahya Hadi
            Mechatronics Dept Al-kwarizmi College of Engineering              Control and Computers Engineering
                   University of Baghdad,, Iraq,                                University of Technology, Iraq


                             (Received 13 June 2006; accepted 19 December 2006)

Abstract:
         The inverse kinematics of redundant manipulators has infinite solutions by using
conventional methods, so that, this work presents applicability of intelligent tool (artificial neural
network ANN) for finding one desired solution from these solutions. The inverse analysis and
trajectory planning of a three link redundant planar robot have been studied in this work using a
proposed dual neural networks model (DNNM), which shows a predictable time decreasing in the
training session. The effect of the number of the training sets on the DNNM output and the number
of NN layers have been studied. Several trajectories have been implemented using point to point
trajectory planning algorithm with DNNM and the result shows good accuracy of the end effector
position for the desired trajectory.
Keywords: inverse kinematics, robotics, neural network
          ‫اٌؽً اٌؼىسٟ ٌزساع أساْ اٌٟ ِرؼذد صٚا٠ا اٌٛصٛي تأسرخذاَ اٌشثىاخ اٌؼصث١ح‬
                  ٞ‫اٌثاؼس ساِش ٠ؽ١ٝ ٘اد‬                                               ُ‫اٌذورٛس تٙاء اتشا٘١ُ واظ‬
            ُ‫لغُ ٕ٘ذعخ اٌغ١ـشح ٚإٌظ‬                                                ‫لغُ ٕ٘ذعخ اٌّ١ىبرشٚٔىظ‬
                ‫اٌغبِؼخ اٌزىٌٕٛٛع١خ‬                                        ‫وٍ١خ ٕ٘ذعخ اٌخٛاسصِٟ – عبِؼخ ثغذاد‬
                                                                                                                    :‫اٌخالصح‬
 ‫ٌزساع اٌ١خ‬         ) inverse kinematics solutions(                  ‫( ِٓ اٌؾٍٛي اٌؼىغ١خ‬infinity)          ٗ‫ٕ٘بٌه ػذد غ١ش ِٕز‬
  ٗ١‫( , ٌزٌه اعزخذِذ ؿش٠مخ اٌشجىٗ اٌؼظج‬conventional methods) ٗ٠‫ ) ثبعزخذاَ اٌـشق اٌزمٍ١ذ‬redundant arm) ‫ِـٌٛخ‬
                        .‫ ) ِٓ ٘زٖ اٌؾٍٛي‬one desired solution( ٗ‫( إل٠غبد ؽً ٚاؽذ ِشغٛة ث‬neural network technique)
inverse kinematics (                ‫( إل٠غبد اٌؾٍٛي اٌؼىغ١خ‬DNNM) ‫ح‬              ‫ؽ١ش اعزخذَ فٟ ٘زٖ اٌجؾش شجىٗ ػظج١ٗ ِضدٚط‬
ٗ‫ ). إْ أٌشجى‬three links redundant planar robot(              ‫ ) ٌزساع رزىْٛ ِٓ صالصخ لـغ رزؾشن عّ١ؼٙب فٟ عـؼ ٚاؽذ‬solutions
training( ‫( اٌّغزخذِخ فٟ ٘زا اٌؼًّ أظٙشد وفبءح ػبٌ١خ فٟ رمٍ١ً اٌٛلذ اٌالص َ ٌُ سؽٍخ اٌزذس٠ت‬DNNM) ‫اٌؼظج١خ اٌّضدٚعخ‬
                                                                                                                                .)
ُ‫( لذ ر‬DNNM) ‫( أٌشجىٗ اٌؼظج١خ اٌّضدٚعخ‬outputs( ‫( ػٍٝ ِخبسط‬training sets( ‫إْ رأص١ش ػذد ِغّٛػبد اٌزذس٠ت‬
  ‫( لذ رض٠ذ ػٕذِب ٠ؼبػف ػذد‬end effector(              ‫دساعزٙب فٟ ٘زا اٌؼًّ, ٚ أظٙشد إٌزبئظ ثأْ اٌذلخ فٟ إ٠غبد ِٛلغ ٔٙب٠خ اٌزساع‬
                                                                                            . (training sets( ‫ِغّٛعاد اٌزذس٠ت‬
  ًّ‫( لذ رُ دساعزٙب فٟ ٘زا اٌؼ‬point-to-point trajectory planning method( ٓ١‫إْ ؿش٠مخ إ٠غبد اٌّغبس ث١ٓ ٔمـز‬
                                                .‫( ػٍٝ اٌذلخ‬training sets(           ‫وزٌه رُ دساعخ رأص١ش رغ١ش ػذد ِغّٛػبد اٌزذس٠ت‬
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                   Al- Khwarizmi Engineering Journal Vol. 3 , , No. 1, pp12 – 25, ( 2007)
        Design and Analysis of New Prosthetic Foot.

 Muhsin J. Jweeg, PhD                       Ahamed A. Al-Beiruti ,PhD                   Kadhim K.Al-Kinani,MSc
Mechanical engineering department           Mechanical engineering department            Mechanical engineering department
  (Al-Nahrain University)                    (University of Technology)                (University of Al-Mustansirya )



                             (Received 31 July 2006 ; accepted 19December 2006)



Abstract:

    There is a variety of artificial foot designs variable for use with prosthetic legs . Most of the
design can be divided into two classes, articulated and non-articulated feet. one common non-
articulated foot is the SACH . The solid ankle cushion heel foot referred to as the SACH foot has
a rigid keel .


                                                               32
    One key or the key factor in designing a new prosthesis is in the analysis of a patients
response .

     This view is the most important because if the foot does not provide functional , practical or
cosmetically acceptable characteristics the patient will not feel comfortable with the prosthesis ,
therefore design and manufacturing a new foot is essential, this foot made from polyethylene, its
different shape and characteristics

    The characteristics deemed important by patients in achieving natural gait motion include:

       Dorsiflexion
       Energy return
       Fatigue test

     In this study, including all these characteristics test, design fatigue foot tester according to
ISO 10328 and design new foot .Also, the testometric crosshead was modified to find
dorsiflexion angle and energy return .The fatigue criteria for polymer was proposed, in
mathematical solution.

     Finally , the characteristics of SACH foot was compared with new foot by mathematical
solution and used visual basic program and experimental method by different tests. From these
test that the new foot is better than SACH foot for all test .


Keywords: Prosthetics foot , Fatigue, Dorsiflexion ,Energy return and SACH foot .



                       ُٙ‫ذصّ١ُ ٚ ذؽٍ١ً لذَ اصطٕاػٟ ظذ٠ذ ٌٍّثرٛسج اطشاف‬


      ٓ‫واظُ واًِ سس‬                  ‫أ.َ. د. اؼّذ ػثذاٌشؼّٓ ػثذ اٌعثاس‬                ‫أ.د. ِؽسٓ ظثش ظٛ٠ط‬
     ‫قسم هندسة الميكانيك‬             ‫قسم هندسة المكائن و المعدات‬                 ‫قسم هندسة الميكانيك‬
     ‫الجامعة المستنصرية‬                             ‫الجامعة التكن‬
                                               ‫ولىجية‬                                  ‫جامعة النهرين‬



                                                                                             : ‫اٌخالصح‬
ٌٝ‫ٕ٘بن رظبِ١ُ ػذ٠ذح ٌأللذاَ االطـٕبػ١خ ٌٍّجزٛسح أؿشافُٙ اٌغفٍٝ . ٚغبٌجب ِب رظٕف رٍه اٌزظبِ١ُ ا‬
 ٚ َ‫ٔٛػ١ٓ ِٕٙب االلذاَ اٌّؾٛس٠خ اٌزؾشن ٚ االلذاَ اٌضبثزخ اٌّفظً ٚ اؽذٜ رٍه االٔٛاع اٌمذَ اٌشبئغ االعزخذا‬
‫ٚ٘ٛ صبثذ اٌىبؽً ٠ؾزٛٞ ػٍٝ ٚ عبدح فٟ ِٕـمخ اٌىؼت ِظٕؼخ ِٓ سغٛح‬                 (SACH) ‫اٌزٞ ٠ذػٝ ثـ‬
                                            . ‫اٌّـبؽ اِب اٌشعخ ف١ظٕغ ِٓ اٌخشت اٌظٍت ٚ ٠ىْٛ لظ١شا‬



                                                    33
  ْ‫رؼزجش اعزغبثخ اٌّجزٛس ؿشفٗ ِٓ اٌّفبر١ؼ االعبع١خ فٟ رظّ١ُ االلذاَ االطـٕبػ١خ ؽ١ش ِٓ اٌّفشٚع ا‬
   ٌٟٛ‫٠شؼش اٌّش٠غ ثشاؽخ ربِخ فٟ اعزخذاَ اٌمذَ ِٓ ٔبؽ١خ اٌشىً ٚ االداء ٌزا طّّٕب لذَ عذ٠ذ ِٓ ِبدح اٌج‬
                                                                  .‫اصٍ١ٓ رخزٍف ِٓ ؽ١ش اٌشىً ٚ اٌخظبئض ػٓ اٌمذَ اٌغبثمخ‬
          :‫اْ ِٓ اُ٘ اٌخظبئض اٌزٟ ٠غت اْ رزٛفش فٟ اٌمذَ ٚ اٌزٟ ٠ّىٓ اْ رؼّٓ اٌؾشوخ اٌـج١ؼخ ٌٍّش٠غ‬
                                                                                  .‫ ِمذسح اٌمذَ ػٍٝ االٔؾٕبء ثظٛسح ؿج١ؼ١خ‬
                                                                                                                    ‫ ؿبلخ االسعبع‬
                                                                                                            ًٍ‫ ِمبِٚزٙب ٌفشً اٌى‬
    ‫فٟ ٘زٖ اٌذساعخ طّّٕب عٙبص ٌفؾض فشً اٌمذَ رؾذ ؽًّ اٌىًٍ ٌّؼشفخ اٌؼّش اٌزش١غٍٟ الٞ لذَ ٚ رٌه‬
  ‫ , وّب لّٕب ثزظّ١ُ ؿشف اطـٕبػٟ ٚ اعش٠ٕب ػٍ١ٗ اخزجبساد ِخزٍفخ‬ISO 10328 ٌّٟ‫ؽغت اٌّم١بط اٌؼب‬
   ٍٟ‫ِٕٙب ؽغبة اٌؼّش اٌزش١غ١ٍٟ , ل١بط صاٚ٠خ االٔؾٕبء ٌٍمذَ ٚ ؽغبة ؿبلخ االسعبع ثؼذ اْ اثذٌٕب ا ٌفه اٌغف‬
   ‫ٌغٙبص اٌشذ ٚ اعش٠ٕب اخزجبس اٌىًٍ ٌّبدح اٌجٌٟٛ اصٍ١١ٓ ال٠غبد ِخـؾ االعٙبد – اٌؼّش , س٠بػ١ب اٚعذٔب ط١غخ‬
                                                  .‫عذ٠ذح ٌفشً اٌىًٍ فٟ اٌجٌٛ١ّشاد ٚ ِٓ صُ رُ ثٕبء ثشٔبِظ ف١غٛاي ث١غه‬
   ٓ١‫ ) نِب اعش٠ٕب ِمبسٔخ ث‬SACH(                        ‫فٟ إٌٙب٠خ اعش٠ٕب ِمبسٔخ ث١ٓ خظبئض اٌمذَ اٌغذ٠ذح ٚ اٌمذَ اٌغبثمخ‬
                ‫اٌغضء اٌؼٍّٟ ٚ اٌغضء إٌظشٞ ٚ رج١ٓ اْ اٌمذَ اٌغذ٠ذح وبٔذ افؼً ثىً اٌّؼب٠١ش ِٓ اٌمذَ اٌغبثمخ‬
                .

         --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
         --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                              A --Khwar z m Eng n eer n g Journa , Vo .3 No 1 pp 40-4 7 (2 007)
                              Alll-Khwariiizmiii Engiiineeriiing Journalll,, Volll..3,,, No...1,,,pp 40--47,,, ((2007))
                              A Khwar zm Eng neer ng Journa Vo 3 No 1 pp 40 47 2007


An e xperiime nttall comparattiive sttudy bettwee n pollypropylle ne and
An e xper me n a compara ve s udy be wee n po ypropy e ne and
                   llamiinatted llower lliimb prostthettiic sockett
                     am na ed ower mb pros he c socke
      Dr.. Muhsiin J.. J weeg
      Dr Muhs n J J weeg                              Dr.. Samiira K.. R adhii
                                                      Dr Sam ra K R adh                                 H aiider F.. Neama,, M..Sc..
                                                                                                        H a der F Neama M Sc
      Mechan c a Eng D epartm en
      MechaniiicalllEng...Deparrttmenttt
      Mechan ca Eng Depa men                           Mechan c a Eng D epartm en
                                                       MechaniiicalllEng...Deparrttmenttt
                                                       Mechan ca Eng Depa men                               Me chan c a Eng D epartm en
                                                                                                            Me chaniiicalllEng...Deparrttmenttt
                                                                                                            Me chan ca Eng Depa men
          Nahra n Un v erss ty
         Nahrraiiin Uniiiverrsiiitty
          Nah a n Un ve y                               A --Musta nsirr y a Un v erss ty
                                                        Alll-Mussttanssiiriiiya Uniiiverrsiiitty
                                                        A Mu an ya Un ve y                                      Baghdad Un v erss ty
                                                                                                                Baghdad Uniiiverrsiiitty
                                                                                                                 Baghdad Un ve y

                               (Received 21 August 2006; accepted 19 December 2006)



   Abstract:
           Most researchers concentrate their studies on the design, stress and pressure distributions
   of the prosthetic socket. A little attention is considered for the stiffness of the various materials
   of the prosthetic sockets. Prosthetic laminated sockets in Iraq are costly to be manufactured
   while polypropylene socket is relatively cheap in comparing with the laminates.




                                                                           34
         Experimental study is conducted to compare the stiffness of five prosthetic sockets made
of different materials. Compression, three point flexural and tensile tests are implemented by the
Testometric machine. The laminate sockets give better results in compression than
polypropylene. Polypropylene gives good results in bending compared with the laminate sockets.
When the socket loads are mainly in compression i.e. the low activity level patients, it seems that
any of the tested sockets could be used, however, when the load will be not only in compression
but in flexion as well i.e. high activity patients, socket No.1 and 5 could be used.

        :
Keywords: Prosthetic, Socket, Laminate, Polypropylene and Stiffness.

                                                       ‫ب‬
           ‫دساسح ذعش٠ث١ح ٌّماسٔح ب٠ٓ ٚلة اٌثٌٟٛ تشٚتٍ١ٓ ٚاٌّٛاد اٌّشوثح ٌٍطشف‬
           ‫دساسح ذعش٠ث١ح ٌّماسٔح ٠ٓ ٚلة اٌثٌٟٛ تشٚتٍ١ٓ ٚاٌّٛاد اٌّشوثح ٌٍطشف‬
                               .) ٟ‫اٌسفٍٟ اٌثذ٠ً (( اٌصٕاػ‬
                                .) ٟ‫اٌسفٍٟ اٌثذ٠ً اٌصٕاػ‬
         ‫أأ .. ؼ١ذس فأٛط ٔؼّح‬
         ‫ؼ١ذس فأٛط ٔؼّح‬                         ٟ‫دد .. سّ١شج وش٠ُ ساظ‬
                                                 ٟ‫سّ١شج وش٠ُ ساظ‬                         ‫دد.. ِؽسٓ ظثش ظٛ٠ط‬
                                                                                         ‫ِؽسٓ ظثش ظٛ٠ط‬

        ‫وٍ١خ إٌٙذعخ لغُ اٌّ١ىبٔ١ه‬
        ‫وٍ١خ إٌٙذعخ لغُ اٌّ١ىبٔ١ه‬            ‫وٍ١خ إٌٙذعخ لغُ اٌّ١ىبٔ١ه‬
                                              ‫وٍ١خ إٌٙذعخ لغُ اٌّ١ىبٔ١ه‬            ‫وٍ١خ إٌٙذعخ لغُ اٌّ١ىب ٔ١ه‬
                                                                                    ‫وٍ١خ إٌٙذعخ لغُ اٌّ١ىب ٔ١ه‬
             ‫عبِؼخ ثغذاد‬
              ‫عبِؼخ ثغذاد‬                       ‫اٌغبِؼخ اٌّغزٕظش٠خ‬
                                                 ‫اٌغبِؼخ اٌّغزٕظش٠خ‬                      ٓ٠‫عبِؼخ إٌٙش‬
                                                                                          ٓ٠‫عبِؼخ إٌٙش‬




                                                                 s fn ess
                                                              ((sttiifffness))




                                                              Testtomettrriic
                                                              Tes ome c


5
5



                                         5
                                         5                                    l exu a
                                                                           ((fflexurrall))
                                                                                                55
     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                                                       35
              Al- Khwarizmi Engineering Journal Vol. 3 , , No. 1, pp63 – 93 ( 2007)

  Laminar Natural Convection of Newtonian and Non – Newtonian
               Fluids Inside Triangular Enclosure
                                   Dr. Ala′a Abbas Muhadi
                                       Mech. Eng. Dept.
                                       University of Kufa
                      (Received 31 July 2006 ; accepted 19 December 2006)



Abstract
      In the present work, steady two – dimensional laminar natural convection heat transfer of
Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids inside isosceles triangular enclosure has been analyzed
numerically for a wide range of the modified Rayleigh numbers of (10 3 ≤ Ra ≤ 105), with non-
dimensional parameter (NE) of Prandtl – Eyring model ranging from (0 to 10), and modified
Prandtl number take in the range (Pr* =1,10, and 100). Two types of boundary conditions have
been considered. The first, when the inclined walls are heated with different uniform
temperatures and the lower wall is insulated. The second, when the bottom wall is heated by
applying a uniform heat flux while the inclined walls at the constant cold temperature. Also, the
non-Newtonian fluids under consideration were assumed to obey the Prandtl – Eyring
model..The results are presented in terms of isotherms and streamlines to show the behavior of
the fluid flow and temperature fields. In addition, some graphics are presented the relation
between average Nusselt number and the various parameters. The results show the effect of non
– dimensional parameter (NE) on the velocity and temperature profiles. They also show that the
average Nusselt number is a strong function of modified Rayleigh number, modified Prandtl
number, non-dimensional parameter, and the boundary conditions. Four different correlations
have been made to show the dependence of the average Nusselt number on the non-dimensional
parameter, the modified Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers.
Keywords: Natural Convection – Non-Newtonian Fluids – Triangular Enclosures -              Finite
Differences Method.




                                               36
 ‫أرماي اٌؽشاسج تاٌؽًّ اٌطث١ؼٟ اٌطثالٟ ٌّٛائغ ٔ١ٛذٛٔ١ح ٚغ١ش ٔ١ٛذٛٔ١ح فٟ ٚسط ِغٍك ِصٍس‬
                                                           ‫اٌشىً‬
                                                    ‫د.ػالء ػثاط ِٙذٞ‬
                                                ‫وٍ١خ إٌٙذعخ – عبِؼخ اٌىٛفخ‬
                                                    ‫لغُ إٌٙذعخ اٌّ١ىبٔ١ه‬
                                                   ‫٠خ‬


                                                                                                             ‫اٌخالصـــــــــــح :‬
      ‫فٟ ٘زا اٌجؾش , رُ إعشاء دساعخ ػذد٠خ الٔزمبي اٌؾشاسح ثبٌؾًّ اٌـج١ؼٟ اٌـجبلٟ اٌّغزمش صٕبئٟ اٌجؼذ ٌّٛائغ ٔ١ٛرٛٔ١خ‬
 ‫( 501 ≤ ‪ٌٍّٚ ) 102 ≤ Ra‬مذاس اٌال ثؼذٞ‬        ‫ٚغ١ش– ٔ١ٛرٛٔ١خ فٟ ٚعؾ ِغٍك ِضٍش اٌشىً ػّٓ ِذٜ ٚاعغ ٌؼذد ساٌٟ اٌّؾٛس‬
‫ٌٍّٛد٠ً اٌش٠بػٟ (‪ّ٠ ) Prandtl – Eyring‬زذ ِٓ (01 ≤‪ٌٚ ) 0.≤.NE‬ؼذد ثشأزً اٌّؾٛس أخز فٟ اٌّذٜ ( ‪Pr* =1,10, and‬‬
   ‫001 ). افزشع ٔٛػبْ ِٓ اٌظشٚف اٌؾذ٠خ . األٚي, ػٕذِب رىْٛ اٌغذساْ اٌّبئٍخ ِغخٕخ إٌٝ دسعبد ؽشاسح ِخزٍفخ ِٕٚزظّخ‬
    ‫ٚاٌغذاس اٌغفٍٟ ِؼضٚي . اٌضبٟٔ , ػٕذِب ٠ىْٛ اٌغذاس اٌغف ٌٟ ِغخٓ ثّظذس ؽشاسٞ صبثذ ث١ّٕب اٌغذساْ اٌّبئٍخ ػٕذ دسعخ‬
‫ؽشاسح ِٕخفؼخ ٚصبثزخ. وزٌه افزشع ثأْ عٍٛن اٌّٛائغ غ١ش – ٔ١ٛرٛٔ١خ ٠خؼغ ٌٍّٛد٠ً اٌش٠بػٟ (‪ .) Prandtl – Eyring‬رُ‬
‫ٚاٌغش٠بْ فٟ اٌؾ١ض .‬     ‫رّض١ً ٔزبئظ اٌذساعخ ثذالٌخ خـٛؽ دسعبد اٌؾشاسح اٌضبثزخ ٚخـٛؽ االٔغ١بة ٌج١بْ عٍٛن دسعخ اٌؾشاسح‬
 ‫ثبإلػبفخ إٌٝ سعِٛبد ث١بٔ١خ أخشٜ رّضً ػاللخ ِؼذي ػذد ٔغٍذ ِغ اٌّزغ١شاد اٌّزوٛسح أػالٖ . إْ اٌذساعخ اٌؾبٌ١خ ث١ٕذ رأص١ش‬
    ‫اٌّمذاس اٌال ثؼذٞ (‪ ) NE‬ػٍٝ اٌغشػخ ٚدسعخ اٌؾشاسح . وزٌه ث١ٕذ إْ ػذد ٔغٍذ ٘ٛ داٌخ لٛ٠خ ِٓ ػذد ساٌٟ اٌّؾٛس ٚػذد‬
   ‫ثشأزً اٌّؾٛ س ٚاٌّمذاس اٌال .ثؼذٞ (‪ٚ ) NE‬اٌظشٚف اٌؾذ٠خ . رُ إ٠غبد ػاللبد رمش٠ج١خ رّضً اػزّب د٠خ ِؼذي ػذد ٔغٍذ ػٍٝ‬
                                                        ‫ػذد ساٌٟ اٌّؾٛس ٚػٍٝ ػذد ثشأزً اٌّؾٛس ٚاٌّمذاس اٌال ثؼذٞ (‪.(NE‬‬


           ‫---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------‬
                         ‫-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------‬


                 ‫)7002( 09-18 ‪Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.3, No.1, pp‬‬
                  ‫‪Low Cost Hardware Back Propagation Algorithm‬‬
                                                   ‫‪Ammar A. Hassan‬‬
                             ‫‪Computer Engineering Department / College of Engineering‬‬
                                                   ‫‪University of Baghdad‬‬

                  ‫)6002 ‪Received 12 September 2005; accepted 30 October‬‬


‫-:‪Abstract‬‬
        ‫‪The first successful implementation of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) was‬‬
‫‪published a little over a decade ago. It is time to review the progress that has been made in‬‬
‫‪this research area. This paper provides taxonomy for classifying Field Programmable Gate‬‬


                                                              ‫73‬
Arrays (FPGAs) implementation of ANNs. Different implementation techniques and design
issues are discussed, such as obtaining a suitable activation function and numerical
truncation technique trade-off, the improvement of the learning algorithm to reduce the
cost of neuron and in result the total cost and the total speed of the complete ANN. Finally,
the implementation of a complete very fast circuit for the pattern of English Digit Numbers
NN has four layers of 70 nodes (neurons) on single chip using Xilinx FPGA technique is
given.
        The main goal of this paper is how to achieve the suitable activation function and weights
for this network that gives minimum hardware cost when all stages of this ANN algorithm is
implemented on FPGA.




                                                  ‫عمار عادل حسن‬

                                           ‫كــلية الهــندسـة/ جامـعة بغـداد‬
                                                      ‫لـغُ ٘ـٕذعخ اٌؾـبعجـبد‬


                         ANNs

            (FPGAs)



                                      70
                                                                                   Xilinx FPGA

     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                  Al- Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.3, No.1 , pp 48-62 (2007)


 Image restoration using regularized inverse filtering and adaptive
                   threshold wavelet denoising

                                                Mr. Firas Ali
                                    Mechatronics Engineering Department ,
                                    Al- Khwarizmi College of Engineering ,
                                           University of Baghdad

                        (Received 31 July 2006; accepted 19December 2006)




                                                         38
Abstract :-

         Although the Wiener filtering is the optimal tradeoff of inverse filtering and noise
smoothing, in the case when the blurring filter is singular, the Wiener filtering actually amplify
the noise. This suggests that a denoising step is needed to remove the amplified noise .Wavelet-
based denoising scheme provides a natural technique for this purpose .
         In this paper a new image restoration scheme is proposed, the scheme contains two
separate steps : Fourier-domain inverse filtering and wavelet-domain image denoising. The first
stage is Wiener filtering of the input image , the filtered image is inputted to adaptive threshold
wavelet denoising stage . The choice of the threshold estimation is carried out by analyzing the
statistical parameters of the wavelet sub band coefficients like standard deviation, arithmetic
mean and geometrical mean . The noisy image is first decomposed into many levels to obtain
different frequency bands. Then soft thresholding method is used to remove the noisy
coefficients, by fixing the optimum thresholding value by this method .
         Experimental results on test image by using this method show that this method yields
significantly superior image quality and better Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). Here, to
prove the efficiency of this method in image restoration , we have compared this with various
restoration methods like Wiener filter alone and inverse filter.

Key words : Image Restoration , Generalized Inverse filter , Generalized Wiener filter , Wavelet
Transform , Denoising using Discrete Wavelet Transform , Adaptive Threshold Wavelet
Transform, Gaussian Noise.




    ً٠ٛ‫اسرؼادج اٌصٛس تاسرخذاَ اٌرشش١ػ إٌّظُ اٌّؼىٛط ٚ إصاٌح اٌعٛظاء تطش٠مح اٌرؽ‬
                          ‫اٌّٛ٠عٟ رٚ اٌؼرثح اٌؼرثح اٌّرى١فح‬

                                                  ‫فشاط ػٍٟ ظٛاد‬
                                 ‫لغُ ٕ٘ذعخ اٌّ١ىبرشٚٔ١ىظ / وٍ١خ ٕ٘ذعخ اٌّ١هارشٚٔ١ىظ‬
                                                    ‫عبِؼخ ثغذاد‬


                                                                                                             : ‫اٌخالصح‬

         ‫٠ؼزجش ِششؼ ٚ٠ٕش وؾً ِضبٌٟ ث١ٓ اٌزشش١ؼ اٌّؼىٛط ٚأصاٌٗ اٌؼٛػبء ٌىٓ فٟ ؽبٌخ وْٛ ِششؼ اٌزشٛ٠ٗ ِٕفشد‬
  ‫. ع١ىْٛ ٔظبَ اصاٌخ‬         ‫ع١ؤدٞ ِششؼ اٌٛ٠ٕش اٌٝ رؼخ١ُ اٌؼٛػبء ٌزٌه ٠غت إػبفخ خـٛح ثؼذ اٌٛ٠ٕش إلصاٌخ اٌؼٛػبء‬
                                                            . ‫اٌؼٛػبء اٌّجٕٟ ػٍٝ رؾٛ٠ال د اٌّٛ٠غخ ِفؼال " ٌٙزا اٌغشع‬
 ‫فٟ ٘زا اٌجؾش رُ الزشاػ ٔظبَ اعزؼبدح اٌظٛسح ٠زؼّٓ خـٛر١ٓ ِٕفظٍز١ٓ : ِؼىٛط اٌزشش١ؼ فٟ ِغبي فٛس٠ش ٚاصاٌخ‬
 ٌٝ‫اٌؼٛػبء ثبعزخذاَ اٌزؾٛ٠ً اٌّٛ٠غٟ . اٌّشؽٍخ االٌٚٝ ٟ٘ رشش١ؼ ٚ٠ٕش ٌٍظٛسح اٌذاخٍخ , اٌظٛسح اٌّششؾخ ٠زُ ادخبٌٙب ا‬
     ًِ‫ِشؽٍخ اصاٌخ ا ٌؼٛػبء ثـش٠مخ اٌزؾٛ٠ً اٌّٛ٠غٟ راد اٌؼزجخ اٌّزى١فخ . اخز١بس رخّ١ٓ اٌؼزجخ ٠زُ ػٓ ؿش٠ك رؾٍ١ً اٌؼٛا‬
‫االؽظبئ١خ ٌّؼبِالد ٔظف اٌؾضِخ اٌّٛ٠غ١خ ٚاٌزٟ ٟ٘ االٔؾشاف اٌّؼ١بسٞ , اٌّؼذي اٌؾغبثٟ ٚاٌّؼذي إٌٙذعٟ . اٌظٛسح‬
   ٓ‫اٌّشٛشخ رغضأ اٌٝ ِغزٛ٠بد ػذح ٌٍؾظٛي ػٍٝ ػذح ؽضَ رش دد٠خ. صُ ٠زُ اعزخذاَ ؿش٠مخ اٌؼزجخ إٌبػّخ الصاٌخ اٌؼٛػبء ػ‬
                                                                             . ‫ؿش٠ك رضج١ذ ل١ّخ اٌؼزجخ اٌّضٍٝ ثٙزٖ اٌـش٠مخ‬




                                                           39
   ً‫إٌزبئظ اٌزغش٠ج١خ ػٍٝ طٛسح اخزجبس ثأعزخذاَ ٘زٖ اٌـش٠مخ رج١ٓ أٗ ٘زٖ اٌـش٠مخ رؤدٞ اٌٝ اٌؾظٛي ػٍٝ ٔٛػ١خ طٛس افؼ‬
  ٟ‫ِمبسٔخ ِغ ِششؾبد ٚ٠ٕش ِٚششؼ اٌّؼىٛط ٚاٞ ػب" رؤدٞ اٌٝ اٌؾظٛي ػٍٝ لّخ ٔغجخ اشبسح اٌٝ ػٛػبء افؼً ِٓ ثبل‬
                                                                                                       . ‫اٌـشق‬

      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Effect of the Mechanical and Thermal Stresses of Rotating Blades
             Assist. Prof. Dr. Nabeel K. AL-sahib                                    Malik M. Ali
                     Baghdad University / AL-Khwarizmi College of Engineering
                       ((Receiived11December 2006 ;; acceptted 25 Apriill 2007))
                         Rece ved11December 2006 accep ed 25 Apr 2007

Abstract:
      Rotating blades are the important parts in gas turbines. Hence, an accurate mathematical
estimation (F.E.M) of the stresses and deformations characteristics was required in the design
applications to avoid failure. In recent year’s there are researchers interest in the effect of
temperature on solid bodies has greatly increased, The main of this study investigated the
thermal and rotational effects. So, the thermal stresses due to high pressure and temperature are
studies, also determine the steady state stresses and deformations of rotating blades due to
mechanical effect. Many parameters such as thickness and centre of rotating are investigated in
this paper. The study results can ensure good recommendation for the effect of the mechanical
and thermal stresses of rotary blades.


Keywords: Thermal Stresses, Finite Element Method, Mechanical Stresses , Blade Material ,
                                                                                Design .


                  ٍٟ‫ِاٌه ِؽّذ ػ‬                              ‫أ.َ.د. ٔث١ً واظُ ػثذ اٌصاؼة‬
                                   ‫وٍ١خ ٕ٘ذعخ اٌخٛاسصِٟ - عبِؼخ ثغذاد‬

                                                                                                         :‫اٌخالصح‬
‫أٌّشاٚػ أٌذٚاسح ٟ٘ ِٓ األعضاء اٌّّٙخ فٟ اٌزٛسث١ٕبْ اٌغبص٠خ ، ٌزٌه أْ اٌزّض١ً اٌش٠بػٟ( ؿش٠مخ‬
ٟ‫اٌؼٕبطش اٌّؾذٚدح ) ٌأل عٙبداد ٚاٌزشٛ٘بد ػشٚسٞ ِٓ اعً اٌزـج١مبد اٌزظّ١ّ١خ ٌزغٕت اٌفشً . ف‬
ٖ‫اٌغٕٛاد األخ١شح صاد أ٘زّبَ اٌجبؽض١ٓ ثزأص١ش دسعبد اٌؾشاسح ػٍٝ األعغبَ اٌظٍجخ . اٌٙذف اٌشئ١غٟ ِٓ ٘ز‬
   ‫د‬
‫اٌذساعخ ، دساعخ األ عٙبداد اٌؾشاس٠خ إٌبرغخ ِٓ اٌؼغؾ ٚدسعخ اٌؾشاسح اٌؼبٌ١١ٓ . ٚوزٌه رُ أػ عبة‬
ُ‫األ عٙبداد اٌّغزمشح ٚاٌزشٛ٘بد ٌٍّشاٚػ اٌذٚاسح إٌبرغخ ِٓ اٌزأص١شاد اٌّ١ىبٔ١ى١خ . اٌؼذ٠ذ ِٓ اٌؼٛاًِ ر‬
                                         ‫رمظٟ ػٕٙب فٟ ٘زا اٌجؾش ِضً اٌغّه ِٚشوض اٌذٚساْ .... أٌخ‬  ‫اي‬
           .‫ٔزبئظ اٌذساعخ رؤِٓ رٛط١بد ع١ذح ٌزأص١شاد األعٙبداد اٌّ١ىبٔ١ى١خ ٚاٌؾشاس٠خ ٌٍّشاٚػ اٌذٚاسح‬


      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                                        40
 Correlation for fitting multicomponent vapor-liquid equilibria data and
                          prediction of azeotropic behavior
                            Dr. Khalid Farhod Chasib Al-Jiboury
                              Chemical Engineering Department
                                  University of Technology

                      R ece ved 1 Sp ember 2006 accep ed 24 Apr 2007
                     ((Receiived 1 Spttember 2006 ;; acceptted 24 Apriill 2007))


Abstract
        Correlation equations for expressing the boiling temperature as direct function of
liquid composition have been tested successfully and applied for predicting azeotropic
behavior of multicomponent mixtures and the kind of azeotrope (minimum, maximum and
saddle type) using modified correlation of Gibbs-Konovalov theorem. Also, the binary and
ternary azeotropic point have been detected experimentally using graphical determination
on the basis of experimental binary and ternary vapor-liquid equilibrium data.
        In this study, isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium for two ternary systems: “1-Propanol –
Hexane – Benzene” and its binaries “1-Propanol – Hexane, Hexane – Benzene and 1-Propanol –
Benzene” and the other ternary system is “Toluene – Cyclohexane – iso-Octane (2,2,4-Trimethyl-
Pentane)” and its binaries “Toluene – Cyclohexane, Cyclohexane – iso-Octane and Toluene –
iso-Octane” have been measured at 101.325 KPa. The measurements were made in recirculating
equilibrium still with circulation of both the vapor and liquid phases. The ternary system “1-
Propanol – Hexane – Benzene” which contains polar compound (1-Propanol) and the two binary
systems “1-Propanol – Hexane and 1-Propanol – Benzene” form a minimum azeotrope, the
other ternary system and the other binary systems do not form azeotrope.
        All the data passed successfully the test for thermodynamic consistency using
McDermott-Ellis test method (McDermott and Ellis, 1965).
        The maximum likelihood principle is developed for the determination of correlations
parameters from binary and ternary vapor-liquid experimental data which provides a
mathematical and computational guarantee of global optimality in parameters estimation for the
case where all the measured variables are subject to errors and the non ideality of both vapor and
liquid phases for the experimental data for the ternary and binary systems have been accounted.
        The agreement between prediction and experimental data is good. The exact value should
be determined experimentally by exploring the concentration region indicated by the computed
values.

Keywords: Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Azeotropic Behavior, Multicomponent system




                                                 41
                                                          ‫ـ‬
                                               ‫د. خايـد فشٖ ــٚد‬
                                             ‫لغُ إٌٙذعخ اٌى١ّ١بٚ٠خ‬
                                              ‫اٌغبِؼخ اٌزىٌٕٛٛع١خ‬

                                                                                                        ‫اٌخالصح:‬
     ‫ػاللبد س٠بػ١خ ٌٍزؼج١ش ػٓ دسعخ ؽشاسح غٍ١بْ اٌخالئؾ ٌألٔظّخ اٌّزؼذدح وذاٌخ ِجبششح ٌزشو١ض‬
‫اٌغبئً د اخزجبس٘ب ثٕغبػ ٚؿجمذ ٌٍزٕجؤ ثؾبٌخ األ٠ضٚرشٚة ٌٍخالئؾ اٌّزؼذدح ٚوزٌه ال٠غبد ٔٛع األ٠ضٚرشٚة‬   ‫َ‬
 ‫( ألً دسعخ ؽشاسح، أػٍٝ دسعخ ؽشاسح، ٔٛع صبثذ دسعخ اٌؾشاسح ) ثبعزخذاَ اٌؼاللبد اٌّـٛسح ٌٕظش٠خ‬
                            ‫اي‬
‫(‪ )Gibbs - Konovalov‬وزٌه ٔمـخ األ٠ضٚرشٚة ٌألٔظّخ اٌضٕبئ١خ ٚ اٌضالص١خ رُ رؾمك ِٕٙب ثظٛسح ػٍّ١خ‬
            ‫ثبعزخذاَ اٌزؼ١١ٓ اٌج١بٟٔ ػٍٝ أعبط اٌج١بٔبد اٌؼٍّ١خ ٌزٛاصْ ثخبس –عبئً ٌألٔظّخ اٌضٕبئ١خ ٚاٌضالص١خ.‬
   ‫فٟ ٘زٖ اٌذساعخ رُ ل١بط رٛاصْ ثخبس – عبئً ثضجٛد اٌؼغؾ اٌغٛٞ ألصٕ١ٓ ِٓ األٔظّخ اٌضالص١خ‬
                                                   ‫اٌش‬
‫ٟٚ٘"1- ثشٚثبٔٛي - ٘ىغبْ – ثٕض٠ٓ" ٚوزٌه األٔظّخ ٔبئ١خ اٌزبثؼخ ٌٗ ٟٚ٘ " 1- ثشٚثبٔٛي – ٘ىغبْ ،‬
‫٘ىغبْ – ثٕض٠ٓ ٚ 1- ثشٚثبٔٛي – ثٕض٠ٓ"ٚوزٌه ٌٍٕظبَ اٌضالصٟ األخش ٚ٘ٛ "رٍٛ٠ٓ – ٘ىغبْ ؽٍمٟ – ا٠ضٚ‬
‫أٚوزبْ (4،2،2 – صالصٟ ِض١ً ثٕزبْ)" ٚوزٌه األٔظّخ اٌضٕبئ١خ اٌزبثؼخ ٌٗ ٟٚ٘ (رٍٛ٠ٓ – ٘ىغبْ ؽٍمٟ، ٘ىغبْ‬
                                                 ‫ب‬
              ‫ؽٍمٟ – ا٠ضٚ أٚوزبْ ٚ رٍٛ٠ٓ – ا٠ضٚ أٚوزبْ) رُ ل١بعٙب عّ١ؼً فٟ ظشٚف 523.101 و١ٍٛثبعىبي.‬
‫اٌم١بعبد رّذ فٟ ثشط اٌزٛاصْ اٌذٚاس اٌزٞ ٠زُ ِٓ خالٌٗ رذٚ٠ش وال اٌـٛس٠ٓ اٌجخبس ٚاٌغبئً. إٌظبَ‬
‫اٌضالصٟ "1- ثشٚثبٔٛي - ٘ىغبْ – ثٕض٠ٓ" اٌزٞ ٠ؾزٛٞ ِشوت لـجٟ ٚ٘ٛ "1- ثشٚثبٔٛي" ٚوزٌه اصٕ١ٓ ِٓ‬
 ‫األٔظّخ اٌضٕبئ١خ ٟٚ٘ "1- ثشٚثبٔٛي – ٘ىغبْ ٚ 1-ثشٚثبٔٛي – ثٕض٠ٓ" رىْٛ ؽبٌخ األ٠ضٚرشٚة ٔٛع ألً‬
                    ‫.‬
                   ‫دسعخ ؽشاسح. إٌظبَ اٌضالصٟ األخش ٚوزٌه األٔظّخ اٌضٕبئ١خ اٌجبل١خ ال رىْٛ ؽبٌخ األ٠ضٚرشٚة‬
‫وً إٌزبئظ اٌؼٍّ١خ اعزبصد ثٕغبػ اخزجبس اٌظؾخ ٚاٌذلخ ِٓ إٌبؽ١خ اٌضشِٛد٠ٕبِ١ىٟح ثبعزخذاَ ؿش٠مخ‬
                                                                                                    ‫االخزجبس ٌـ‬
                                                                                  ‫(‪.)McDermott-Ellis‬‬
‫ؿش٠مخ االخز١بس األفؼً اٌّغّبح (‪ )Maximum Likelihood Principle‬اعزخذِذ إل٠غبد صٛاثذ‬
‫اٌؼاللبد ثبعزخذاَ اٌج١بٔبد اٌؼٍّ١خ ٌزٛاصْ اٌجخبس – عبئً ٌألٔظّخ اٌضٕبئ١خ ٚاٌضالص١خ ٚ٘زٖ اٌـش٠مخ رؼّٓ ِٓ‬
          ‫إٌبؽ١خ اٌش٠بػ١خ ٚا ٌؾغبث١خ االخز١بس األفؼً ٌم١ُ اٌضٛاثذ فٟ اٌؼاللبد ؽ١ش إٔٙب رؼًّ فٟ ؽبٌخ وً‬
 ‫اٌّزغ١شاد اٌّمبعخ رىْٛ ِؼشػٗ ٌٍخـأ ٚوزٌه ػٕذِب رىْٛ ؽبٌخ اٌألِضبٌ١خ فٟ وال اٌـٛس٠ٓ اٌجخبس ٚاٌغبئً‬
                                                                                   ‫ٌألٔظّخ اٌضالص١خ ٚاٌضٕبئ١خ.‬
  ‫ب‬                                         ‫ب‬
  ‫اٌزمبسة ثبٌم١ُ ع١ذ ث١ٓ اٌج١بٔبد اٌّزٕجأ ثٙب ٚاٌزٟ رُ ل١ب عٙب ػٍّ١ً . اٌم١ُ اٌظؾ١ؾخ ٠غت أْ رؼ١ٓ رغش٠ج١ً‬
      ‫.‬
      ‫ثٛاعـخ اعزىشبف ِٕـمخ اٌزشو١ض اٌزٟ ٠زُ ؽغبثٙب ثٛاعـخ إٌزبئظ اٌّؾغٛثخ ِٓ ٘زٖ اٌؼاللبد اٌش٠بػ١خ‬


      ‫--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------‬
      ‫-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------‬




                                                        ‫24‬
                     Application of Fuzzy Logic in Servo Motor

                                       Dr. Shereen F. Abd-Alkarim
                                       Dept. of Education Technology
                                         University of Technology

                       (Received 31 July 2006; accepted 24 April 2007)


       Abstract:
        In this work the design and application of a fuzzy logic controller to DC-servomotor is
investigated. The proposed strategy is intended to improve the performance of the original
control system by use of a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) as the motor load changes. Computer
simulation demonstrates that FLC is effective in position control of a DC-servomotor comparing
with conventional one.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic, Servomotor, Controller

                           ‫ذطث١ماخ إٌّطك اٌغاِط ٌٍّؽشن اٌّؤاصس‬
                                         ُ٠‫د. ش١ش٠ٓ فائك ػثذ اٌىش‬
                                        ‫لغُ اٌزؼٍ١ُ اٌزىٌٕٛٛعٟ / فشع اٌىٙشثبء‬
                                                 ‫اٌغبِؼخ اٌزىٌٕٛٛع١خ‬


                                                                                                       :‫اٌخالصح‬
   ‫رُ فٟ ٘زا اٌجؾش رظّ١ُ اٌّغ١ـشاٌغبِغ ٌٍّؾشن اٌـّؤاصس ؽ١ش دسعذ خظبئض اداء اٌّؾشن‬
                                                                                      ‫ثبعزخذاَ اٌّؾبن‬
‫اح . ٚلذ اصجزذ ٔزبئظ اٌّؾبوبح ثبْ اٌّغ١ـش اٌغبِغ ٌٍّؾشن رٚ فؼبٌ١خ ع١ذح ٌٍغ١ـشح اٌّٛلؼ١خ‬
                                                . ٞ‫ٌٍّؾشن ػٕذ اؽّبي ِزغ١شح ِمبسٔخ ثبٌّغ١ـش اٌزمٍ١ذ‬




      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                                                         43
Investigation of heat transfer phenomena and flow behavior around
                           electronic chip
                                  Dr. Sattar j. Habbeb
                               Mechanical Engineering Dept.
                                  Technology University

                (Received1 November 2006; accepted 24 April 2007)


Abstract:

       Computational study of three-dimensional laminar and turbulent flows
around electronic chip (heat source) located on a printed circuit board are
presented. Computational field involves the solution of elliptic partial differential
equations for conservation of mass, momentum, energy, turbulent energy, and its
dissipation rate in finite volume form. The k-ε turbulent model was used with the
wall function concept near the walls to treat of turbulence effects. The SIMPLE
algorithm was selected in this work. The chip is cooled by an external flow of air.
The goals of this investigation are to investigate the heat transfer phenomena of
electronic chip located in enclosure and how we arrive to optimum level for
cooling of this chip. These parameters, which will help enhance thermal
performance of electronic chip and flow patterns, through the understanding of
different factors on flow patterns. The results show the relation between the
temperature rise, heat transfer parameters (Nu, Ra) with (Ar, Q) for two cases of
laminar and turbulent flows.
Keywords: Electronic equipment, Fluid flow, Convection heat transfer




                                                       PCB
     Finite Volumes (
                                                        k-ε


                                             44
                (SIMPLE algorithm)




                                                                                                    (Ar, Q)        (Nu, Ra)




          ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


              Reduction of the error in the hardware neural network
                                             Dr. Dhafer r. Zaghar
                             Computer and programming Engineering Department

                                     College of EngineeringAL-Mustanserya

                                            University / Baghdad/ Iraq


                        (Received 7 March 2006; accepted 30 October 2006)



Abstract:-
        Specialized hardware implementations of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) can offer
faster execution than general-purpose microprocessors by taking advantage of reusable modules,
parallel processes and specialized computational components. Modern high-density Field
Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) offer the required flexibility and fast design-to-
implementation time with the possibility of exploiting highly parallel computations like those
required by ANNs in hardware. The bounded width of the data in FPGA ANNs will add an
additional error to the result of the output. This paper derives the equations of the additional error
value that generate from bounded width of the data and proposed a method to reduce the effect
of the error to give an optimal result in the output with a low cost.

Key Words: Neural, co-processor, DSP, FPGA, ISE 4.1i software, adder, multiplier.




                                                             45
                                            ‫د . ظافر رافع زغير‬
                             ‫قـسم هـندسة الحـاسبـات و البرامجيات / كــلية الهــندسـة‬

                                            ‫جامـعة المستنصرية‬‫ال‬


                                                       ANNs

  FPGA




     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




             An Investigation into the Behavior of Disc Blake
                                     Wear

       Dr. Aziz Al-Alawi                Dr. Albert E. Yousif              Muneer A. H. Jassim
                                  Mechanical Engineering Department
                                       college of Engineering
                                       University of Baghdad
                   (Received 22 January 2007; accepted 5 March 2007)


Abstract:
        A reliable method of predicting brake pad wear, could lead to substantial economies of
time and money. This paper describes how such a procedure has been used and gives the results
to establish its reliability by comparing the predicted wear with that which actually occurs in an
existing service.




                                                       46
         The experimental work was carried out on three different commercial samples, tested
under different operational conditions (speed, load, time … etc) using a test rig especially
modified for this purpose.
         Abrasive wear is mainly studied, since it is the type of wear that takes place in such
arrangements. Samples were tested in presences of sand or mud between the mating surfaces
under different operational conditions of speed, load and braking time.
         Mechanical properties of the pad material samples (hardness, young’s modulus and
collapse load under pure bending condition) were established. The thermal conductivity and
surface roughness of the pad material were also found in order to enable comparison between the
surface condition before and after testing.
         Sliding velocity had a small effect on the wear rate but it had great effect on friction
coefficient. Wear rate was affected mainly by the surface temperature which causing a reduction
in friction coefficient and increasing the wear rate. Surface roughness had almost no effect on the
wear rate since it was proved experimentally, that the surface becomes softer during operation.
Mechanical properties of the pad material had fluctuating effect on wear rate. The existence of
solid particles between pad and disc increasing wear rate and friction coefficient while the mud
caused a reduction in wear rate of the pad surface since it acts as a lubricant absorbing the
surface heat generated during sliding and reducing the area of contact between pad and disc.
         Wear rate obtained experimentally agreed fairly well with that found from empirically
obtained equations.

             ‫دساعـخ اٌزأوً ٚاالؽزىبن اٌؾبطً ٌٛعبدح اٌّٛلف االِبِٟ ٌٍغ١بسح اٌظغ١شح‬

          ُ‫ِٕ١ـشػـجـذاٌؾغ١ٓ عبع‬                           ‫د. اٌج١ـشد ٠ـٛعف‬                    ٞٛ‫د. ػـض٠ـض اٌؼـٍـ‬
      .) ‫( خـالي فـزـشح اػـذاد ٘ـزا اٌجؾـش وـبْ اٌّـؤٌـفـْٛ فـٟ لـغـُ إٌٙذعخ اٌّ١ىبٔ١ى١خ - وـٍ١خ إٌٙذعخ – عـبِؼخ ثـغـذاد‬

                                                                                                                    ‫اٌخالصــح‬
     ِٟ‫٠زؼّٓ ٘زا اٌجؾش دساعخ ػٍّ١خ ٚٔظش٠خ ي ِؼذي اٌزأوً ٚاالؽزىبن اٌؾبطً ٌٛعبدح اٌّٛلف االِب‬
                                                                                           .‫ٌٍغ١بسح اٌظغ١شح‬
‫اشزٍّذ اٌذساعخ اٌؼٍّ١خ ػٍٝ اخزجبس صالس ٚعبئذ ِٛلف ِخزٍفخ إٌّشأ رؾذ عشع ٚأؽّبي ٚظشٚف ث١ئ١خ‬
                                                            .‫ِخزٍفخ ػٍٝ عٙبص ثغ١ؾ رُ اػذادٖ ٌٙزا اٌغشع‬
                  ‫ب‬
   ‫رشوض اٌجؾش ػٍٝ دساعخ ِمذاس اٌزأوً إٌبرظ ػٓ ػٍّ١خ اٌؾه وٛٔٗ األوضش ٚػٛؽً ػٕذ رأوً ٚعبدح‬
                                                                                                   .‫اٌّٛلف‬
 ‫أخز١شد ثؼغ إٌّبرط ِغ ٚعٛد ِبدح اٌشًِ أٚاٌـ١ٓ ث١ٓ اٌمشص ٚاٌٛعبدح رؾذ ظشٚف رشغ١ً ِخزٍفخ‬
                                                                            . ‫ِٓ عشع ٚأؽّبي ٚصِٓ رٛلف‬
 ًِ‫( أٌظالدح، ِؼب‬          ‫رـٍجذ أٌذساعخ رؾذ٠ذ ثؼغ اٌخٛاص أٌّ١ىبٔ١ى١خ ٌٛعبدح أٌّٛلف ل١ذ أالخزجبس‬
                                                                    . ) ‫اٌّشٚٔخ، ؽًّ االٔٙ١بس اصٕبء اٌؾٕب٠خ‬
    ‫وزٌه رُ رؾذ٠ذ ِؼبًِ اٌزٛط١ً اٌؾشاسٞ ٚفؾض ٔؼِٛخ اٌغـؼ ٌالعزفبدح ِٕٙب فٟ ِمبسٔخ اٌغـؼ لجً ٚثؼذ‬
                                                                                                  . ً١‫اٌزشغ‬
       ٍٝ‫ٌـٛؽظ ِٓ خالي اٌزغـبسة أْ ٌٍغشػخ رأ ص١ـش ِؾذٚد ػً ِؼذي اٌزأوـً ٌٚىٓ رأ ص١ـش٘ب أٚػؼ ػ‬
   ًِ‫ِؼبًِ االؽزىبن ، اِب اٌؾشاسح فـٍٙب دٚس سئ١غـٟ ػٍٝ ِمـذاس اٌزأوـً ٚاالؽزىبن فض٠بدرٙب رمـًٍ ِٓ ِؼب‬
   ‫االؽزىبن ٚرض٠ذ ِٓ ِؼذي اٌزأوـً . ٌُ ٠ىٓ ٌٕؼِٛخ اٌغـؼ دٚس ٚاػؼ ػٍٝ ِمذاس اٌزأوـً ؽ١ش ٌٛؽظ رغ١ش‬
 .
 ً‫ٔؼِٛخ اٌغـؼ ثؼذ أٚي ػٍّ١خ رشغ١ً . أِب رأص١ـش اٌخٛاص اٌّ١ىب ٔ١ى١خ فىبْ رأص١ـش٘ب ِزجب٠ٓ ػٍٝ ِمـذاساٌزأو‬


                                                              47
      ٟ‫أٚػؾذ اٌذساعـخ إْ رٛاعذ ِٛاد طٍجخ ِضً اٌشِـً ث١ٓ اٌٛعبدح ٚاٌمـشص أدٜ اٌٝ ص٠بدح عش٠ؼخ ف‬
 ْ‫(ؽ١ش وـب‬        ً‫ِمـذاس اٌزأوـً ِٚؼبًِ االؽزىبن ، اِب ٚعٛد اٌّبدح اٌـ١ٕ١خ فمذ ادد اٌٝ رمـٍـ١ـً ِؼذي اٌزأوـ‬
                                            . )‫ٌٍـ١ٓ دٚس اٌّض٠ذ ٚعبػذ ثأِزظبص لغُ ِٓ اٌؾشاسح اٌّزٌٛـذح‬
 ‫ٌـٛؽظ إْ ِؼذي اٌزأوـً اٌّغزؾظً ػٍّ١ب فٟ ؽبٌخ رـبثك ع١ذ ِغ رٌه اٌّؾغٛة ِٓ اٌّؼبدالد اٌزـج١م١خ‬

 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  Free Vibration Analysis for Dynamic Stiffness Degradation of
                    Cracked Cantilever Plate
                  Dr: Hussain A.Dawood                                                    Oday.     I. Abdullah
     Mechanical Engineering Department                                 Nuclear Engineering. Department.
 College of Engineering/ University of Baghdad                  College of Engineering/ University of
 Baghdad


                        (Received 29 August 2005; accepted 27 October 2005)



Abstract:-
         In the present work a dynamic analysis technique have been developed to investigate and
 characterize the quantity of elastic module degradation of cracked cantilever plates due to
 presence of a defect such as surface of internal crack under free vibration. A new generalized
 technique represents the first step in developing a health monitoring system, the effects of such
 defects on the modal frequencies has been the main key quantifying the elasticity modulii due to
 presence any type of un-visible defect. In this paper the finite element method has been used to
 determine the free vibration characteristics for cracked cantilever plate (internal flaws), this
 present work achieved by different position of crack. Stiffness reduction in term of elastic
 material properties is analyzed through a parametric study of crack density factor. Results are
 given for Young’s modulus and shear modulus variation with respects the vibrational
 characteristics.

 Key words: Free vibration, cantilever plate, stiffness degradation.




                                                          48
          ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                       Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.1, No.2,pp 52-63, (2005)

The Timoshenko Three-Beams Technique To Estimate The Main Elastic
                   Moduli Of Orthotropic Homogeneous Materials

    Dr. Kamal K.M. Saify *        Dr. Adnan N.J. Al-Temimy**         Dr. Muhsin J.J. ***
           *
             The Technical College-Baghdad / Department of Dies & Tools.
                **
                   Mechanical Engineering Dept./College of Engineering./ University of Baghdad
              ***
                  Mechanical Engineering Dept./ College of Engineering/ University of Al-Nahrain


              (Received 11 December 2004, accepted 11 February 2005)

Abstract:-
 A New developed technique to estimate the necessary six elastic constants of homogeneous
laminate of special orthotropic properties are presented in this paper for the first time. The new
approach utilizes the elasto-static deflection behavior of composite cantilever beam employing
the famous theory of Timoshenko. Three extracted strips of the composite plate are tested for
measuring the bending deflection at two locations. Each strip is associated to a preferred
principal axis and the deflection is measured in two orthogonal planes of the beam domain. A
total of five trails of testing is accomplished and the numerical results of the stiffness coefficients
are evaluated correctly under the contribution of the macromechanics and the approximate
bending theory. To insure the validity of the new approach, separate individual tensile tests are
performed, and the corresponding results are compared. Excellent agreements are obtained
between the different approaches. The ease, simple and accurate predictions are well confident
by the new technique.

Keywords: Timoshenko ,Beam, composite beam




                                                             49
                                                  /                              /




 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                     Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.1, No.2,pp 14-21, (2005)

             Human Face Recognition Using Wavelet Network

 Dr. Tarik Zeyad
               Electrical Engineering Department/ College of Engineering/ University of Baghdad

                        (Received 6 March 2005; accepted 2 October 2005)


Abstract:-
         This paper presents a study of wavelet self-organizing maps (WSOM) for face
 recognition. The WSOM is a feed forward network that estimates optimized wavelet based for
 the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) on the basis of the distribution of the input data, where
 wavelet basis transforms are used as activation function.

 Keywords: Discrete Wavelet transform, WSOM, back propagation.




                                       ‫لغُ إٌٙذعخ اٌىٙشثبئ١خ/وٍ١خ إٌٙذعخ‬
                                                   ‫عبِؼخ ثغذاد‬




                                                      50
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



               Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, vol.1, no.2,pp 46-51, (2005)
                     FPGA Realization of Two-Dimensional
                     Wavelet and Wavelet Packet Transform
           Dr. Walid A. Mahmoud                            Dr. Mohammed N. Al-Turfi
          Electrical Engineering Dept.                 Computer and Software Engineering Dept.
            College of Engineering                             College of Engineering
                                                            University of Al-Mustansirya
                           University of Baghdad




     Abstract: -
     The Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) approach is the most recent
     category, which takes the place in the implementation of most of the Digital
     Signal Processing (DSP) applications. It had proved the capability to handle such
     problems and supports all the necessary needs like scalability, speed, size, cost,
     and efficiency.
     In this paper a new proposed circuit design is implemented for the evaluation of
     the coefficients of the two-dimensional Wavelet Transform (WT) and Wavelet
     Packet Transform (WPT) using FPGA is provided.
     In this implementation the evaluations of the WT & WPT coefficients are
     depending upon filter tree decomposition using the 2-D discrete convolution
     algorithm. This implementation was achieved using an FPGA Kit after building
     the logical circuits on the specified kit that uses the Spartan-IIE electronic library
     type implemented using the Xilinx Foundation Series 2.1I software.

     Key words: -
     FPGA, Wavelet Transform, Wavelet Packet Transform.



  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                                 51
                     Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.1, No.2,pp 41-51, (2005)
            Fuzzy control of mobile robot in slippery environment

                                       Dr.Nabil Hassan Hadi
              Mechanical Engineering Department/ College of Engineering/ University of Baghdad

                         (Received 20 April 2005; accepted 2 October 2005)


Abstract:-
 The problem of independent motion control of mobile robot (МR) in conditions when unforeseen
 changes of conditions of interaction of wheels with a surface are considered. An example of such
 changes can be sudden entrance МR a slippery surface. The deployment of an autonomous
 unmanned ground vehicle for field applications provides the means by which the risk to
 personnel can be minimized and operational capabilities improved. In rough terrain, it is critical
 for mobile robots to maintain good wheel traction. Wheel slip could cause the rover to lose
 control and become trapped. This paper describes the application of fuzzy control to a feedback
 system within slippery environment. The study is conducted on an example of МR with two
 driving wheels.

 Keywords: mobile robot, fuzzy control, wheel-ground contact modeling, dynamic model


               ‫اٌس١طشج ػٍٝ أٌ١ٗ تاسرخذاَ إٌّطك اٌّثُٙ فٟ ِؽ١ط صٌك‬
                                             ٞ‫د.ٔث١ً ؼسٓ ٘اد‬
                                         ‫لغُ اٌّ١ىبٔ١ه/ وٍ١خ إٌٙذعخ‬


                                                                 fuzzy logic


 two wheels
                   fuzzy logic                                                                   driver




 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                                                     52
                   Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.1, No.2,pp 103-109, (2005)
     Mathematical Modeling for the Clarifier Units and Turbidity
          Parameters in AL-KARAMA Treatment Plant
                              Hayder Mohammed Abdul-Hameed
                                 Environmental Engineering Department
                              College of Engineering/ University of Baghdad

                   (Received 25 September 2005; accepted 7 November 2005)

Abstract:-
         The high cost of chemical analysis of water has necessitated various researches into
finding alternative method of determining portable water quality. This paper is aimed at
modelling the turbidity value as a water quality parameter. Mathematical models for turbidity
removal were developed based on the relationships between water turbidity and other water
criteria. Results showed that the turbidity of water is the cumulative effect of the individual
parameters/factors affecting the system. A model equation for the evaluation and prediction of a
clarifier’s performance was developed:
Model: T = T 0(-1.36729 + 0.037101∙10λpH + 0.048928t + 0.00741387∙alk)
The developed model will aid the predictive assessment of water treatment plant performance.
The limitations of the models are as a result of insufficient variable considered during the
conceptualization.

Keywords: Performance evaluation, pH, Alkalinity, Mathematic model, Simulation




----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                                                   53
                Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.1, No.2,pp 1-9, (2005)




                                      ‫د.شيرين فائق عبد الكريم‬
                                   ‫قسم التعليم التكنىلىجي / فرع الكهرباء‬

                                        ‫اٌغبِؼخ اٌزىٌٕٛٛع١خ‬
                    (Received 11 October 2005; accepted 14 November 2005)




             (MATLAB)



                     Parametric Identification of The PMDCM

                                      Shereen F. Abd-Alkarim
                                Education Technology Department
                                   University of Technology


Abstract:

This research aims to design and build a Modified Elman neural network which is trained using
back propagation algorithm to identify the physical parameters of the permanent magnetic direct
current motor by providing it with input /output data. The used software is implemented by
MATLAB.
One of the conclusions that are obtained from this research is the efficiency of the adopted neural
network to identify the parameters of the motor.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                                                    54
              Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.1, No.2,pp 64-85, (2005)

Design of a Programmable System for Failure Modes and Effect Analysis of Steam-Power
                       Plant Based on the Fault Tree Analysis

      Soroor K. Hussain Al-Khafaji                               Dr. Nihad M. A. Al-Rahman
  Mechanical Eng. Dept. / University of Technology         Electrical Eng. Dept./ College of Engineering /
                                                                        University of Baghdad
                                  Dr. Zuhair I. Ahmad Al- Dauod
                              Mechanical Eng. Dept. College of Engineering /
                                         University of Baghdad

                        (Received 25 April 2005; accepted 2 October 2005)

    Abstract:-
       In this paper, the system of the power plant has been investigated as a special
    type of industrial systems, which has a significant role in improving societies
    since the electrical energy has entered all kinds of industries, and it is considered
    as the artery of modern life.
       The aim of this research is to construct a programming system, which could be used
    to identify the most important failure modes that are occur in a steam type of power
    plants. Also the effects and reasons of each failure mode could be analyzed through
    the usage of this programming system reaching to the basic events (main reasons) that
    causing each failure mode. The construction of this system for FMEA is depending on
    the logical relationships of the fault tree analysis for the systems that contained in the
    power station.
      The designing of such system could be used as an assistance tool for the specialist
    user (the power engineer) in identifying of all reasons and effects for any type of
    failures. So this is help to fastening the repairing operation of the identified failure
    mode to improve the efficiency of operating system as represented by the
    maintainability, which is a function of system reliability.
      The selection of the steam type of power generation systems for the application of
    this study, because this type is the most common type of Iraqi power plants. While
    such the designed system could be programmed to be use in another types of industrial
    systems.


        Failure Systems, Keywords: Fault Tree, Reliability, Maintainability, Industrial
            Mode and Effect Analysis, Diagnostic Expert System, Steam Power Plant




                                                     55
 ‫لسُ إٌٙذسح‬               ‫لسُ إٌٙذ سح اٌىٙشتائ١ح/ وٍ١ح إٌٙذسح‬           ‫لسُ إٌٙذسح اٌّ١ىأ١ى١ح‬
                                           ‫اٌّ١ىأ١ى١ح/وٍ١ح إٌٙذسح‬
      ‫ظاِؼح تغذاد‬                              ‫ظاِؼح تغذاد‬                    ‫اٌعاِؼح اٌرىٌٕٛٛظ١ح‬




           ‫)‪(FMEA‬‬
                                                          ‫)‪(FT- analysis‬‬




‫----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------‬




                                                     ‫65‬
               Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.2, No.1,pp 78-84, (2006)

Design And Implementation of Microcontroller Based Curing Light
                                  Control of Dental System.

                                       Ali hussein hamed
                                            Information Eng. Dept.
                                     Al-khawarizmi College of Engineering
                                            University of Baghdad

                               (Received 14 August 2005; accepted 4 April 2006)

Abstract:-
In this paper, a microcontroller-based electronic circuit have been designed and implemented for
dental curing system using 8-bit MCS-51 microcontroller. Also a new control card is designed
while considering advantages of microcontroller systems the time of curing was controlled
automatically by preset values which were input from a push-button switch. An ignition based on
PWM technique was used to reduce the high starting current needed for the halogen lamp. This
paper and through the test result will show a good performance of the proposed system.

Keywords: microcontroller, dental curing system, electronic circuit.


      ْ‫ذصّ١ُ ٚ تٕاء دائشج ِؼاٌط دل١ك ٌٍس١طشج ػٍٝ ِٕظِٛح اٌرعف١ف اٌعؤٞ ٌألسٕا‬
                                              ‫ػٍٟ ؼس١ٓ ؼّذ‬

                                                 ‫عبِؼخ ثغذاد‬




     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                                                       57
                Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.2,No.1,pp 35-51, (2006)

                     Microcontroller – Based Spectrum Analyzer

     Ameera A. Salman                   Dr. Ismail A. Mohammed                          Omar H. Hamad
Control & Computers Department         Electrical Engineering Department           Electrical Engineering
                                                                                       Department
 University of Technology             College of Engineering                College of Engineering
                                          Engineering
                                    University of Baghdad                     University of Baghdad



                        (Received 14 November 2005; accepted 4 April 2006)


        Abstract:-
                 This work includes design, implementation and testing of a microcontroller –
         based spectrum analyzer system. Both hardware and software structures are built to
         verify the main functions that are required by such system. Their design utilizes the
         permissible and available tools to achieve the main functions of the system in such a
         way to be modularly permitting any adaptation for a specific changing in the
         application environment. The analysis technique, mainly, depends on the Fourier
         analysis based methods of spectral analysis with the necessary required
         preconditioning processes. The software required for waveform analysis has been
         prepared. The spectrum of the waveform has been displayed, and the instrument
         accuracy has been checked. The basic hardware parts of the analyzer are the
         processor and the associated logic, storage media, communication to a central master
         computer and the data acquisition parts. However, the input / output structure is
         modular and may change according to the application requirements. The basic
         operating software modules, which are independent of an application, may be used
         as a part of a software package that can carryout other functions. A complete
         software development tools package to develop application programs, using IBM-PC
         and the analyzer instrument, are installed and realized at levels, the PC level and the
         analyzer instrument level.

        Keywords: FFT, Spectral Analysis, Microcontroller - Based System




                                                  58
ْ‫اِ١شج ػٍٟ سٍّا‬                             ّ
                                          ‫د. إسّاػ١ً ػثذاهلل ِؽ ّذ‬                         ‫ػّش ؼس١ٓ ؼّذ‬
     ٚ ‫لغُ ٕ٘ذعخ اٌغ١ـشح‬             ‫لغُ إٌٙذعخ اٌىٙشثبئ١خ/وٍ١خ إٌٙذعخ‬          ‫لغُ إٌٙذعخ اٌىٙشثبئ١خ/وٍ١خ إٌٙذعخ‬
                                                                                                            ‫اٌؾبعجبد‬
‫اٌغبِؼخ اٌزىٌٕٛٛع١خ‬                               ‫عبِؼخ ثغذاد‬                                  ‫عبِؼخ ثغذاد‬




          IBM




     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



                       Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.2, No.1,pp 52-69, (2006)


      Design and Implementation of a Proposal Network Firewall

                      Deah J.Kadhim                                   Walid K.Hussain
      Electrical Engineering Department                  Baghdad College for Economic Sciences
                                                         College of Engineering/ University of Baghdad

                        (Received 25 September 2005; accepted 4 April 2006)


 Abstract:-
      In today's world, most business, regardless of size, believe that access to Internet is
  imperative if they are going to complete effectively. Yet connecting a private computer (or
  a network) to the Internet can expose critical or confidential data to malicious attack from
  anywhere in the world since unprotected connections to the Internet (or any network



                                                        59
   topology) leaves the user computer vulnerable to hacker attacks and other Internet threats.
   Therefore, to provide high degree of protection to the network and network's user,
   Firewall need to be used.
       Firewall provides a barrier between the user computer and the Internet (i.e. it prevents
   unauthorized Internet users from accessing private computers and networks connected to
   the Internet).
       This paper concerned with the design and implementation of a proposal firewall
   system which is used to protect both individual computers and corporate networks from
   hostile intrusion coming through Internet. The Dual-homed host architecture has been used
   to implement the proposed firewall system. The designed system is constructed using
   Visual Basic 6.0 Language.
       Finally, This proposed system is built depending on the packet filtering mechanism to
   regulate all the packets entering and leaving the protected site using IP address and port
   number of the TCP packet. Also this system deals with application level and monitors all
   packet data (content) and maintains the firewall activity with Internet connection.


Keywords: Computer Network, Network Security and Firewall

                           ‫ذصّ١ُ ٚذٕف١ز ظذاس ٔاسٞ ِفرشض‬

                ٓ١‫ٌٚ١ذ خاٌذ ؼس‬                              ُ‫ظ١اء ظاسُ واظ‬
           ‫وٍ١ح تغذاد ٌٍؼٍَٛ االلرصاد٠ح‬              ‫وٍ١ح إٌٙذسح – ظاِؼح تغذاد‬




          Private Computer
            Intruders              Hackers                                            LAN




                                          Firewall

                                          Firewall
                                                       LAN                    Private Computer
                                                               Dual-homed host
                                                                                  6


            Port Number                    IP




                                                60
                                                            Application Level




                          Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.2, No.1,pp 1-14, (2006)


               Biomechanical Aspects of Shoulder and Hip Articulations: A
                    Comparison of Two Ball and Socket Joints

 Dr. Akram Abood Jaffar              Dr. Sadiq Jaffar Abass             Mustafa Qusay Ismael
 Department of Human Anatomy        Medical Engineering Department      Medical Engineering Department
    College of Medicine               College of Engineering               College of Engineering
    Al-Nahrain University              Al-Nahrain University                Al-Nahrain University



                               (Received 15 March 2005; accepted 4 April 2006)


Abstract:-
 The shoulder and hip joints though essentially both are ball and socket joints, show structural variability
 to serve functional needs.
 This study aims at revealing some of the structural and functional properties of each of the two joints
 regarding the factors that contribute to the stability of any joint in the body, namely: bone, ligament, and
 muscle.
 Twenty dried scapula, hip, humerus, and femur were used. The area of the articular surfaces was
 estimated by molding a sheet of dental wax. Using special graphics software, a novel procedure was
 described to calculate the area under the curve, which was postulated to indicate the degree of curvature.
 Tension test was applied using a testometric machine, which was locally modified to suit biological
 specimens. A finite element analysis was designed to study the articulating bones under different loading
 conditions.
 In the hip joint, the area of the articular surface of the head of the femur and that of the lunate showed no
 significant statistical difference. For the shoulder joint, the articular areas of the head of the humerus and
 the glenoid were statistically different. No statistical significance was observed regarding curvature of the
 articular surfaces within both the hip and shoulder joints; however, the values were significantly different
 between the hip and shoulder. In the tension test, the site of rupture of the capsule of the shoulder joint
 was found to be at its anteroinferior part.
 The more contact between the area of the cup and ball, as was demonstrated in the hip joint, the more
 stable the joint. On the contrary, the shoulder articular surfaces have less area of contact, which makes it
 more mobile and decreases stability. The insignificant difference in curvature within both joints indicates
 a good congruity and thus more stability especially during joint movement. The curvature difference
 between the head of femur and the head of humerus indicates that the range of motion is quite different
 for the two joints. Results obtained from the finite element analysis were important in understanding the
 areas of stress concentration and were thoroughly explained from the anatomical point of view and linked


                                                       61
to muscle and joint capsule attachments. The model of the joints developed in this study can be used as a
computational tool to joint biomechanics and to prosthetic implant analysis.
Keywords: hip joint, shoulder joint, finite element analysis, biomechanics.




               ‫لغُ إٌٙذعخ اٌـج١خ / وٍ١خ إٌٙذعخ‬    ‫لغُ إٌٙذعخ اٌـج١خ / وٍ١خ إٌٙذعخ‬        ‫لغُ اٌزشش٠ؼ / وٍ١خ اٌـت‬
                            ٓ٠‫عبِؼخ إٌٙش‬                   ٓ٠‫عبِؼخ إٌٙش‬                         ٓ٠‫عبِؼخ إٌٙش‬




                Ansys


                                                            2                    2
                                                                0،75 24،8               1،23 29،8
                      2                  2
                           0،3 5،4            0،88 19،0
      5،84 140،0
                                                                                                  6،51 141،0
                                                                                        1،45 85،1 3،49 87،9




                                                       62
     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                A Study Of Strengthening Circular Diaphragm By
                         Ring-Shaped Concentric Ribs

         Dr. Somer M. Nacy                 Dr.Hikmat Al-Rawi               Mohammed M. Hasan



 University of Baghdad                 University of Al-Anbar                   University of Al-Anbar

                    ( Received 21 September 2006; accepted 4 May 2006 )


Abstract:-
 This paper deals with the determination of stresses and deflections of clamped circular
diaphragm strengthened by one or two ring-shaped concentric ribs, under uniform static and
dynamic pressures. The simulation has been achieved by using the well-known engineering
software finite element package MSC/NASTRAN.
 As a design study, the effect of using a clamped ring, and the effect of using a ring-
shaped rib on both surfaces of diaphragm instead of one, has been discussed in this work. To
show the effectiveness of this study, results of this work have been compared with published
                                                                                      data [1].
       In the conclusion, the authors underline the validity of the considered design study,
and the optimization of strengthened diaphragms.
Keywords : diaphragm, Nastran, Static, Dynamic.

                     ‫اٌرمٛ٠ح اٌّصٍٍٜالغش١ح اٌذائش٠ح تأسرخذاَ ػٕاصش اٌرمٛ٠ح اٌؽٍم١ح‬
              ٓ‫ِؽّذ َ .ؼس‬                       ٞٚ‫د . ؼىّد اٌشا‬                  ٟ‫د.سِٛش ِرٟ ٔاس‬
                                                                              ‫لغُ ٕ٘ذعخ ػٍّ١بد اٌزظٕ١غ‬
                                              ِٟ‫وٍ١خ ٕ٘ذعخ اٌخٛاسص‬
               ‫عبِؼخ االٔجبس‬                         ‫عبِؼخ االٔجبس‬                       ‫عبِؼخ ثغذاد‬




                                                                                                         Nastran


                     1



                                                       63
                        Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.2, No.1,pp 88-100, (2006)


                       Extraction of Chlorophyll from Alfalfa Plant

  Isam Kamal                   Dr.Ahmed Jawad                   Ali Khalid Khudair Al-Jomaily
    Chem. Eng. Dept             Biochem. Eng. Dept                        Chem. Eng. Dept
University of Technology       KhwarizmyCollege of Eng               University of Technology
                               University of Baghdad


                      (Received 5 December 2005; accepted 4 April 2006)


 Abstract:-
 The extraction process of chlorophyll from dehydrated and pulverized alfalfa plant were studied
 by percolation method. Two solvent systems were used for the extraction namely; Ethanol-water
 and Hexane-Toluene systems . The effect of circulation rate, solvent concentration, and solvent
 volume to solid weight ratio were studied. In both ethanol water, and Hexane-Toluene systems it
 appears that solvent concentration is the most effective variable.

 Keywords: Chlorophyll, Extraction, Percolation, alfalfa




                ‫لغُ إٌٙذعخ اٌى١ّ١بٚ٠خ‬       ‫لغُ إٌٙذعخ اٌى١ّ١بٚ٠خ األؽ١بئ١خ‬           ‫لغُ إٌٙذعخ اٌى١ّ١بٚ٠خ‬
                  ‫اٌغبِؼخ اٌزىٍٕٛع١خ‬               ِٟ‫وٍ١خ ٕ٘ذعخ اٌخٛاسص‬                ‫اٌغبِؼخ اٌزىٍٕٛع١خ‬
                                                       ‫عبِؼخ ثغذاد‬




       --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
       -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                                                          64
            Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol.2, No.1,pp 70-77, (2006)

          Direction Finding Using GHA Neural Networks
                                         N. H. Abbas
                 Electrical Eng. Dept., College of Eng./ University of Baghdad

                           (Received 4 September 2005; accepted 4 April 2006)


  Abstract:-
     This paper adapted the neural network for the estimating of the direction of arrival
(DOA). It uses an unsupervised adaptive neural network with GHA algorithm to extract
the principal components that in turn, are used by Capon method to estimate the DOA,
where by the PCA neural network we take signal subspace only and use it in Capon (i.e.
we will ignore the noise subspace, and take the signal subspace only).

 Keywords: Direction of arrival (DOA), Generalized Hebbian Algorithm (GHA), Principal
component analysis (PCA), Capon.



                                         GHA


                          ‫لغُ إٌٙذعخ اٌىٙشثبئ١خ / وٍ١خ إٌٙذعخ /عبِؼخ ثغذاد‬


                                                                                              GHA
                                PCA


  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




                                                    65

				
DOCUMENT INFO